147,884 results match your criteria Australian Journal Of Earth Sciences[Journal]


Laser hemorrhoidoplasty in the treatment of symptomatic hemorrhoids: a pilot Australian study.

Ann Coloproctol 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Surgery, Epworth Healthcare, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Purpose: Traditional therapeutic approaches to the surgical management of hemorrhoid disease such as hemorrhoidectomies are plagued with severe postoperative pain and protracted recovery. Our pilot study aims to the laser hemorrhoidoplasty (LH) patients with symptomatic hemorrhoid disease that have failed conservative management for the first time in an Australian population.

Methods: Thirty patients were prospectively enrolled to undergo LH. Read More

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Factors related to engagement in employment after spinal cord injury in Australia: A cross-sectional study.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2022 May 15. Epub 2022 May 15.

The Hopkins Centre, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland Australia; Division of Rehabilitation, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Objective: To explore the association between socio-demographic, health, functional independence and environmental variables with engagement in paid work, for people with spinal cord injury (SCI).

Design: Self-reported, cross-sectional Australian data from a large international SCI survey.

Setting: Community-based. Read More

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Ken C. Pang.

Authors:

Cell Rep Med 2022 Mar 15;3(3):100568. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Ken C. Pang is an Australian physician scientist whose pediatric practice focuses on the care of transgender children and adolescents. During the pandemic, his clinical practice has largely shifted to telehealth-based consultations, which have brought both positive and negative changes. Read More

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Broad and ultra-potent cross-clade neutralization of HIV-1 by a vaccine-induced CD4 binding site bovine antibody.

Cell Rep Med 2022 May;3(5):100635

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection Immunity, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia. Electronic address:

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccination of cows has elicited broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). In this study, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are isolated from a clade A (KNH1144 and BG505) vaccinated cow using a heterologous clade B antigen (AD8). CD4 binding site (CD4bs) bNAb (MEL-1872) is more potent than a majority of CD4bs bNAbs isolated so far. Read More

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How is Trehalulose Formed by Australian Stingless Bees? - An Intermolecular Displacement of Nectar Sucrose.

J Agric Food Chem 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation (QAAFI), The University of Queensland, Health and Food Science Precinct, Coopers Plains, QLD 4108, Australia.

Trehalulose, a rare sucrose isomer, is a dominant sugar in stingless bee honey, with traces of the trisaccharide erlose. Incubating sucrose solutions with macerated stingless bee parts (head, thorax, and abdomen) from , we observed that sucrose isomerization occurs predominantly in the head incubations, with trehalulose constituting 76.2-80. Read More

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Retreatment for hepatitis C virus direct acting antiviral therapy virological failure in primary and tertiary settings: the REACH-C cohort.

J Viral Hepat 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

The Kirby Institute, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Virological failure occurs in a small proportion of people treated for hepatitis C virus (HCV) with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies. This study assessed retreatment for virological failure in a large real-world cohort. REACH-C is an Australian observational study (n=10843) evaluating treatment outcomes of sequential DAA initiations across 33 health services between March 2016 to June 2019. Read More

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Ball Milling Solid-state Synthesis of Highly Crystalline Prussian Blue Analogue Na2-xMnFe(CN)6 Cathodes for All-climate Sodium-ion Batteries.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, Wenzhou, CHINA.

With a series of merits, Prussian blue analogs (PBAs) have been considered superior cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Their commercialization, however, still suffers from inferior stability, considerable [Fe(CN) 6 ] defects and interstitial water in the framework, which are related to the rapid crystal growth. Herein, a "water-in-salt" nanoreactor is proposed to synthesize highly crystallized PBAs with decreased defects and water, which show both superior specific capacity and rate capability in SIBs. Read More

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External Validation of Three Available Grading Systems for Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma in a Single Institution Cohort.

Endocr Pathol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Pathology Unit, "Città Della Salute E Della Scienza" Hospital, Turin, Italy.

Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare thyroid carcinoma with a variable clinical behavior. Potential clinical and pathological prognostic markers have been investigated, but studies are limited and controversial. In neuroendocrine neoplasms of various other sites, necrosis and proliferation (mitotic activity and/or Ki67 index) are integrated to provide a histological grade. Read More

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Development of a novel behaviourally anchored instrument for the assessment of surgical trainees.

ANZ J Surg 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Medical School, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

Background: The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) created its competency framework in 2003 which initially consisted of nine competencies each regarded as equally important for a practising surgeon. The JDocs Framework is aligned to these competencies and provides guidance for junior doctors working towards the Surgical Education and Training program.

Methods: A novel assessment instrument was designed around the JDocs framework using 48 behaviourally anchored questions. Read More

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Attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Intern Med J 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Service, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Central Adelaide Local Health Network, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

The majority of the Australian public are willing to have a Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. It is unclear whether people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have the same attitude towards COVID-19 vaccination. A survey was performed to assess the attitude of patients with IBD towards COVID-19 vaccination in South Australia. Read More

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'It's more than sadness': The Discursive Construction of Depression on Australian Depression Websites.

Qual Health Res 2022 May 18:10497323221102240. Epub 2022 May 18.

School of Psychology, 1066University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Depression has been the subject of increased awareness and concern in Australia, but there has been little research into how depression is constructed on mental health websites, which have become a major resource for mental health information among the general public. In this study, critical discursive psychology was employed to analyse the informational content of eight major Australian mental health websites concerning depression. Four interpretative repertoires were identified - a biomedical, a self-optimization, a normal-natural and a societal-structural repertoire. Read More

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Ionic group-dependent structure of complex coacervate hydrogels formed by ABA triblock copolymers.

Soft Matter 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Hongik University, Seoul 04066, Republic of Korea.

This study investigates the nanostructure of complex coacervate core hydrogels (C3Gs) with varying compositions of cationic charged groups (, ammonium and guanidinium) using small-angle X-ray/neutron scattering (SAX/NS). C3Gs were prepared by stoichiometric mixing of two oppositely charged ABA triblock copolymers in aqueous solvents, in which A end-blocks were functionalized with either sulfonate groups or a mixture of ammonium and guanidinium groups. Comprehensive small-angle X-ray/neutron scattering (SAX/NS) analysis elucidated the dependence of C3Gs structures on the fraction of guanidinium groups in the cationic end-block () and salt concentration (). Read More

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Neighbourhood walkability and dietary attributes: effect modification by area-level socio-economic status.

Public Health Nutr 2022 May 18:1-18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Centre for Urban Transitions, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.

Objective: Higher neighbourhood walkability would be expected to contribute to better health, but the relevant evidence is inconsistent. This may be because residents' dietary attributes, which vary with socio-economic status (SES) and influence their health, can be related to walkability. We examined associations of walkability with dietary attributes, and potential effect modification by area-level SES. Read More

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Endothelial biomarkers of thrombosis in critically ill patients with acquired coagulopathy: a prospective cohort study.

Biomark Med 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, WA, Perth, 6000, Australia.

It remains largely unknown whether endothelial biomarkers can be used to predict thromboembolism in critically ill patients with an acquired coagulopathy. The ability of syndecan-1, P-selectin and microRNA expressions to predict thromboembolism were assessed in 40 critically ill coagulopathic patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for syndecan-1, P-selectin and the four differentially expressed microRNAs - determined by real-time qPCR analysis - to predict thromboembolism (n = 10, 25%) were 0. Read More

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A cross-sectional survey of risk factors for the presence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian commercial dairy goat farms.

Aust Vet J 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3010, Australia.

The largest Australian farm-based outbreak of Q fever originated from a dairy goat herd. We surveyed commercial dairy goat farms across Australia by testing bulk tank milk (BTM) samples using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and two quantitative polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Of the 66 commercial dairy goat herds on record, managers from 61 herds were contacted and 49 provided BTM samples. Read More

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Identifying daily activities of patient work for type 2 diabetes and co-morbidities: a deep learning and wearable camera approach.

J Am Med Inform Assoc 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Centre for Health Informatics, Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Objective: People are increasingly encouraged to self-manage their chronic conditions; however, many struggle to practise it effectively. Most studies that investigate patient work (ie, tasks involved in self-management and contexts influencing such tasks) rely on self-reports, which are subject to recall and other biases. Few studies use wearable cameras and deep learning to capture and classify patient work activities automatically. Read More

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Enhanced short-wavelength sensitivity in the blue-tongued skink, Tiliqua rugosa.

J Exp Biol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Western Australia, 6009 WA, Australia.

Despite lizards using a wide range of color signals, the limited variation in photoreceptor spectral sensitivities across lizards suggests only weak selection for species-specific, spectral tuning of photoreceptors. Some species, however, have enhanced short wavelength sensitivity, which likely helps with the detection of signals rich in ultraviolet and short wavelengths. In this study, we examined the visual system of Tiliqua rugosa, which has a UV/blue tongue, to gain insight into this species' visual ecology. Read More

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Water deficit affects inter-kingdom microbial connections in plant rhizosphere.

Environ Microbiol 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Microbiome Network and Department of Agricultural Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

The frequency and severity of drought are increasing due to anthropogenic climate change and are already limiting cropping system productivity in many regions around the world. Few microbial groups within plant microbiomes can potentially contribute towards the fitness and productivity of their hosts under abiotic stress events including water deficits. However, microbial communities are complex and integrative work considering the multiple co-existing groups of organisms is needed to better understand how the entire microbiome responds to environmental stresses. Read More

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The role of cell free DNA and liquid biopsies in haematological conditions.

Cancer Drug Resist 2020 13;3(3):521-531. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Australian Centre for Blood Diseases, Monash University, Victoria 3181, Australia.

Cell free nucleic acids (CFNAs) are nucleic acids released from cells that circulate within bodily fluids. Recent advances in molecular techniques have led the ability to interrogate CFNAs in a clinically meaningful way, for example the identification and assessment of foetal CFNAs in maternal blood, allowing minimally invasive testing for foetal genetic abnormalities. The majority of CFNAs arise from haemopoietic cells, making it a particularly rich source of genetic information in haematological conditions. Read More

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Applying ethics to AI in the workplace: the design of a scorecard for Australian workplace health and safety.

AI Soc 2022 May 13:1-17. Epub 2022 May 13.

Centre for Work Health and Safety, Parramatta, NSW Australia.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is taking centre stage in economic growth and business operations alike. Public discourse about the practical and ethical implications of AI has mainly focussed on the societal level. There is an emerging knowledge base on AI risks to human rights around data security and privacy concerns. Read More

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Standards of liver cirrhosis care in Central Australia.

World J Hepatol 2022 Mar;14(3):559-569

Department of Medicine, Alice Springs Hospital, Alice Springs 0870, Northern Territory, Australia.

Background: Liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are highly prevalent in Australia's Northern Territory. Contributing factors include high levels of alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis and metabolic syndrome. Rural Aboriginal residents form a significant proportion of the Central Australian population and present a challenge to traditional models of liver care. Read More

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Why nanodiamond carriers manage to overcome drug resistance in cancer.

Cancer Drug Resist 2020 12;3(4):854-866. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Australian College of Kuwait, Safat 13015, Kuwait.

Nanodiamonds represent an attractive potential carrier for anticancer drugs. The main advantages of nanodiamond particles with respect to medical applications are their high compatibility with non-cancerous cells, feasible surface decoration with therapeutic and cancer-cell targeting molecules, and their relatively low manufacturing cost. Additionally, nanodiamond carriers significantly increase treatment efficacy of the loaded drug, so anticancer drugs execute more effectively at a lower dose. Read More

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October 2020

UCP2 - Taking the heat out of P-glycoprotein?

Cancer Drug Resist 2021 19;4(2):503-511. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

St. Hilda's College, University of Oxford, Oxford OX4 1DY, UK.

Cancer cells are highly proliferative, invasive, metastatic and initiate angiogenesis. These activities demand plentiful energy and bountiful stores of anabolic precursors, a situation that puts significant strain on metabolic pathways and necessitates juggling of finite resources. However, the location and erratic structural organisation of tumours means they reside in a nutrient-poor environment. Read More

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Are Australians willing to pay more tax to support wage increases for aged care workers? Findings from a national survey.

Australas J Ageing 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Health and Social Care Economics Group, Caring Futures Institute, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Objective: To explore the perceptions of the Australian public regarding Australia's aged care workforce, including their willingness to pay more tax to fund better pay and conditions for aged care workers.

Methods: An online survey was developed and administered to a representative sample of Australian adults (aged ≥18 years) by age group, gender and Australian state. Survey respondents completed a series of attitudinal statements to elicit their perceptions of the value of Australia's aged care workforce and were asked to indicate their willingness to pay additional tax to fund better pay and conditions for aged care workers. Read More

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Assessing rate of torque development in sprint cycling: a methodological study.

Eur J Sport Sci 2022 May 17:1-0. Epub 2022 May 17.

Centre for Human Performance, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia.

The present study examined (i) the magnitude of rate of torque development (RTD), and (ii) the between-day reliability of RTD at the start of a cycling sprint when sprint resistance, sprint duration, and the pedal downstroke were altered. Nineteen well-trained cyclists completed one familiarisation and three testing sessions. Each session involved one set of 1-s sprints and one set of 5-s sprints. Read More

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Thermoresponsive Polymer-Supported l-Proline Micelle Catalysts for the Direct Asymmetric Aldol Reaction in Water.

ACS Macro Lett 2013 Apr 3;2(4):327-331. Epub 2013 Apr 3.

Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072, Australia.

l-Proline moieties bound to a thermoresponsive polymer nanoreactor efficiently directed the asymmetric aldol reaction in water with excellent yields and enantioselectivity (ee). The reactions were efficient at higher temperatures in direct contrast to the low yields and ee values found when the reaction was carried out in a DMF/water mixture due to the location of the l-proline moieties within the hydrophobic pocket inside the core of the nanoreactors. This ideal environment formed for catalysis allows control over the water content as well as enhancing interactions between the carboxylic acid of l-proline and the aldehyde substrate. Read More

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Measuring text similarity and its associated factors in electronic nursing progress notes: A retrospective review.

J Clin Nurs 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Sydney Children's Hospitals Network Nursing Research Unit, Randwick, New South Wales, Australia.

Aims And Objectives: To measure text similarity in electronic nursing progress notes and determine factors associated with text similarity.

Background: Electronic clinical notes with redundant information masks clinically relevant information, increases clinicians' cognitive burden and undermines patient safety.

Design: Retrospective review of electronic medical record nursing progress notes. Read More

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Estimating cardiovascular health gains from eradicating indoor cold in Australia.

Environ Health 2022 May 17;21(1):54. Epub 2022 May 17.

Centre for Health Policy, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Exposure to cold indoor temperature (< 18 degrees Celsius) increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and has been identified by the WHO as a source of unhealthy housing. While warming homes has the potential to reduce CVD risk, the reduction in disease burden is not known. We simulated the population health gains from reduced CVD burden if the temperature in all Australian cold homes was permanently raised from their assumed average temperature of 16 degrees Celsius to 20 degrees Celsius. Read More

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Early short course of neuromuscular blocking agents in patients with COVID-19 ARDS: a propensity score analysis.

Crit Care 2022 May 17;26(1):141. Epub 2022 May 17.

Institut dInvestigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: The role of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is not fully elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to investigate in COVID-19 patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS the impact of early use of NMBAs on 90-day mortality, through propensity score (PS) matching analysis.

Methods: We analyzed a convenience sample of patients with COVID-19 and moderate-to-severe ARDS, admitted to 244 intensive care units within the COVID-19 Critical Care Consortium, from February 1, 2020, through October 31, 2021. Read More

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Direct bone marrow injection of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells into mouse femurs results in greater prostate cancer PC-3 cell proliferation, but not specifically proliferation within the injected femurs.

BMC Cancer 2022 May 17;22(1):554. Epub 2022 May 17.

School of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology at the Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: While prostate cancer (PCa) cells most often metastasize to bone in men, species-specific differences between human and mouse bone marrow mean that this pattern is not faithfully replicated in mice. Herein we evaluated the impact of partially humanizing mouse bone marrow with human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSC, also known as "mesenchymal stem cells") on human PCa cell behaviour.

Methods: BMSC are key cellular constituents of marrow. Read More

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