133,808 results match your criteria Australian Journal Of Earth Sciences[Journal]


Urban Densification and Physical Activity Change: A 12-year Longitudinal Study of Australian Adults.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Centre for Urban Transitions, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Urbanization, a major force driving changes in neighborhood environments, may affect residents' health by influencing their daily activity levels. We examined associations of population density changes in urban areas with adults' physical activity changes over 12 years using the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study (1999-2012). The analytical sample contained 2,354 participants, who stayed at the same residential address throughout the study period in metropolitan and regional cities (42 study areas). Read More

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Interactions of core cross-linked poly(2-oxazoline) and poly(2-oxazine) micelles with immune cells in human blood.

Biomaterials 2021 May 4;274:120843. Epub 2021 May 4.

ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science & Technology, and Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, VIC, 3052, Australia; Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia. Electronic address:

Water-soluble poly(cyclic imino ether)s (PCIEs) have emerged as promising biocompatible polymers for nanomedicine applications in recent years. Despite their generally accepted stealth properties, there has been no comprehensive evaluation of their interactions with primary immune cells in human blood. Here we present a library of core cross-linked micelles (CCMs) containing various PCIE shells. Read More

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"A decade's worth of work in a matter of days": The journey to telehealth for the whole population in Australia.

Int J Med Inform 2021 May 7;151:104483. Epub 2021 May 7.

Australian Government Department of Health, Australia.

Introduction: Internationally the COVID-19 pandemic has triggered a dramatic and unprecedented shift in telehealth uptake as a means of protecting healthcare consumers and providers through remote consultation modes. Early in the pandemic, Australia implemented a comprehensive and responsive set of policy measures to support telehealth. Initially targeted at protecting vulnerable individuals, including health professionals, this rapidly expanded to a "whole population" approach as the pandemic evolved. Read More

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Nutrient pollution enhances productivity and framework dissolution in algae- but not in coral-dominated reef communities.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 May 10;168:112444. Epub 2021 May 10.

Marine Ecology, Faculty of Biology and Chemistry, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.

Ecosystem services provided by coral reefs may be susceptible to the combined effects of benthic species shifts and anthropogenic nutrient pollution, but related field studies are scarce. We thus investigated in situ how dissolved inorganic nutrient enrichment, maintained for two months, affected community-wide biogeochemical functions of intact coral- and degraded algae-dominated reef patches in the central Red Sea. Results from benthic chamber incubations revealed 87% increased gross productivity and a shift from net calcification to dissolution in algae-dominated communities after nutrient enrichment, but the same processes were unaffected by nutrients in neighboring coral communities. Read More

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Harmonizing neuropsychological assessment for mild neurocognitive disorders in Europe.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

Introduction: Harmonized neuropsychological assessment for neurocognitive disorders, an international priority for valid and reliable diagnostic procedures, has been achieved only in specific countries or research contexts.

Methods: To harmonize the assessment of mild cognitive impairment in Europe, a workshop (Geneva, May 2018) convened stakeholders, methodologists, academic, and non-academic clinicians and experts from European, US, and Australian harmonization initiatives.

Results: With formal presentations and thematic working-groups we defined a standard battery consistent with the U. Read More

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Cancer progression as a sequence of atavistic reversions.

Bioessays 2021 May 13:e2000305. Epub 2021 May 13.

Beyond Center for Fundamental Concepts in Science, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.

It has long been recognized that cancer onset and progression represent a type of reversion to an ancestral quasi-unicellular phenotype. This general concept has been refined into the atavistic model of cancer that attempts to provide a quantitative analysis and testable predictions based on genomic data. Over the past decade, support for the multicellular-to-unicellular reversion predicted by the atavism model has come from phylostratigraphy. Read More

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Pregnant women report being denied medications to treat severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy or hyperemesis gravidarum - findings from an Australian online survey.

Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

SA Pharmacy, Flinders Medical Centre, SA Health, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

We conducted an online survey of 249 Australian women who currently or previously experienced severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) or hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and examined their experiences in being denied medications during pregnancy. One in four women reported being denied medications for NVP/HG, which most commonly involved doxylamine and encounters with community pharmacists. Women's experiences reflected that lack of awareness of guidelines and unfavourable risk-benefit assessments appeared to be key barriers to facilitating medication access. Read More

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Nonlinear Circular Dichroism in Mie-Resonant Nanoparticle Dimers.

Nano Lett 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Nonlinear Physics Centre, Research School of Physics, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2601, Australia.

We studied the nonlinear response of a dimer composed of two identical Mie-resonant dielectric nanoparticles illuminated normally by a circularly polarized light. We developed a general theory describing hybridization of multipolar modes of the coupled nanoparticles and reveal nonvanishing nonlinear circular dichroism (CD) in the second-harmonic generation (SHG) signal enhanced by the multipolar resonances in the dimer, provided its axis is oriented under an angle to the crystalline lattice of the dielectric material. We supported our multipolar hybridization theory by experimental results obtained for the AlGaAs dimers placed on an engineered substrate. Read More

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Harvesting water from unsaturated atmospheres: deliquescence of salt secreted onto leaf surfaces drives reverse sap flow in a dominant arid climate mangrove, Avicennia marina.

New Phytol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Plant Science Division, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Acton, ACT, 2601, Australia.

The mangrove Avicennia marina adjusts internal salt concentrations by foliar salt secretion. Deliquescence of accumulated salt causes leaf wetting which may provide a water source for salt-secreting plants in arid coastal wetlands where high nocturnal humidity can usually support deliquescence whereas rainfall events are rare. We tested the hypotheses that salt deliquescence on leaf surfaces can drive top-down rehydration, and that such absorption of moisture from unsaturated atmospheres makes a functional contribution to dry season shoot water balances. Read More

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Molecular characterization of rose spring dwarf-associated virus isolated from China rose (Rosa chinensis Jacq.) in China.

Arch Virol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, China.

China rose (Rosa chinensis Jacq.) is an important ornamental plant grown widely in China. In May 2019, we sampled and analyzed a China rose plant by high-throughput sequencing using small RNAs. Read More

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Exploration of current dietetic practices for patients with gynaecological cancers undergoing radiotherapy in Australia: a cross-sectional survey.

Support Care Cancer 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Level 2, Connell Building, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Purpose: Radiotherapy for gynaecological cancers often causes gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities such as diarrhoea. Evidence for the potential benefits of dietary interventions on the management of acute GI toxicities is inconclusive and of low quality, with no clear evidence-based guidelines to inform clinical practice. This study aims to provide an overview of current opinions and clinical practice of dietitians treating this cohort and to examine existing models of nutrition care in Australian cancer centres. Read More

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Interrupting Sitting Time in Postmenopausal Women: Protocol for the Rise for Health Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 May 13;10(5):e28684. Epub 2021 May 13.

Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA, United States.

Background: Many older adults spend the majority of their waking hours sitting, which increases their risk of chronic diseases. Given the challenges that many older adults face when engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, understanding the health benefits of decreasing sitting time and increasing the number of sit-to-stand transitions is needed to address this growing public health concern.

Objective: The aim of this 3-arm randomized controlled trial is to investigate how changes in sitting time and brief sit-to-stand transitions impact biomarkers of healthy aging and physical, emotional, and cognitive functioning compared with a healthy attention control arm. Read More

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Graduate rural work outcomes of the first 8 years of a medical school: What can we learn about student selection and clinical school training pathways?

Aust J Rural Health 2021 Apr;29(2):181-190

Deakin Rural Health, Deakin University, Warrnambool, Vic., Australia.

Objective: To determine the student characteristics and clinical school training pathways that are associated with postgraduate rural practice.

Design: A cross-sectional observational study.

Setting: Deakin University's School of Medicine, encompassing 3 rural and 2 metropolitan clinical schools, including a rural longitudinal integrated clerkship (LIC) year. Read More

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Studying nursing at Australian satellite university campuses: A review of teaching, learning and support.

Aust J Rural Health 2021 Apr;29(2):226-235

College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Douglas, QLD, Australia.

Distribution of the Australian health workforce is uneven, with the majority of health professionals favouring metropolitan areas over rural and remote regions. Although nurses account for the largest proportion of the Australian rural and remote health workforce, difficulties with staff recruitment and retention can impact the health care outcomes of these vulnerable populations. Satellite university campuses that offer undergraduate nursing programs might therefore contribute to a more sustainable rural and remote nursing workforce. Read More

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rTMS for depression: The difficult transition from research to clinical practice.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2021 May 13:48674211011242. Epub 2021 May 13.

U1172 - LilNCog - Lille Neuroscience & Cognition, Université de Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille, France.

The publication of the 2020 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for the management of mood disorders was followed by a series of correspondences discussing the place of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the sequence care for the routine treatment of depression. The controversy has led to an intense debate about the positioning of this neuromodulation technique in the clinical armamentarium for depression in the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. The many arguments presented by the authors to defend their respective points of view can be summarised in two main key issues: (i) the interpretation of the level of evidence of rTMS for depression and (ii) the characterisation of patients who could benefit from this treatment. Read More

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Early childhood circumcision in Australia: Trends over 20 years and interrupted time series analysis.

ANZ J Surg 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Surgery, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Male circumcision is one of the most common surgical procedures performed in the Australian private sector. This study examines the trends in childhood circumcision throughout the early 21st century.

Methods: Circumcisions performed between 2000 and 2019 amongst preschool-aged Australian boys (0-4 years) were obtained from the Medicare Benefits Schedule. Read More

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Malignancies requiring temporal bone resection: An Australian single-institution experience.

ANZ J Surg 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Queensland Skull Base Unit and Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Malignancies in and around the temporal bone are aggressive and difficult to manage. In Queensland (Australia), where skin cancer rates are exceedingly high, tumours extending to the temporal bone from surrounding structures occur more commonly than primary cancers. Yet, a paucity of evidence exists as to their management and outcomes. Read More

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When can I hold my baby? An audit of time to first cuddle for preterm babies (<32 weeks) pre introduction and post introduction of a Family-Integrated Care model.

J Clin Nurs 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department Nursing Research, Child and Adolescent Health Service, Nedlands, WA, Australia.

Aim: The audit examined time to first cuddle between preterm babies (born < 32 weeks) and their parent pre- and post-introduction of a family-integrated care model. Secondary outcomes included time to full feeds and length of neonatal intensive care stay.

Background: Parental separation due to neonatal intensive care unit admission is known to negatively affect parental and baby wellbeing. Read More

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Narrow Band Imaging features of oral lichenoid conditions: a multicentre retrospective study.

Oral Dis 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Australian Centre for Oral Oncology Research & Education, Perth, WA, Australia.

Objective: Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) which highlights epithelial Intrapapillary Capillary Loops (IPCLs) classified into five patterns (0 to IV) with increasing correlation to malignancy, has demonstrated effectiveness for detection of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). Lack of standardized procedures limits its use for routine inspection of oral lichenoid lesions including Oral Lichen Planus (OLP), Oral Lichenoid Lesion (OLL) and Oral Lichenoid Reaction (OLR). The aim of this study was to analyze IPCL patterns of such lesions, assessing correlations with histopathological outcomes. Read More

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Increasing use of intraoperative cholangiogram in Australia: is it evidence-based?

ANZ J Surg 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: The role of routine intraoperative cholangiograms (IOCs) for prevention of bile duct injury (BDI) is contentious. There are recent reports of limited utility of IOC in preventing BDI. In Australia, IOCs are used more frequently than internationally. Read More

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Fine root dynamics across pantropical rainforest ecosystems.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, University, P.O. Box 63, Kumasi, Ghana.

Fine roots constitute a significant component of the net primary productivity (NPP) of forest ecosystems but are much less studied than above-ground NPP. Comparisons across sites and regions are also hampered by inconsistent methodologies, especially in tropical areas. Here, we present a novel dataset of fine root biomass, productivity, residence time, and allocation in tropical old-growth rainforest sites worldwide, measured using consistent methods, and examine how these variables are related to consistently determined soil and climatic characteristics. Read More

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An Optical-Flow-Based Method to Quantify Dynamic Behavior of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes in Disease Modeling Platforms.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) hold great promise for cardiovascular disease modeling, drug screening and personalized medicine. A crucial requirement to establish an hPSC-CM-based disease model is the availability of a reliable differentiation protocol and a functional assessment of phenotypic properties of CMs in a disease context. Characterization of relative changes in contractile behavior of CMs can provide insight not only about drug effects but into the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Read More

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Assessment and comparison of phytochemicals and antioxidant properties from various parts of the Australian maroon bush ().

Heliyon 2021 Apr 18;7(4):e06810. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Brush Rd., Ourimbah, NSW 2258, Australia.

is endemic to Australia and traditionally used as a medicinal plant. While its bioactive compounds have been studied, their concentrations in different parts of the plant have not been reported. This study compared total phenolic content (TPC), flavonoids, saponins and antioxidant properties, as well as major individual phytochemical compounds in the whole root, root bark, root wood, whole stem, stem bark, stem wood, and leaf of . Read More

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A survey dataset to identify industry practices and challenges for mine rehabilitation completion criteria in Western Australia.

Data Brief 2021 Jun 24;36:106973. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

UWA School of Agriculture and Environment, University of Western Australia, M087/35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.

The development of acceptable and achievable completion criteria is fundamental to the successful relinquishment of mined land to a post-mining use. Despite the central role of completion criteria, there is still a need to build capacity and understanding of how to set targets and develop measurable completion criteria that are accepted by all stakeholders involved. The work described in this paper aimed to elicit industry practice, barriers, and opportunities for the development of feasible and acceptable completion criteria. Read More

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Alcohol Consumption and Perceptions of Health Risks During COVID-19: A Qualitative Study of Middle-Aged Women in South Australia.

Front Public Health 2021 26;9:616870. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Australian women's alcohol consumption has increased in frequency during COVID-19. Research suggests this is to cope with stress resulting from the pandemic and COVID-19 countermeasures that require social distancing. This is a critical public health concern because increased alcohol consumption, even for a short period, increases the myriad longer-term health risks associated with cumulative exposure to alcohol. Read More

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Evaluation of CogSport for acute concussion diagnosis in cricket.

BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med 2021 22;7(2):e001061. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Cricket Australia, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: The diagnosis of sport-related concussion is a challenge for practitioners given the variable presentation and lack of a universal clinical indicator. The aim of this study was to describe the CogSport findings associated with concussion in elite Australian cricket players, and to evaluate the diagnostic ability of CogSport for this cohort.

Methods: A retrospective study design was used to evaluate CogSport performance of 45 concussed (male n=27, mean age 24. Read More

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Breaching the Delivery Barrier: Chemical and Physical Airway Epithelium Disruption Strategies for Enhancing Lentiviral-Mediated Gene Therapy.

Front Pharmacol 2021 26;12:669635. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

The lungs have evolved complex physical, biological and immunological defences to prevent foreign material from entering the airway epithelial cells. These mechanisms can also affect both viral and non-viral gene transfer agents, and significantly diminish the effectiveness of airway gene-addition therapies. One strategy to overcome the physical barrier properties of the airway is to transiently disturb the integrity of the epithelium prior to delivery of the gene transfer vector. Read More

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Targeting the actin/tropomyosin cytoskeleton in epithelial ovarian cancer reveals multiple mechanisms of synergy with anti-microtubule agents.

Br J Cancer 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of NSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Anti-microtubule agents are widely used to treat ovarian cancers, but the efficacy is often compromised by drug resistance. We investigated co-targeting the actin/tropomyosin cytoskeleton and microtubules to increase treatment efficacy in ovarian cancers and potentially overcome resistance.

Methods: The presence of tropomyosin-3. Read More

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Long-term treatment-free remission in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia after second-line nilotinib: ENESTop 5-year update.

Leukemia 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Cancer Center of Bordeaux, Institut Bergonié, INSERM U1218, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

The ENESTop study evaluated treatment-free remission (TFR) in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase who had received ≥3 years of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy and achieved sustained deep molecular response only after switching from imatinib to nilotinib. After 1-year nilotinib consolidation, 126 patients attempted TFR. At 48 weeks (primary analysis), 57. Read More

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