147,985 results match your criteria Australian Journal Of Botany[Journal]

Screening for depressive symptoms in adolescence: A Rasch analysis of the short-form childhood depression inventory-2 (CDI 2:SR[S]).

J Affect Disord 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Graduate School of Education, The University of Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Screening for depressive symptoms during adolescence is of high clinical significance. The shorter 12-item version of the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI 2:SR[S]) was specifically developed for this purpose. Evaluations of the CDI 2:SR[S] psychometrics are limited, however. Read More

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Anthocyanin intake is associated with improved memory in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

Nutr Res 2022 Apr 25;104:36-43. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

School of Medical, Indigenous and Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health. University of Wollongong. Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia; School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania, 7250. Electronic address:

Research on the role of dietary anthocyanins in preventing cognitive decline in older adults shows promise. This study investigated the association between usual anthocyanin intake and indices of memory and cognition in 40 older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment that were recruited to a randomized clinical trial. It was hypothesized that daily anthocyanin intake would be similar to healthy older adults and that higher anthocyanin intake would be associated with better cognitive performance. Read More

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Evaluation of the MilA ELISA for the diagnosis of herd infection with Mycoplasma bovis using bulk tank milk and estimation of the prevalence of M. bovis in Australia.

Vet Microbiol 2022 May 13;270:109454. Epub 2022 May 13.

Asia-Pacific Centre for Animal Health, Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Infection with Mycoplasma bovis has been identified as a growing threat in dairy industries worldwide and there is an urgent need for an inexpensive and accurate herd-level screening tool to identify herds that have been exposed to M. bovis. This study aimed to evaluate the use of the MilA ELISA for testing bulk tank milk (BTM) samples for antibodies against M. Read More

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Perceptions of Australian cattle farmers regarding the impact of pinkeye on farm productivity and animal welfare.

Prev Vet Med 2022 May 10;204:105665. Epub 2022 May 10.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Camden, NSW 2570, Australia. Electronic address:

Pinkeye (infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, IBK) is an important disease of cattle worldwide. It has a substantial negative impact on farm productivity and is a major cost burden, but specific data on losses are lacking. This study was conducted to understand farmers' perceptions of the impact of pinkeye on farm productivity and animal welfare, and factors influencing the money farmers estimated spending on pinkeye in 2018. Read More

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Mitochondria as the powerhouses of sexual selection: Testing mechanistic links between development, cellular respiration, and bird song.

Horm Behav 2022 May 18;142:105184. Epub 2022 May 18.

Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

The developmental environment can affect the expression of sexually selected traits in adulthood. The physiological mechanisms that modulate such effects remain a matter of intense debate. Here, we test the role of the developmental environment in shaping adult mitochondrial function and link mitochondrial function to expression of a sexually selected trait in males (bird song). Read More

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Engaging women and men in the gender-synchronised, community-based Mbereko+Men intervention to improve maternal mental health and perinatal care-seeking in Manicaland, Zimbabwe: A cluster-randomised controlled pragmatic trial.

J Glob Health 2022 May 21;12:04042. Epub 2022 May 21.

Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Maternal mental morbidity and low perinatal health service utilisation in resource-constrained settings contribute substantially to the global burden of poor maternal, newborn, and child health. The community-based Mbereko+Men program in rural Zimbabwe engaged women and men in complementary activities to improve men's support for women and babies, coparents' equitable, informed health decision-making, and ultimately, maternal mental health and care-seeking for maternal and newborn health services. The study aimed to test the effectiveness of the Mbereko+Men program on maternal mental health at 0-6 months after childbirth. Read More

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Track and trace: how soil labelling techniques have revealed the secrets of resource transport in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

Mycorrhiza 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

The Waite Research Institute and School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, South Australia, 5064, Australia.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonise plant roots, and by doing so forge the 'mycorrhizal uptake pathway(s)' (MUP) that provide passageways for the trade of resources across a specialised membrane at the plant-fungus interface. The transport of nutrients such as phosphorus (P), nitrogen and zinc from the fungus, and carbon from the plant, via the MUP have mostly been quantified using stable or radioactive isotope labelling of soil in a specialised hyphae-only compartment. Recent advances in the study of AM fungi have used tracing studies to better understand how the AM association will function in a changing climate, the extent to which the MUP can contribute to P uptake by important crops, and how AM fungi trade resources in interaction with plants, other AM fungi, and friend and foe in the soil microbiome. Read More

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The batched stepped wedge design: A design robust to delays in cluster recruitment.

Stat Med 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Stepped wedge designs are an increasingly popular variant of longitudinal cluster randomized trial designs, and roll out interventions across clusters in a randomized, but step-wise fashion. In the standard stepped wedge design, assumptions regarding the effect of time on outcomes may require that all clusters start and end trial participation at the same time. This would require ethics approvals and data collection procedures to be in place in all clusters before a stepped wedge trial can start in any cluster. Read More

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Australian women's information-seeking preferences and needs in preparation for pregnancy.

Health Promot J Austr 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Issue Addressed: The preconception period provides opportunities for health behaviour optimisation for improved maternal and child wellbeing. However, preconception information sources women engage with are not well-known.

Methods: To address this gap, the current cross-sectional study retrospectively explored (1) preconception information or advice accessed on recommended preconception health topics and (2) preferred sources of preconception information among pregnant women receiving care through Australian public and private maternity settings. Read More

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Clinical and behavioral attributes leading to sleep disorders in children on the autism spectrum.

Autism Res 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

School of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, UNSW Sydney, Kensington, New South Wales, Australia.

Sleep disorders are a common comorbid condition in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder ("autism"). However, the relationship between the clinical features of autism and sleep disorders remains unclear. A better understanding of the inherent autism-related characteristics linked to comorbid sleep disorders would improve comprehensive assessment and management. Read More

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Advancing PTSD Diagnosis and the Treatment of Trauma in Humanitarian Emergencies via Mobile Health: Protocol for a Proof-of-Concept Non-Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Res Protoc 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, the University of Sydney, 94 Mallett St, Sydney, AU.

Background: Decentralized health systems in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) impacted by humanitarian crises lack resources and a qualified workforce to attend to the overwhelming demand for mental health care in emergencies. Innovative approaches that are safe, cost-effective, and scalable are needed to address the burden of traumatic stress brought by emergencies. High mobile phone ownership rates combined with the precision of neural, cognitive, and biometric measures of trauma and its feasible integration with Artificial Intelligence (AI) makes digital application (app) interventions a promising pathway to promote precision diagnosis and high-impact care. Read More

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A Nurse Led Asthma Care Team transitioning patients from hospital to home improves asthma control: a pilot study exploring an alternative model of care.

Health Promot J Austr 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Western Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Introduction: Recurrent asthma admissions are frequent in our patients at a tertiary Australian hospital, and commonly related to poor health literacy and medication adherence. A need exists to improve these asthma self-management skills within our current model of care, especially during the vulnerable post discharge period.

Aim: To examine if the addition of a nurse led Asthma Care Transition Team (ACTT) compared with usual care alone (UC) (1)improves asthma control at 12 weeks post hospital discharge; (2) the number of patients using a Written Action Plan (WAP), compliance with inhaler therapy at 12 weeks, and readmission rates at 6 months. Read More

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SkM-ing information from traumatized tissue.

J Thromb Haemost 2022 Jun;20(6):1306-1308

ACRF Department Cancer Biology and Therapeutics, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

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Polymerization-Induced Self-Assembly Using Visible Light Mediated Photoinduced Electron Transfer-Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization.

ACS Macro Lett 2015 Sep 27;4(9):984-990. Epub 2015 Aug 27.

Centre for Advanced Macromolecular Design (CAMD) and Australian Centre for NanoMedicine (ACN), School of Chemical Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

The ruthenium-based photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)Cl, was employed to activate reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) dispersion polymerization via a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process under visible light (λ = 460 nm, 0.7 mW/cm). Poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) was chain extended with benzyl methacrylate to afford in situ self-assembled polymeric nanoparticles with various morphologies. Read More

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September 2015

Organic Electron Donor-Acceptor Photoredox Catalysts: Enhanced Catalytic Efficiency toward Controlled Radical Polymerization.

ACS Macro Lett 2015 Sep 17;4(9):926-932. Epub 2015 Aug 17.

Centre for Advanced Macromolecular Design (CAMD) and Australian Centre for NanoMedicine (ACN), School of Chemical Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

In this study, we designed and synthesized novel organic single electron donor-acceptor molecules containing a free base porphyrin and a thiocarbonylthio group. The porphyrin acts as a light-harvesting antenna and donates an excited electron upon light irradiation to the electron-accepting thiocarbonylthio group. The excited electronic state of the donor-acceptor generates a radical from the thiocarbonylthio compound to activate a living radical polymerization in the presence of monomers. Read More

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September 2015

Review article: Latent tuberculosis in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases receiving immunosuppression-Risks, screening, diagnosis and management.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Background: One quarter of the world's population has latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Systemic immunosuppression is a risk factor for LTBI reactivation and the development of active tuberculosis. Such reactivation carries a risk of significant morbidity and mortality. Read More

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Morbidity of salvage radical prostatectomy: limited impact of the minimally invasive approach.

World J Urol 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Urology Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Purpose: We aimed to report the morbidity profile of salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP) after radiotherapy failure and assess the impact of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) on postoperative complications and functional outcomes.

Materials And Methods: Between 1985 and 2019, a total of 293 patients underwent SRP; 232 underwent open SRP; and 61 underwent laparoscopic SRP with or without robotic assistance. Complications were recorded and classified into standardized categories per the Clavien-Dindo classification. Read More

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Redefining the 'arsenal of democracy'.

Nat Hum Behav 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Cyber Security Cooperative Research Centre, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

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Use of Parental Disability Trajectories to Identify Adolescents Who are Young Carers.

J Youth Adolesc 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Centre for Mental Health, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Carlton, VIC, Australia.

Being a young carer can have significant impacts on the lives of children and adolescents. Identifying young carers is difficult, making the provision of support challenging for service providers. This sample contained 4464 Australian children/adolescents across 11 years (49% female, aged 6/7 years at baseline, and 16/17 years at final wave). Read More

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Trabecular Bone Score Adjustment for the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX®).

Calcif Tissue Int 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

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In-verse reflection: structured creative writing exercises to promote reflective learning in medical students.

J Med Humanit 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Epworth Clinical School, Melbourne, Australia.

Medical educators recognize the value of reflection for medical students and the role creative writing can play in fostering this. However, direct creative writing tasks can be challenging for many students, particularly those with limited experience in the arts and humanities. An alternative strategy is to utilize an indirect approach, engaging students with structured tasks that obliquely encourage reflection. Read More

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Wastewater inflow time series forecasting at low temporal resolution using SARIMA model: a case study in South Australia.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Sustainable Infrastructure and Resource Management (SIRM), UniSA STEM, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, SA, 5095, Australia.

Forecasts of wastewater inflow are considered as a significant component to support the development of a real-time control (RTC) system for a wastewater pumping network and to achieve optimal operations. This paper aims to investigate patterns of the wastewater inflow behaviour and develop a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) forecasting model at low temporal resolution (hourly) for a short-term period of 7 days for a real network in South Australia, the Murray Bridge wastewater network/wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Historical wastewater inflow data collected for a 32-month period (May 2016 to December 2018) was pre-processed (transformed into an hourly dataset) and then separated into two parts for training (80%) and testing (20%). Read More

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Deep learning network for integrated coil inhomogeneity correction and brain extraction of mixed MRI data.

Sci Rep 2022 May 20;12(1):8578. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, and Graduate Institute of Artificial Intelligence, Chang Gung University, No. 259, Wenhua 1st Rd., Guishan Dist., Taoyuan, 33302, Taiwan.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been widely used to acquire structural and functional information about the brain. In a group- or voxel-wise analysis, it is essential to correct the bias field of the radiofrequency coil and to extract the brain for accurate registration to the brain template. Although automatic methods have been developed, manual editing is still required, particularly for echo-planar imaging (EPI) due to its lower spatial resolution and larger geometric distortion. Read More

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Holocene melting of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet driven by tropical Pacific warming.

Nat Commun 2022 May 20;13(1):2434. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Geological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, United States.

The primary Antarctic contribution to modern sea-level rise is glacial discharge from the Amundsen Sea sector of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The main processes responsible for ice mass loss include: (1) ocean-driven melting of ice shelves by upwelling of warm water onto the continental shelf; and (2) atmospheric-driven surface melting of glaciers along the Antarctic coast. Understanding the relative influence of these processes on glacial stability is imperative to predicting sea-level rise. Read More

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Limiting motorboat noise on coral reefs boosts fish reproductive success.

Nat Commun 2022 May 20;13(1):2822. Epub 2022 May 20.

University of Exeter, Biosciences, Hatherly Laboratories, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, EX4 4PS, UK.

Anthropogenic noise impacts are pervasive across taxa, ecosystems and the world. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that protecting vulnerable habitats from noise pollution can improve animal reproductive success. Using a season-long field manipulation with an established model system on the Great Barrier Reef, we demonstrate that limiting motorboat activity on reefs leads to the survival of more fish offspring compared to reefs experiencing busy motorboat traffic. Read More

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Corrigendum to "Modelling the dispersion of radon-222 from a landform covered by low uranium grade waste rock" [J. Environ. Radioact. 192 (2018) 498-504].

J Environ Radioact 2022 May 17:106911. Epub 2022 May 17.

Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW, Australia.

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Scoping to analyze oncology trial participation in Australia.

Semin Oncol 2022 Apr 29. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, Queensland, Australia; Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Equity in oncology clinical trial participation has been declared a global priority. Australia is a key stakeholder in the global clinical trials sphere and managed to maintain high clinical trial activity during the COVID pandemic. Despite these successes, there is paucity of understanding about what influences clinical trial participation in Australia. Read More

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Rare antibody-mediated and seronegative autoimmune encephalitis: An update.

Autoimmun Rev 2022 May 17:103118. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Neuroscience, Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Science, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Neurology, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Paralleling advances with respect to more common antibody-mediated encephalitides, such as anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) Ab-mediated encephalitis, the discovery and characterisation of novel antibody-mediated encephalitides accelerated over the past decade, adding further depth etiologically to the spectrum of antibody-mediated encephalitis. Herein, we review the major mechanistic, clinical features and management considerations with respect to anti-γ-aminobutyric acid B (GABA)-, anti-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropinoic receptor- (AMPAR), anti-GABA-, anti-dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 (DPPX) Ab-mediated encephalitides, delineate rarer subtypes and summarise findings to date regarding seronegative autoimmune encephalitis. Read More

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Parallel decay of vision genes in subterranean water beetles.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2022 May 17:107522. Epub 2022 May 17.

Australian Centre for Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity, Department of Ecology and Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia; Evolutionary Biology Unit, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia.

In the framework of neutral theory of molecular evolution, genes specific to the development and function of eyes in subterranean animals living in permanent darkness are expected to evolve by relaxed selection, ultimately becoming pseudogenes. However, definitive empirical evidence for the role of neutral processes in the loss of vision over evolutionary time remains controversial. In previous studies, we characterized an assemblage of independently-evolved water beetle (Dytiscidae) species from a subterranean archipelago in Western Australia, where parallel vision and eye loss have occurred. Read More

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