134,970 results match your criteria Australian Journal Of Agricultural And Resource Economics[Journal]

Motion of the multi-segmented spine in elite dancers during passé and arabesque.

Gait Posture 2021 Jun 6;88:198-202. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Harkness Center for Dance Injuries, NYU Langone Health, 614 2ndAv, Suite G, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The spinal biomechanics of dance tasks have received little study and no studies have used a multi-segmented spinal model. Knowledge of how the segments of the spine move may be useful to the dance clinician and dance educator.

Research Question: What is the direction and amount of motion of the primary segments of the spine in elite dancers during an arabesque and a passé?

Methods: This observational study examined 59 elite dancers performing an arabesque and a passé using a three-dimensional motion analysis system with the trunk divided into a series of five segments: pelvis, lower lumbar, upper lumbar, lower thoracic and upper thoracic spine. Read More

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The effectiveness of smart home technologies to support the health outcomes of community-dwelling older adults living with dementia: A scoping review.

Int J Med Inform 2021 Jun 4;153:104513. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia; Australian Aged Care Technologies Collaborative, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia. Electronic address:

Objectives: To map the current state-of-knowledge about the effectiveness of smart home technologies to support the health outcomes of community-dwelling older adults living with dementia.

Design: A scoping review following the methodological frameworks described by Arksey and O'Malley (2005) and Levac et al. (2010). Read More

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The role of Mobile phones as a possible pathway for pathogen movement A CROSS-SECTIONAL, MICROBIAL ANALYSIS.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2021 Jun 8:102095. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, Robina, QLD, Australia (AU); Harry Butler Institute, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA, 6150, Australia (AU); General Department of Forensic Science and Criminology, Dubai Police, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE); Dubai Future Council on Community Security, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE); Dubai Police Scientists Council, Dubai Police, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Introduction: Mobile phones are used the world over, including in healthcare settings. This study aimed to investigate the viable microbial colonisation of mobile phones used by healthcare personnel.

Methods: Swabs collected on the same day from 30 mobile phones belonging to healthcare workers from three separate paediatric wards of an Australian hospital were cultured on five types of agar plate, then colonies from each phone were pooled, extracted and sequenced by shotgun metagenomics. Read More

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Characterising non-linear associations between airborne pollen counts and respiratory symptoms from the AirRater smartphone app in Tasmania, Australia: A case time series approach.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 8:111484. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 7000, Australia; Public Health Services, Department of Health, Hobart, TAS, 7000, Australia. Electronic address:

Pollen is a well-established trigger of asthma and allergic rhinitis, yet concentration-response relationships, lagged effects, and interactions with other environmental factors remain poorly understood. Smartphone technology offers an opportunity to address these challenges using large, multi-year datasets that capture individual symptoms and exposures in real time. We aimed to characterise associations between six pollen types and respiratory symptoms logged by users of the AirRater smartphone app in Tasmania, Australia. Read More

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Identifying research priorities to improve the health of incarcerated populations: results of citizens' juries in Australian prisons.

Lancet Public Health 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Population Health, University of New South Wales (UNSW Sydney), Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Health disparities in incarcerated populations should guide investment in the health care and research of these communities. Although users of health-care services are important in providing input into decisions about research, the voices of people in prison are absent regarding research into their health. In this Health Policy paper, we present priorities for research into the health of people in prison according to people in prison themselves. Read More

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Rethinking sustainability in childhood obesity prevention interventions: learning from South Australia's Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) Programme.

Health Promot Int 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Swansea University, Wales, UK.

Increases in childhood obesity have occurred across a relatively short time-period, yet childhood obesity prevention is a longer-term game. Programmes have only identified population-level changes after 12 years of on-the-ground activity [Romon et al.]. Read More

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Treating Insomnia Symptoms with Medicinal Cannabis: A Randomized, Cross-Over Trial of the Efficacy of a Cannabinoid Medicine Compared with Placebo.

Sleep 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Centre for Sleep Science, School of Human Sciences, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, Western Australia.

Study Objectives: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of two-weeks of nightly sublingual cannabinoid extract (ZTL-101) in treating chronic insomnia (symptoms ≥three months).

Methods: Co-primary study endpoints were safety of the medication based on adverse event reporting and global insomnia symptoms (Insomnia Severity Index; ISI). Secondary endpoints included: self-reported (sleep diary), actigraphy-derived and polysomnography measurements of sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE); and self-reported assessments of sleep quality (sSQ) and feeling rested upon waking. Read More

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Response to letter from Dr Riegel and Mr James.

Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Health Research Institute and Research Institute for Sport & Exercise, Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, 11 Kirinari Street, Bruce, ACT 2617, Australia.

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High risk of early sub-therapeutic penicillin concentrations after intramuscular benzathine penicillin G injections in Ethiopian children and adults with rheumatic heart disease.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 11;15(6):e0009399. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Introduction: Intramuscular benzathine penicillin G (BPG) injections are a cornerstone of secondary prophylaxis to prevent acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Uncertainties regarding inter-ethnic and preparation variability, and target exposure profiles of BPG injection are key knowledge gaps for RHD control.

Methods: To evaluate BPG pharmacokinetics (PK) in patients receiving 4-weekly doses in Ethiopia, we conducted a prospective cohort study of ARF/RHD patients attending cardiology outpatient clinics. Read More

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Impact of Nonpharmaceutical Interventions on ICU Admissions During Lockdown for Coronavirus Disease 2019 in New Zealand-A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Crit Care Med 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Cardiothoracic and Vascular ICU (CVICU), Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. Medical Research Institute of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand. ANZIC-Research Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. School of Nursing, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Objectives: Nonpharmaceutical interventions are implemented internationally to mitigate the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 with the aim to reduce coronavirus disease 2019-related deaths and to protect the health system, particularly intensive care facilities from being overwhelmed. The aim of this study is to describe the impact of nonpharmaceutical interventions on ICU admissions of non-coronavirus disease 2019-related patients.

Design: Retrospective cohort study. Read More

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First report of Kudoa thunni and Kudoa musculoliquefaciens affecting the quality of commercially harvested yellowfin tuna and broadbill swordfish in Eastern Australia.

Parasitol Res 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Science, Technology and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia.

Recent anecdotal reports from seafood processors in eastern Australia have described an increased occurrence of post-mortem myoliquefaction ('jellymeat') in broadbill swordfish Xiphias gladius, and macroscopic cysts throughout the musculature of yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares. A genus of parasitic cnidarians, Kudoa (Myxosporea, Multivalvulida), species of which are known to occur in economically important wild-caught fish species globally, can cause similar quality-deterioration issues. However, Kudoa sp. Read More

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Host genetic polymorphisms associated with beta human papillomavirus seropositivity.

Arch Virol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia.

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause superficial epidermal infections and are only cleared if they trigger an immunological response. We analysed SNPs that had previously been investigated for association with HPV infection to determine whether they play a role in the serological response to cutaneous beta-HPVs in an Australian population. Serum samples from 1,142 participants were analysed for seropositivity against the L1 protein of 21 beta-HPV types. Read More

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Factors Associated with Self-Reported PTSD Diagnosis among Older Lesbian Women and Gay Men.

J Gerontol Soc Work 2021 Jun 11:1-14. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

SANE Australia, Melbourne, Australia.

Lesbian women and gay men are at greater risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than heterosexual people, however few studies have examined PTSD in older lesbian women and gay men. This study examined predictors of having ever been diagnosed with PTSD, as well as relationships to current quality of life, among 756 lesbian women and gay men aged 60 years and older in Australia. Participants were surveyed on their sociodemographic characteristics, experiences of sexual orientation discrimination over their lifetime, whether they had ever been diagnosed with PTSD, whether they were currently receiving treatment for PTSD, and their current quality of life. Read More

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EXPRESS: Stroke in India: a systematic review of the incidence, prevalence and case fatality.

Int J Stroke 2021 Jun 11:17474930211027834. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

The George Institute for Global Health, Mental Health, The University of New South Wales, Newtown, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: The burden of stroke is increasing in India; stroke is now the fourth leading cause of death and the fifth leading cause of disability. Previous research suggests that the incidence of stroke in India ranges between 105 and 152/100,000 people per year. However, there is a paucity of available data and a lack of uniform methods across published studies. Read More

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Bulk Crystalline 4H-Silicon through a Metastable Allotropic Transition.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 May;126(21):215701

Earth and Planets Laboratory, Carnegie Institution for Science, Washington, DC 20015, USA.

We report the synthesis of bulk, highly oriented, crystalline 4H hexagonal silicon (4H-Si), through a metastable phase transformation upon heating the single-crystalline Si_{24} allotrope. Remarkably, the resulting 4H-Si crystallites exhibit an orientation relationship with the Si_{24} crystals, indicating a structural relationship between the two phases. Optical absorption measurements reveal that 4H-Si exhibits an indirect band gap near 1. Read More

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KCNT1-related epilepsies and epileptic encephalopathies: phenotypic and mutational spectrum.

Brain 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Pediatric Neurology Department, Lyon University Hospital, 69500 Bron, France.

Variants in KCNT1, encoding a sodium-gated potassium channel (subfamily T member 1), have been associated with a spectrum of epilepsies and neurodevelopmental disorders. These range from familial autosomal dominant or sporadic sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy ((AD)SHE) to epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) and include developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE). This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of KCNT1 mutation-related epileptic disorders in 248 individuals, including 66 unpreviously published and 182 published cases, the largest cohort reported so far. Read More

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Young people's Perception of Group Climate in Juvenile Justice Centers in an Australian State, a Pilot Study.

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2021 Jun 11:306624X211022664. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Justice and Community Safety, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

There is ample evidence to demonstrate that a positive group climate in juvenile justice centers contributes to improvements in motivation for positive behavior and reducing incidents and even recidivism. Being provided opportunities for growth and development and being actively supported by well-trained staff creates a positive atmosphere and minimal repression. Such a pedagogical group climate is strongly related to fulfilling the basic psychological needs of the young people and is promoted by relational security. Read More

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Cytokines: From Clinical Significance to Quantification.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jun 10:e2004433. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Life and Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, 518172, P. R. China.

Cytokines are critical mediators that oversee and regulate immune and inflammatory responses via complex networks and serve as biomarkers for many diseases. Quantification of cytokines has significant value in both clinical medicine and biology as the levels provide insights into physiological and pathological processes and can be used to aid diagnosis and treatment. Cytokines and their clinical significance are introduced from the perspective of their pro- and anti-inflammatory effects. Read More

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Lesser-Known Aspects of Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease: Programming Sessions, Hardware Surgeries, Residential Care Admissions, and Deaths.

Neuromodulation 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Bionics Institute, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Objective: The long-term treatment burden, duration of community living, and survival of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) after deep brain stimulation (DBS) implantation are unclear. This study aims to determine the frequency of programming, repeat hardware surgeries (of the intracranial electrode, implantable pulse generator [IPG], and extension-cable), and the timings of residential care and death in patients with PD treated with DBS.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional, population-based study, individual-level data were collected from the Australian government covering a 15-year period (2002-2016) on 1849 patients with PD followed from DBS implantation. Read More

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Does Kinship vs. Foster Care Better Promote Connectedness? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Research School of Psychology, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

Internationally, there is an increasing trend toward placing children in kinship vs. foster care. Prior research suggests that children in kinship care fare better compared to children in foster care; however, the reasons for this remain unclear. Read More

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Management of COVID-19 in a Deployed Setting.

Mil Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

US Army Institute of Surgical Research, San Antonio, TX 78234, USA.

Introduction: Hamid Karzai International Airport is a NATO military base connected to the international airport in Kabul, Afghanistan. It is one of the larger NATO installations in Afghanistan, and with its location being one of the main hubs for international transit, the base has been at the frontline since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. Hamid Karzai International Airport base commanders and medical staff have been at the forefront, continually developing policies and procedures to mitigate the pandemic in a deployed setting. Read More

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Plant-Based Diet Index and Metabolic Risk in Men: Exploring the Role of the Gut Microbiome.

J Nutr 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Healthy plant-based diet index (hPDI) is associated with a lower risk of cardiometabolic conditions, but its association as well as interactions with microbiome have not been elucidated.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the interrelations between hPDI, gut microbiome, and cardiometabolic risk markers.

Methods: hPDI was derived from dietary assessments by a validated FFQ and was examined in relation to metagenomic profiles of 911 fecal samples collected from 303 men aged 71 ± 4 y with an average BMI (in kg/m2) of 25. Read More

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Electrochemiluminescence at 3D Printed Titanium Electrodes.

Front Chem 2021 25;9:662810. Epub 2021 May 25.

National Centre for Sensor Research, Chemistry Department, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.

The fabrication and electrochemical properties of a 3D printed titanium electrode array are described. The array comprises 25 round cylinders (0.015 cm radius, 0. Read More

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Immunomics-Guided Antigen Discovery for Praziquantel-Induced Vaccination in Urogenital Human Schistosomiasis.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:663041. Epub 2021 May 25.

Centre for Molecular Therapeutics, Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD, Australia.

Despite the enormous morbidity attributed to schistosomiasis, there is still no vaccine to combat the disease for the hundreds of millions of infected people. The anthelmintic drug, praziquantel, is the mainstay treatment option, although its molecular mechanism of action remains poorly defined. Praziquantel treatment damages the outermost surface of the parasite, the tegument, liberating surface antigens from dying worms that invoke a robust immune response which in some subjects results in immunologic resistance to reinfection. Read More

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Root traits explain plant species distributions along climatic gradients yet challenge the nature of ecological trade-offs.

Nat Ecol Evol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Spatial Evolutionary Ecology, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Birmensdorf, Switzerland.

Ecological theory is built on trade-offs, where trait differences among species evolved as adaptations to different environments. Trade-offs are often assumed to be bidirectional, where opposite ends of a gradient in trait values confer advantages in different environments. However, unidirectional benefits could be widespread if extreme trait values confer advantages at one end of an environmental gradient, whereas a wide range of trait values are equally beneficial at the other end. Read More

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Non-uniform tropical forest responses to the 'Columbian Exchange' in the Neotropics and Asia-Pacific.

Nat Ecol Evol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.

It has been suggested that Iberian arrival in the Americas in 1492 and subsequent dramatic depopulation led to forest regrowth that had global impacts on atmospheric CO concentrations and surface temperatures. Despite tropical forests representing the most important terrestrial carbon stock globally, systematic examination of historical afforestation in these habitats in the Neotropics is lacking. Additionally, there has been no assessment of similar depopulation-afforestation dynamics in other parts of the global tropics that were incorporated into the Spanish Empire. Read More

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2019‒2020 Australian bushfire air particulate pollution and impact on the South Pacific Ocean.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12288. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200241, China.

During late 2019 and early 2020, Australia experienced one of the most active bushfire seasons that advected large emissions over the adjacent ocean. Herein, we present a comprehensive research on mixed atmospheric aerosol particulate pollution emitted by wildfires in the atmosphere and the ocean. Based on a wide range of physical and biochemical data, including the Aerosol Robotic Network, multi-satellite observations, and Argo floats, we investigated the spatio-temporal variations and mixed compositions of aerosol particles, deposition in the coastal waters of eastern Australia and the South Pacific Ocean, and biogeochemical responses in the water column. Read More

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