121,982 results match your criteria Australian Journal Of Adult Learning[Journal]


Picolinic acid, a catabolite of tryptophan, has an anabolic effect on bone in vivo.

J Bone Miner Res 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Neuroinflammation Group, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Fractures due to osteoporosis have a severe impact on our older population. Reports of side effects with commonly prescribed osteoporosis drugs have led to the investigation of new and safer treatments with novel mechanisms of action. Picolinic acid (PIC), a catabolite of tryptophan, induces in vitro osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4125DOI Listing

A citizen-science approach reveals long-term social network structure in an urban parrot, Cacatua galerita.

J Anim Ecol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Centre for Ecosystem Science, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, UNSW, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia.

Parrots are often referenced in discussions of social and cognitive complexity, yet relatively little is known of their social organisation in the wild. In particular, the presence of long-lasting social ties has been highlighted as a hallmark of social complexity, however the presence of such ties can be masked in fission-fusion systems like that exhibited by most parrot species. Social network analysis has the potential to elucidate such multi-level dynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13295DOI Listing

Tandem detection of organic and inorganic gunshot residues using LC-MS and SEM-EDS.

Forensic Sci Int 2020 Jun 24;314:110389. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, Australia. Electronic address:

Gunshot residue (GSR) is a valuable form of forensic trace evidence in the investigation of firearms crime. The current gold-standard approach does not include the analysis of organic components of the residues, which may be a deficiency, particularly in cases where there is little to no inorganic gunshot residue (IGSR) present or its attribution to a firearm source is ambiguous. A solvent extraction method was used for the extraction of organic GSR (OGSR) from the most common sampling device used to collect IGSR (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2020.110389DOI Listing

Current trauma care system in Saudi Arabia: A scoping literature review.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 Jul 3;144:105653. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Alfred Health Clinical School, La Trobe University, Prahran, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Trauma is one of the leading causes of death worldwide with millions of people dying each year, particularly in low or middle-income countries. This paper describes and evaluates the current trauma system (TS) in Saudi Arabia (SA).

Methods: A scoping literature review was performed, incorporating an extensive search of Medline and Embase databases for refereed literature, as well as a search of grey literature to locate unpublished articles or reports in English or Arabic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105653DOI Listing

Comparative transcriptome analysis of pilchard orthomyxovirus (POMV) and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Aquaculture Program, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

The Tasmanian Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry had remained relatively free of major viral diseases until the recent emergence of pilchard orthomyxovirus (POMV). The virus originally isolated from wild pilchards in Southern Australia is of great concern to the industry as it can cause high mortality. Despite its classification in the Orthomyxoviridae family, POMV is genetically divergent from infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) and potentially represents a new genus within the family. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2020.06.050DOI Listing

Comparison of an early warning score to single-triggering warning system for inpatient deterioration: An audit of 4089 medical emergency calls.

Resuscitation 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Medical School, Australian National University, Florey Building 54 Mills Road, Acton, ACT 2601 Australia; Intensive Care Unit, Canberra Hospital, Yamba Dr, Garran, ACT 2605, Australia; Centre for Advances in Epidemiology & IT, Canberra Hospital, Yamba Dr, Garran, ACT 2605, Australia. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2020.06.026DOI Listing

Impact of low-level viraemia on virological failure among Asian children with perinatally acquired HIV on first-line combination antiretroviral treatment: a multicentre, retrospective cohort study.

J Int AIDS Soc 2020 Jul;23(7):e25550

Research Institute for Health Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Introduction: The clinical relevance of low-level viraemia (LLV) and virological outcomes among children living with HIV (CLHIV) remains controversial. This study aimed to determine the impact of LLV on virological failure (VF) among Asian CLHIV on first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).

Methods: CLHIV aged <18 years, who were on first-line cART for ≥12 months, and had virological suppression (two consecutive plasma viral load [pVL] <50 copies/mL) were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25550DOI Listing

A Geometric Clustering Tool (AGCT) to robustly unravel the inner cluster structures of time-series gene expressions.

PLoS One 2020 6;15(7):e0233755. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Sony Computer Science Laboratories Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

Systems biology aims at holistically understanding the complexity of biological systems. In particular, nowadays with the broad availability of gene expression measurements, systems biology challenges the deciphering of the genetic cell machinery from them. In order to help researchers, reverse engineer the genetic cell machinery from these noisy datasets, interactive exploratory clustering methods, pipelines and gene clustering tools have to be specifically developed. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233755PLOS

A reduction in reported alcohol use in pregnancy in Australian Aboriginal communities: a prevention campaign showing promise.

Aust N Z J Public Health 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia.

Objective: Aboriginal leaders in remote Western Australian communities with high rates of prenatal alcohol exposure invited researchers to evaluate the community-led Marulu foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) Prevention Strategy initiated in 2010.

Methods: The proportion of women reporting alcohol use during pregnancy to midwives was compared between 2008, 2010 and 2015. Initial midwife appointments were calculated by weeks of gestation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.13012DOI Listing

Australian first in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoner health care in the Australian Capital Territory.

Aust N Z J Public Health 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Winnunga Nimmityjah Aboriginal Health and Community Services, Australian Capital Territory.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.13007DOI Listing

sp. nov., a plant-pathogenic bacterium isolated from sugar cane ().

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Université de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5240, INSA de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Microbiologie Adaptation et Pathogénie, F-69621 Villeurbanne, France.

The genus is an important group of plant pathogens that currently comprises 10 recognized species. Although most isolates originated from infected cultivated plants, they are also isolated from water. The genomic sequence of the Australian strain NCPPB 569 clearly established its separation from the previously characterized species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.004306DOI Listing

Phenotype-genotype correlations in a pseudodominant Stargardt disease pedigree due to a novel ABCA4 deletion-insertion variant causing a splicing defect.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2020 Jul 23;8(7):e1259. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Centre for Ophthalmology and Visual Science (Incorporating Lions Eye Institute), The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Deletion-insertion (delins) variants in the retina-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter gene, subfamily A, member 4 (ABCA4) accounts for <1% in Stargardt disease. The consequences of these delins variants on splicing cannot be predicted with certainty without supporting in vitro data.

Methods: Candidate ABCA4 variants were revealed by genetic and segregation analysis of a family with pseudodominant Stargardt disease using a commercial panel and Sanger sequencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1259DOI Listing

Sulfonated RAFT Copolymers as Heparin Mimetics: Synthesis, Reactivity Ratios, and Anticoagulant Activity.

Macromol Biosci 2020 Jul 6:e2000110. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, 4072, Australia.

The glycosaminoglycan heparin is a clinically important anticoagulant drug, primarily used to reduce the risk of blood clots (thrombosis) during surgery. Despite its importance in medicine and its continuous use over many decades, heparin suffers from several limitations associated with its heterogeneity and its extraction from animal tissues. In order to address these limitations, reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization is utilized to prepare a library of heparin mimetic copolymers from the sulfonated monomers sodium 4-styrene sulfonate, potassium-3-sulfopropyl acrylate, potassium-3-sulfopropyl methacrylate, and sodium-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mabi.202000110DOI Listing

Headspace solid-phase microextraction sampling of endogenous aldehydes in biological fluids using a magnetic metal-organic framework/polyaniline nanocomposite.

J Sep Sci 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Chemistry, Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran.

Nano-porosity, crystal structure, good thermal and mechanical stability, high surface-to-volume ratio, nanoscale cavities, and uniform pore topology have made metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) one of the best class of sorbents for adsorption/separation purposes. In this research, a metal-organic framework/polyaniline magnetite nanocomposite was synthesized and intercalated by polyaniline by electrophoretic deposition on the surface of a thin steel wire, to prepare a solid-phase microextraction fiber. It was coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and employed for the extraction and determination of aldehydes in biological samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202000401DOI Listing

Efficient Oxygen Evolution and Gas Bubble Release Achieved by a Low Gas Bubble Adhesive Iron-Nickel Vanadate Electrocatalyst.

Small 2020 Jul 6:e2002412. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

School of Chemistry, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia.

Surface chemistry is a pivotal prerequisite besides catalyst composition toward advanced water electrolysis. Here, an evident enhancement of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is demonstrated on a vanadate-modified iron-nickel catalyst synthesized by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method, which demonstrates ultralow overpotentials of 274 and 310 mV for delivering large current densities of 100 and 400 mA cm , respectively, in 1 m KOH, where vigorous gas bubble evolution occurs. Vanadate modification augments the OER activity by i) increasing the electrochemical surface area and intrinsic activity of the active sites, ii) having an electronic interplay with Fe and Ni catalytic centers, and iii) inducing a high surface wettability and a low-gas bubble-adhesion for accelerated mass transport and gas bubble dissipation at large current densities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202002412DOI Listing

Measuring Piezoelectric Output-Fact or Friction?

Adv Mater 2020 Jul 6:e2002979. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3010, Australia.

Piezoelectric polymers are emerging as exceptionally promising materials for energy harvesting. While the theoretical figures of merit for piezoelectric polymers are comparable to ceramics, the measurement techniques need to be retrofitted to account for the different mechanical properties of the softer polymeric materials. Here, how contact electrification, including friction and contact separation, is often mistaken for piezoelectric charge is examined, and a perspective for how to separate these effects is provided. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202002979DOI Listing

Acute confusion post liver transplantation: HE or not HE, that is the question.

Hepatology 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

AW Morrow Gastroenterology and Liver Centre, Australian National Liver Transplant Unit, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, Australia.

A 45-year-old woman underwent uncomplicated orthotopic LT from a deceased donor for decompensated liver cirrhosis from hepatitis C [Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) 16]. Although virologic clearance was achieved 18 months prior, the patient had three hospitalisations for West-Haven grade III HE that were precipitated by infection, despite long-term lactulose and rifaximin. The patient was listed for LT for the indication of recurrent HE and was prioritised due to the incidental finding of a 14mm right renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31452DOI Listing

Experiences of Abused Muslim Women With the Australian Criminal Justice System.

Authors:
Nada Ibrahim

J Interpers Violence 2020 Jul 4:886260520935487. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.

The confidence of intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors/victims in the criminal justice system (CJS) is important to consider when exploring intervention and prevention strategies toward deterring IPV. Information on the experiences of IPV survivors/victims with the justice system is greatly lacking. This issue is even more so for IPV survivors/victims for minority communities such as Australian-Muslims. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260520935487DOI Listing

A Cross-Cultural Examination of Parental Knowledge of Concussion in Sicily, Italy.

Dev Neuropsychol 2020 Jul 5:1-11. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Saint Joseph's University , Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Forty parents of youth soccer players of ages 5-17 years, in Sicily, Italy completed a survey measuring knowledge of concussion symptoms and facts. Parents averaged 16 out of 23 correct responses (69.5%) on the survey, with no significant correlation between parental age and education and knowledge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/87565641.2020.1789644DOI Listing

Management of adrenocortical carcinoma in Western Australia: a perspective over 14 years.

ANZ J Surg 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Department of Endocrine Surgery, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare but aggressive form of endocrine neoplasm that confers a poor prognosis. To date, the only Australian data published is from New South Wales. This paper describes our experience in Western Australia with a focus on surgical approach and outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ans.16111DOI Listing

Prostate Cancer Survivorship Essentials Framework: Guidelines for Practitioners.

BJU Int 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Division of Research and Innovation, University of Southern Queensland, Springfield, QLD, Australia.

Objective: To develop contemporary and inclusive prostate cancer survivorship guidelines for the Australian setting.

Subjects/patients And Methods: A four round iterative Policy Delphi was utilised with a 47-member expert panel that included leaders from key Australian and New Zealand clinical and community groups and consumers from diverse backgrounds including LGBTQIA, regional, rural and urban settings. The first three rounds were undertaken using an online survey (94% to 96% response) followed by a fourth final face-to-face panel meeting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.15159DOI Listing

Finding the Proverbial Needle: Non-targeted Screening of Synthetic Opioids in Equine Plasma.

Drug Test Anal 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Centre for Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW, 2007, Australia.

Synthetic opioids are a class of compounds that are of particular concern due to their high potency and potential health impacts. With the relentless emergence of new synthetic opioid derivatives, non-targeted screening strategies are required that do not rely on the use of library spectra or reference materials. In this study, product ion searching, and Kendrick mass defect analysis were investigated for non-targeted screening of synthetic opioids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dta.2893DOI Listing

Ranibizumab-The jury is still out.

Acta Paediatr 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Neonatal Medicine, Women's and Children's Hospital, North Adelaide, SA, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.15256DOI Listing

A profile of Australian occupational therapy academic workforce job satisfaction.

Aust Occup Ther J 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Introduction: There has been an increase in the number of Australian occupational therapy education programmes and student enrolment numbers in existing programmes, whereas there is a perceived current and predicted future workforce shortage of qualified university academics. The aim of the study was to map the current Australian occupational therapy academic workforce and investigate the group's job satisfaction.

Methods: The research was a cross-sectional online survey of Australian occupational therapy academics employed part-time or full-time in fixed or ongoing positions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1440-1630.12683DOI Listing

The Hepatic Sinusoid in Aging and Disease: Update and Advances From the 20th Liver Sinusoid Meeting.

Hepatol Commun 2020 Jul 27;4(7):1087-1098. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Centre for Education and Research on Ageing Concord Repatriation General Hospital ANZAC Research Institute Australian Ageing and Alzheimers Institute Concord Sydney NSW Australia.

This is a meeting report of the 2019 Liver Sinusoid Meeting, 20th International Symposium on Cells of the Hepatic Sinusoid, held in Sydney, Australia, in September 2019. The meeting, which was organized by the International Society for Hepatic Sinusoidal Research, provided an update on the recent advances in the field of hepatic sinusoid cells in relation to cell biology, aging, and liver disease, with particular focus on the molecular and cellular targets involved in hepatic fibrosis, nonalcoholic hepatic steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cirrhosis. In addition, the meeting highlighted the recent advances in regenerative medicine, targeted nanotechnologies, therapeutics, and novel methodologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1517DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327202PMC

Peer mentoring for individuals with an eating disorder: a qualitative evaluation of a pilot program.

J Eat Disord 2020 1;8:29. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

School of Behavioural and Health Science, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC Australia.

Background: After receiving intensive medical treatment; individuals with eating disorders often require ongoing care to maintain their recovery, build social networks, and reduce risk of relapse.

Methods: To address this important transition period, a six-month peer mentoring program was developed and piloted in Melbourne, Australia. Twelve adults with a past history of an eating disorder (mentors) were paired with 14 individuals with a current eating disorder (mentees). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40337-020-00301-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329554PMC

The association between low pre-operative step count and adverse post-operative outcomes in older patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery.

Perioper Med (Lond) 2020 2;9:20. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Christchurch Public Hospital, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Background: Multiple tools exist estimating perioperative risk. With an ageing surgical demographic, frailty is becoming an increasingly important concept in perioperative medicine due to its association with adverse post-operative outcomes. Reduced physical activity is a hallmark of frailty, and we postulate that a low pre-operative step count may be an objective measure of frailty. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13741-020-00150-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330986PMC

Fostering global primary care research: a capacity-building approach.

BMJ Glob Health 2020 Jul;5(7)

General Practice, University of Auckland Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Auckland, New Zealand.

The Alma Ata and Astana Declarations reaffirm the importance of high-quality primary healthcare (PHC), yet the capacity to undertake PHC research-a core element of high-quality PHC-in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) is limited. Our aim is to explore the current risks or barriers to primary care research capacity building, identify the ongoing tensions that need to be resolved and offer some solutions, focusing on emerging contexts. This paper arose from a workshop held at the 2019 North American Primary Care Research Group Annual Meeting addressing research capacity building in LMICs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002470DOI Listing

Nutrient intake, meal timing and sleep in elite male Australian football players.

J Sci Med Sport 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Centre for Sports Research (CSR), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia. Electronic address:

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between dietary intake, meal timing and sleep in elite male Australian football players.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Methods: Sleep and dietary intake were assessed in 36 elite male Australian Football League (AFL) players for 10 consecutive days in pre-season. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2020.06.011DOI Listing

The Relationship Between Operative Volume and Peri-operative Mortality After Non-elective Aortic Aneurysm Repair in Australia.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Surgery, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia; Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; The Vascular Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

Objective: Hospital and surgeon operative caseload is thought to be associated with peri-operative mortality following the non-elective repair of aortic aneurysms; however, whether such an association exists within the Australian healthcare setting is unknown.

Methods: The Australasian Vascular Audit was interrogated to identify patients undergoing non-elective (emergency [EMG] or semi-urgent [URG]) aortic aneurysm repair between 2010 and 2016, as well as their treating surgeon and hospital. Hierarchal logistic regression modelling was used to assess the impact of caseload on outcomes after both endovascular (EVAR) and open surgical repair (OSR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.04.029DOI Listing

Prevention and treatment of pressure injuries: A meta-synthesis of Cochrane Reviews.

J Tissue Viability 2020 Jun 28. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia. Electronic address: https://twitter.com/WChaboyer.

Background: There are many high-quality systematic reviews to inform practice around pressure injury (PI) prevention and treatment. However, they are often unable to provide recommendations for practice and research due to low quality trials.

Objectives: To evaluate current systematic review evidence on the prevention and treatment of PI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtv.2020.05.004DOI Listing

Developing a validity argument for a simulation-based model of entrustment in dispensing skills assessment framework.

Curr Pharm Teach Learn 2020 Sep 13;12(9):1081-1092. Epub 2020 May 13.

School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Introduction: Integrated assessment of multiple competencies at once, including entrustable professional activity (EPA) based assessment, is emerging as an effective approach to competency-based evaluation of health professionals. However, there is an absence of validated assessment frameworks in entry level pharmacy education. We aimed to develop an assessment framework and establish a validity argument, containing multiple sources of evidence, for use in the integrated assessment of pharmacy student's competency in all aspects of the supply of prescribed medicine(s). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2020.04.028DOI Listing
September 2020

Preventing depression using a smartphone app: a randomized controlled trial.

Psychol Med 2020 Jul 6:1-10. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Black Dog Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: There is evidence that depression can be prevented; however, traditional approaches face significant scalability issues. Digital technologies provide a potential solution, although this has not been adequately tested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new smartphone app designed to reduce depression symptoms and subsequent incident depression amongst a large group of Australian workers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720002081DOI Listing

Does mammographic density remain a radiological challenge in the digital era?

Acta Radiol 2020 Jul 5:284185120938367. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Medical Image Optimisation and Perception Group (MIOPeG), Discipline of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: The low subject contrast between cancerous and fibroglandular tissue could obscure breast abnormalities.

Purpose: To investigate radiologists' performance for detection of breast cancer in low and high mammographic density (MD) when cases are digitally acquired.

Material And Methods: A test set of 60 digital mammography cases, of which 20 were cancerous, were examined by 17 radiologists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0284185120938367DOI Listing

Detecting pathogenic variants in autoimmune diseases using high-throughput sequencing.

Authors:
Matt A Field

Immunol Cell Biol 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Centre for Tropical Bioinformatics and Molecular Biology, Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland, Australia.

Sequencing the first human genome in 2003 took 15 years and cost $2.7 billion. Advances in sequencing technologies have since decreased costs to the point where it is now feasible to re-sequence a whole human genome for $1000 in a single day. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imcb.12372DOI Listing

Assessing the current state of ecological connectivity in a large marine protected area system.

Conserv Biol 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

School of BioSciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, 3010, Australia.

The establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) is a critical step in ensuring the continued persistence of marine biodiversity. While the area protected within MPAs is growing, the movement of individuals (or larvae) among MPAs, termed connectivity, has only recently been included as an objective of many MPAs. As such, assessing connectivity is often neglected or over-simplified in the planning process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13580DOI Listing

Australia's national COVID-19 primary care response.

Med J Aust 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

College of Health and Medicine, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5694/mja2.50693DOI Listing

Menthol as an Ergogenic Aid for the Tokyo 2021 Olympic Games: An Expert-Led Consensus Statement Using the Modified Delphi Method.

Sports Med 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Centre for Sport Science and Human Performance, Waikato Institute of Technology, Hamilton, 3200, New Zealand.

Introduction: Menthol topical application and mouth rinsing are ergogenic in hot environments, improving performance and perception, with differing effects on body temperature regulation. Consequently, athletes and federations are beginning to explore the possible benefits to elite sport performance for the Tokyo 2021 Olympics, which will take place in hot (~ 31 °C), humid (70% RH) conditions. There is no clear consensus on safe and effective menthol use for athletes, practitioners, or researchers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-020-01313-9DOI Listing

Playing Recognition Politics: Queer Theoretical Reflections on Lesbian, Gay, and Queer Youth Social Policy in Australia in the 1980s and 1990s.

Arch Sex Behav 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

School of Sociology, Research School of Social Sciences Building 22, Haydon Allen Building, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia.

This article provides a queer theoretical reflection on the emergence of lesbian, gay, and queer (LGQ) youth as subjects of policy attention in Australia in the late twentieth century. In particular, it focuses on the ways in which specific forms of social, bureaucratic, and organizational recognition have given shape to LGQ youth as categorical policy objects. To this end, this article critically interrogates social policy related to the provision of funding for LGQ youth support during the 1980s and 1990s in two Australian states: New South Wales and Western Australia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-020-01751-6DOI Listing

Randomised Controlled Trial of a Therapeutic Playgroup for Children with Developmental Delays.

J Autism Dev Disord 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.

A single-blind randomised control trial investigated the effectiveness of the Learn, Engage and Play (LEaP) playgroup. Seventy-one children with developmental delay were randomly allocated to an 8-week LEaP playgroup or control group and followed up at 12 and 28 weeks. On the primary outcome measure, LEaP demonstrated significant within group changes at 28 weeks (parenting distress p = 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04580-7DOI Listing

A single dose of zoledronate preserves bone mineral density for up to 2 years after a second course of romosozumab.

Osteoporos Int 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA.

This phase 2 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of transitioning to zoledronate following romosozumab treatment in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. A single dose of 5 mg zoledronate generally maintained the robust BMD gains accrued with romosozumab treatment and was well tolerated.

Introduction: Follow-on therapy with an antiresorptive agent is necessary to maintain the skeletal benefits of romosozumab therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00198-020-05502-0DOI Listing

Acceptability of online sun exposure awareness-raising interventions among young Australian women: an exploratory mixed-methods study.

Health Promot Int 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Flinders Centre for Innovation in Cancer, College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University of South Australia, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001, Australia.

Melanoma is the most common cancer among young Australians. Despite school-based programs such as 'Sun Smart' leading to increased knowledge among children of the harmful effects of sun exposure, many young adults continue to desire a darker skin tone because of a general perception among their peers that tanned skin is attractive. This 'tanned-ideal' may be challenged through exposure to material posted on social media. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daaa048DOI Listing

Do hand therapists have a role in workplace-based education to manage tennis elbow? Beliefs about effective treatments among Australian hand therapists and medical practitioners.

Work 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work, and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.

Background: Lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET), commonly known as tennis elbow, is a prevalent work-related upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder. Medical practitioners and hand therapists manage LET with commonly available clinic-based treatments, despite no sound evidence to suggest long-term relief and functional restoration for workers with LET. Workplace-based rehabilitation is effective for injured workers with other health conditions, but no studies have investigated this rehabilitation approach in the management of LET. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-203196DOI Listing

A feasibility trial of an internet-delivered psychological intervention to manage mental health and functional outcomes in neurological disorders.

J Psychosom Res 2020 Jun 29;136:110173. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

eCentreClinic, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Health and Human Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.

Objective: Mental health and cognitive difficulties are highly prevalent across neurological disorders and significantly contribute to poorer patient outcomes. Unfortunately, access to effective psychological services for these comorbidities are limited. To determine whether a novel transdiagnostic internet-delivered psychological intervention, the Wellbeing Neuro Course, was feasible, acceptable and efficacious a single-group feasibility open trial was employed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2020.110173DOI Listing

Neuroimaging findings in headache with normal neurologic examination: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Neurol Sci 2020 Jun 26;416:116997. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Centre for Heart Rhythm Disorders, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Adelaide and Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, Australia.

Objective: To determine if pooled estimates of the prevalence of unexpected findings in patients with headache and normal neurologic examination support current expert opinion-based neuroimaging guidelines.

Methods: We searched PubMed and EMBASE for studies reporting neuroimaging findings in patients with headache and normal neurologic examination up to September 30, 2017. The overall and disease-specific prevalence of unexpected findings were pooled through random-effects meta-analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.116997DOI Listing

BAL inflammatory markers can predict pulmonary exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis.

Chest 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Perth Children's Hospital, Perth, Australia; Telethon Kids Institute, Perth, Australia.

Background: Pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis are characterized by airway inflammation and may cause irreversible lung damage. Early identification of such exacerbations may facilitate early initiation of treatment, thereby potentially reducing long-term morbidity.

Research Question: Is it possible to predict pulmonary exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis using inflammatory markers obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid?

Study Design: and Methods: A longitudinal analysis of children aged 0-7 years included in the Australian Respiratory Early Surveillance Team for Cystic Fibrosis (AREST CF) study between 2005 and 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.06.044DOI Listing

Application of multivariate single-step SNP best linear unbiased predictor model and revised SNP list for genomic evaluation of dairy cattle in Australia.

J Dairy Sci 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Melbourne School of Land and Environment, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia.

The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the computational feasibility of the multitrait test-day single-step SNP-BLUP (ssSNP-BLUP) model using phenotypic records of genotyped and nongenotyped animals, and (2) to compare accuracies (coefficient of determination; R) and bias of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) and de-regressed proofs as response variables in 3 Australian dairy cattle breeds (i.e., Holstein, Jersey, and Red breeds). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-18242DOI Listing

A rare cause of ductopenia: adult onset Alagille syndrome.

Pathology 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Tissue Pathology and Diagnostic Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; New South Wales Health Pathology, NSW, Australia; Central Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pathol.2020.04.015DOI Listing