122,058 results match your criteria Australian Forestry[Journal]


Identification and referral of patients with refractory epilepsy from the primary to the tertiary care interface in New South Wales, Australia.

Epilepsy Behav 2020 Jul 5;111:107232. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Level 6, 75 Talavera Road, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia. Electronic address:

Objectives: This mixed-method feasibility study conducted in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, aimed to explore clinical practices around the identification of patients with refractory epilepsy and referral from primary care to Tertiary Epilepsy Centers. The perceptions of general practitioners, neurologists, and adults living with refractory epilepsy were considered.

Methods: Fifty-two data collection events were achieved through 22 semi-structured interviews with six neurologists and 12 adults who currently have, or have had refractory epilepsy, and four family members, 10 clinical observations of patient consultations and 20 surveys with general practitioners. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107232DOI Listing

Obesity, menstrual irregularity and polycystic ovary syndrome in young women with type 1 diabetes: a population-based study.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and Preventative Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with reproductive dysfunction, particularly in the setting of poor metabolic control. Improvements in contemporary management ameliorates these problems, albeit at the cost of increased exogenous insulin and rising obesity, with emerging reproductive implications.

Objective: To evaluate changes in body mass index (BMI), and the relationship between obesity, menstrual irregularity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in young women with T1D, compared with controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.14281DOI Listing

Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Turbulence-Driven Rotors.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Jun;124(25):254501

Research School of Physics, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia.

We characterize a process of energy extraction via rectification of strongly turbulent flow by using tools of stochastic thermodynamics. We study the dynamics of an asymmetric autonomous rotor that shows biased direction of rotation when placed in a stream. We give experimental evidence that a fluctuation theorem can be used to describe the work injected in the rotor via its coupling with the turbulent flow structure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.254501DOI Listing

Hip Joint Effusion-Synovitis Is Associated With Hip Pain and Sports/Recreation Function in Female Professional Ballet Dancers.

Clin J Sport Med 2020 Jul;30(4):341-347

School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: To compare hip joint effusion-synovitis prevalence in professional ballet dancers with nondancing athletes and to evaluate the relationship between effusion-synovitis and clinical measures and cartilage defects.

Design: Case-control study.

Setting: Elite ballet and sport. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0000000000000595DOI Listing

Patterns of Avian Influenza A (H5) and A (H9) virus infection in backyard, commercial broiler and layer chicken farms in Bangladesh.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland, Gatton, Qld, Australia.

In order to control Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI) H9N2 virus spread in endemically infected countries, a detailed understanding of infection patterns is required. We conducted cross-sectional studies in Bangladesh in 2016 and 2017, on 144 backyard, 106 broiler and 113 layer chicken farms. Although all sampled birds were negative for H5 virus by RT-PCR, H5 antibodies were detected in unvaccinated birds on all three farming systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13657DOI Listing

Cancers of the corpus uteri treated in South Australian public hospitals: Trends in clinical management and survival across three decades.

Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2020 Jul 8:e13281. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Gynaecological Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Objective: To investigate treatment and survival over three decades.

Methods: Clinical registry data from three major public hospitals analysed using Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimates and multivariate proportional hazard regression to determine disease-specific survival.

Results: Five-year survival increased from 75% to 84%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecc.13281DOI Listing

An In-Depth Study of Zn Metal Surface Chemistry for Advanced Aqueous Zn-Ion Batteries.

Adv Mater 2020 Jul 8:e2003021. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, Australian Institute for Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 2522, Australia.

Although Zn metal has been regarded as the most promising anode for aqueous batteries, it persistently suffers from serious side reactions and dendrite growth in mild electrolyte. Spontaneous Zn corrosion and hydrogen evolution damage the shelf life and calendar life of Zn-based batteries, severely affecting their industrial applications. Herein, a robust and homogeneous ZnS interphase is built in situ on the Zn surface by a vapor-solid strategy to enhance Zn reversibility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202003021DOI Listing

Selective Permeation of Water through Angstrom-Channel Graphene Membranes for Bioethanol Concentration.

Adv Mater 2020 Jul 8:e2002320. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800, Australia.

Graphene-based laminate membranes have been theoretically predicted to selectively transport ethanol from ethanol-water solution while blocking water. Here, robust angstrom-channel graphene membranes (ACGMs) fabricated by intercalating carbon sheets derived from chitosan into thermally reduced graphene oxide (GO) sheets are reported. ACGMs with robust and continuous slit-shaped pores (an average pore size of 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202002320DOI Listing

Nanomaterial synthesis, an enabler of amyloidosis inhibition against human diseases.

Nanoscale 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 111 Yixueyuan Rd, Xuhui District, Shanghai, China and ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science and Technology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, 381 Royal Parade, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia.

Amyloid diseases are global epidemics with no cure currently available. In the past decade, the use of engineered nanomaterials as inhibitors or probes against the pathogenic aggregation of amyloid peptides and proteins has emerged as a new frontier in nanomedicine. In this Minireview, we summarize for the first time the pivotal role of chemical synthesis in enabling the development of this multidisciplinary field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr04273kDOI Listing

Recent advances in improving tumor-targeted delivery of imaging nanoprobes.

Biomater Sci 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

School of Chemical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. and Australian Centre for NanoMedicine (ACN), University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

Tumor-targeted delivery of imaging nanoprobes provides a promising approach for the precision imaging diagnosis of cancers. Nanoprobes with desired bio-nano interface properties can preferably enter tumor tissues through the vascular endothelium, penetrate into deep tissues, and detect target lesions. Surface engineering of nanoparticles offers a critical strategy to improve tumor-targeting capacities of nanoprobes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0bm00761gDOI Listing

Anaemia in patients undergoing major bowel surgery - Prevalence and current practice: A public and private institution experience.

J Perioper Pract 2020 Jul 8:1750458920934321. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, Australia.

Aim: The study aimed to compare the frequency and alignment of preoperative anaemia screening and treatment with Australian guidelines in elective bowel surgery and determine the impact on clinical outcomes.

Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study, with an audit of 559 adult patients who underwent major elective bowel surgery in an Australian metropolitan hospital, January 2016-December 2018. Outcome measures included rate of anaemia, guideline compliance, hospital length of stay, and transfusion rate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1750458920934321DOI Listing

Loss of trifluralin metabolic resistance in Lolium rigidum plants exposed to prosulfocarb recurrent selection.

Pest Manag Sci 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative, School of Agriculture and Environment, University of Western Australia, WA, Australia.

Background: Resistance to the dinitroaniline herbicide trifluralin in Lolium rigidum (annual ryegrass) is often mediated by the enhanced capacity to metabolise the herbicide to less toxic polar conjugates and/or by functionally recessive target-site mutations in α-tubulin.

Results: In two L. rigidum populations possessing enhanced trifluralin metabolism, resistance was largely reversed by recurrent selection with the thiocarbamate herbicide prosulfocarb (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.5993DOI Listing

Tuning into the real effect of smartphone use on parenting: a multiverse analysis.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Science Unit, Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Concerns have been raised regarding the potential negative impacts of parents' smartphone use on the parent-child relationship. A scoping literature review indicated inconsistent effects, arguably attributable to different conceptualizations of parent phone use and conflation of phone use with technological interference.

Methods: Based on a sample of n = 3, 659 parents collected in partnership with a national public broadcaster, we conducted a multiverse analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13282DOI Listing

Aridity drives coordinated trait shifts but not decreased trait variance across the geographic range of eight Australian trees.

New Phytol 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Large intraspecific functional trait variation strongly impacts many aspects of communities and ecosystems, and is the medium upon which evolution works. Yet intraspecific trait variation is inconsistent and hard to predict across traits, species, and locations. We measured within-species variation in leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), branch wood density (WD), and allocation to stem area vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.16795DOI Listing

Re-evaluating and recalibrating predictors of bacterial infection in children with cancer and febrile neutropenia.

EClinicalMedicine 2020 Jun 15;23:100394. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Numerous paediatric febrile neutropenia (FN) clinical decision rules (CDRs) have been derived. Validation studies show reduced performance in external settings. We evaluated the association between variables common across published FN CDRs and bacterial infection and recalibrated existing CDRs using these data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329706PMC

The life history of human foraging: Cross-cultural and individual variation.

Sci Adv 2020 Jun 24;6(26):eaax9070. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Human Behavior, Evolution, and Culture, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

Human adaptation depends on the integration of slow life history, complex production skills, and extensive sociality. Refining and testing models of the evolution of human life history and cultural learning benefit from increasingly accurate measurement of knowledge, skills, and rates of production with age. We pursue this goal by inferring hunters' increases and declines of skill from approximately 23,000 hunting records generated by more than 1800 individuals at 40 locations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax9070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314517PMC

Measuring early child development in low and middle income countries: Investigating the validity of the early Human Capability Index.

SSM Popul Health 2020 Aug 7;11:100613. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

School of Public Health, University of Adelaide, Level 9, Adelaide Health and Medical Science Building, 57 North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia, 5005, Australia.

Inclusion of early child development in the United Nations Sustainable Development Agenda raises issues of how this goal should be monitored, particularly in low resource settings. The aim of this paper was to explore the validity of the early Human Capability Index (eHCI); a population measure designed to capture the holistic development of children aged 3-5 years. Convergent, divergent, discriminant and concurrent validity were examined by exploring the associations between eHCI domains and child (sex, age, stunting status, preschool attendance) and family (maternal education, home learning environment) characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2020.100613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327282PMC

Common Vetch: A Drought Tolerant, High Protein Neglected Leguminous Crop With Potential as a Sustainable Food Source.

Front Plant Sci 2020 19;11:818. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

School of Biological Sciences, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Global demand for protein is predicted to increase by 50% by 2050. To meet the increasing demand whilst ensuring sustainability, protein sources that generate low-greenhouse gas emissions are required, and protein-rich legume seeds have the potential to make a significant contribution. Legumes like common vetch () that grow in marginal cropping zones and are drought tolerant and resilient to changeable annual weather patterns, will be in high demand as the climate changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316993PMC

Chloroplast Phylogenomics Reveals the Intercontinental Biogeographic History of the Liquorice Genus (Leguminosae: ).

Front Plant Sci 2020 17;11:793. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

The liquorice genus, L. (Leguminosae), is a medicinal herb with great economic importance and an intriguing intercontinental disjunct distribution in Eurasia, North Africa, the Americas, and Australia. , along with Boiss. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318913PMC

Comparing Hydraulics Between Two Grapevine Cultivars Reveals Differences in Stomatal Regulation Under Water Stress and Exogenous ABA Applications.

Front Plant Sci 2020 19;11:705. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Glen Osmond, SA, Australia.

Hydraulics of plants that have different strategies of stomatal regulation under water stress are relatively poorly understood. We explore how root and shoot hydraulics, stomatal conductance (), leaf and root aquaporin (AQP) expression, and abscisic acid (ABA) concentration in leaf xylem sap ([ABA]) may be coordinated under mild water stress and exogenous ABA applications in two L. cultivars traditionally classified as near-isohydric (Grenache) and near-anisohydric (Syrah). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316991PMC

Who Enjoys Teaching, and When? Between- and Within-Person Evidence on Teachers' Appraisal-Emotion Links.

Front Psychol 2020 19;11:1092. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Psychology, University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Testing assumptions proposed by Frenzel's reciprocal model of teacher emotions (e.g., Frenzel, 2014), this study explored relations between teachers' appraisals concerning the attainment and importance of their teaching goals, and their emotions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318846PMC

Mapping the Specific Pathways to Early-Onset Mental Health Disorders: The "Watch Me Grow for REAL" Study Protocol.

Front Psychiatry 2020 19;11:553. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Faculty of Science, School of Psychology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: From birth, the human propensity to selectively attend and respond to critical super-stimuli forms the basis of future socio-emotional development and health. In particular, the first super-stimuli to preferentially engage and elicit responses in the healthy newborn are the physical touch, voice and face/eyes of caregivers. From this grows selective attention and responsiveness to emotional expression, scaffolding the development of empathy, social cognition, and other higher human capacities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319093PMC

Author Correction: Elpistostege and the origin of the vertebrate hand.

Nature 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2450-2DOI Listing

How do patients and the public understand overtesting and overdiagnosis? A protocol for a thematic meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

BMJ Open 2020 Jul 6;10(7):e037283. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Monash Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Cabrini Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Introduction: Examining patient and public understanding of overtesting and overdiagnosis (OverTD) is vital for reducing the burden of OverTD. Studies from disparate contexts, disciplines and focusing on disparate healthcare issues have examined patient and public understanding of OverTD. A synthesis is needed to bring this literature together, examine common themes, strengthen conclusions and identify gaps. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037283DOI Listing

In the field: an interview with Sandra Binning and Dominique Roche.

Authors:

J Exp Biol 2020 Jul 7;223(Pt 13). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Sandra Binning is an Assistant Professor at the Université de Montréal, Canada, and Dominique Roche is a Marie Curie Fellow at Carleton University, Canada. Together, they investigate how animals respond to environmental stressors. Binning and Roche completed their undergraduate degrees in Biology and master's degrees at McGill University, Canada, before undertaking their PhDs at the Australian National University, Australia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.229534DOI Listing

Control of three gastrointestinal illness outbreaks in a British Role 1 facility in Afghanistan: a primary care perspective.

BMJ Mil Health 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

RMAS, Army Medical Services, Camberley, Surrey, UK.

Introduction: In 2019, Camp Qargha (QAA), a British-led multinational military camp in Kabul, had three of the largest outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness (GI) experienced by the British Military since 2003. This paper discusses the incidence, the response of the British-led Role 1 (R1) medical treatment facility, identifies potential causative and exacerbating factors, and explains the control measures initiated.

Method: GI in QAA results in local and UK military-wide data collection including in the form of local GI questionnaires, FMed85 forms and EpiNATO returns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjmilitary-2020-001458DOI Listing

Human Genetics Society of Australasia Position Statement: Predictive and Presymptomatic Genetic Testing in Adults and Children.

Twin Res Hum Genet 2020 Jun;23(3):184-189

Faculty of Medicine and Health, Sydney School of Public Health, Sydney Health Ethics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

In 2020, the Human Genetics Society of Australasia released its Position Statement on Predictive and Presymptomatic Genetic Testing in Adults and Children. This Position Statement synthesizes the major practical, psychosocial and ethical considerations associated with presymptomatic and predictive genetic testing in adults who have the capacity to make a decision, children and young people who lack capacity and adults living with reduced or fluctuating capacity. Recommendations include that predictive testing in adults, young people and children should only be offered with pretest genetic counseling and the option of posttest genetic counseling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/thg.2020.51DOI Listing

Differential influences of social support on app use for diabetes self-management - a mixed methods approach.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2020 Jul 7;20(1):151. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Media and Communication Studies, University of Erfurt, Nordhaeuser Str. 63, 99089, Erfurt, Germany.

Background: Recent studies increasingly examine social support for diabetes self-management delivered via mHealth. In contrast to previous studies examining social support as an outcome of technology use, or technology as a means for delivering social support, this paper argues that social support has an impact on the use of diabetes mHealth apps. Specifically, we postulate differences between the impact of healthcare professional versus non-professional (family/friends) support on mobile app use for diabetes self-management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12911-020-01173-3DOI Listing

Natal philopatry increases relatedness within groups of coral reef cardinalfish.

Proc Biol Sci 2020 Jul 8;287(1930):20201133. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia.

A central issue in evolutionary ecology is how patterns of dispersal influence patterns of relatedness in populations. In terrestrial organisms, limited dispersal of offspring leads to groups of related individuals. By contrast, for most marine organisms, larval dispersal in open waters is thought to minimize kin associations within populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2020.1133DOI Listing

Response to the Letter to the Editor: "Examining Bias and Reporting in Oral Health Prediction Modeling Studies".

J Dent Res 2020 Jul 7:22034520940275. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

School of Public Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022034520940275DOI Listing

Interactions of the α3β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Interfaces with α-Conotoxin LsIA and its Carboxylated C-terminus Analogue: Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

Mar Drugs 2020 Jul 3;18(7). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.

Notably, α-conotoxins with carboxy-terminal (C-terminal) amidation are inhibitors of the pentameric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are therapeutic targets for neurological diseases and disorders. The (α3)(β2) nAChR subunit arrangement comprises a pair of α3(+)β2(-) and β2(+)α3(-) interfaces, and a β2(+)β2(-) interface. The β2(+)β2(-) interface has been suggested to have higher agonist affinity relative to the α3(+)β2(-) and β2(+)α3(-) interfaces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md18070349DOI Listing

Reactive Autonomous Navigation of UAVs for Dynamic Sensing Coverage of Mobile Ground Targets.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Jul 3;20(13). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia.

This paper addresses a problem of autonomous navigation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for the surveillance of multiple moving ground targets. The ground can be flat or uneven. A reactive real-time sliding mode control algorithm is proposed that navigates a team of communicating UAVs, equipped with ground-facing video cameras, towards moving targets to increase some measure of sensing coverage of the targets by the UAVs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20133720DOI Listing

Activity in two key toxin groups in Australian elapids show a strong correlation to phylogeny but not to diet.

Toxicon 2020 Apr;177 Suppl 1:S61

University of Newcastle, Australia; South Australian Museum, Australia; Flinders University, Australia; Venom Supplies Tanunda S.A., Australia; Museums Victoria, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.12.144DOI Listing

Three-finger toxins and Australian elapid venoms: Are they important?

Toxicon 2020 Apr;177 Suppl 1:S61

University of Newcastle, Australia; Venom Supplies Tanunda S.A., Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.12.145DOI Listing

Ability of the phospholipase A2 inhibitor Varespladib to abrogate or delay lethality induced by neurotoxic snake venoms.

Toxicon 2020 Apr;177 Suppl 1:S16

Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica; Ophirex, Inc., Corte Madera, California, USA; California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, USA; Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Australian Venom Research Unit, University of Melbourne, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.10.069DOI Listing

Smoking in critically ill patients with COVID-19: the Australian experience.

Crit Care Resusc 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Intensive Care and Hyperbaric Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

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The cost of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy to the Australian healthcare system.

Pregnancy Hypertens 2020 Jul 1;21:197-199. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia.

In Australia, Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy are one of the leading causes of maternal death. Additionally, mothers and babies can experience significant morbidity associated with Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy. Currently, there is little understanding about the resources spent on this pregnancy complication in Australia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preghy.2020.06.007DOI Listing

Taxonomic determination of the cryptogenic red alga, Chondria tumulosa sp. nov., (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) from Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, Hawai'i, USA: A new species displaying invasive characteristics.

PLoS One 2020 7;15(7):e0234358. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Biology, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, United States of America.

Survey cruises by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in 2016 and 2019 yielded specimens of an undetermined red alga that rapidly attained alarming levels of benthic coverage at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, Hawai'i. By 2019 the seaweed had covered large expanses on the northeast side of the atoll with mat-like, extensive growth of entangled thalli. Specimens were analyzed using light microscopy and molecular analysis, and were compared to morphological descriptions in the literature for closely related taxa. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234358PLOS

Principles for creating a single authoritative list of the world's species.

PLoS Biol 2020 Jul 7;18(7):e3000736. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Taxonomy Australia, Australian Academy of Science, Canberra, Australia.

Lists of species underpin many fields of human endeavour, but there are currently no universally accepted principles for deciding which biological species should be accepted when there are alternative taxonomic treatments (and, by extension, which scientific names should be applied to those species). As improvements in information technology make it easier to communicate, access, and aggregate biodiversity information, there is a need for a framework that helps taxonomists and the users of taxonomy decide which taxa and names should be used by society whilst continuing to encourage taxonomic research that leads to new species discoveries, new knowledge of species relationships, and the refinement of existing species concepts. Here, we present 10 principles that can underpin such a governance framework, namely (i) the species list must be based on science and free from nontaxonomic considerations and interference, (ii) governance of the species list must aim for community support and use, (iii) all decisions about list composition must be transparent, (iv) the governance of validated lists of species is separate from the governance of the names of taxa, (v) governance of lists of accepted species must not constrain academic freedom, (vi) the set of criteria considered sufficient to recognise species boundaries may appropriately vary between different taxonomic groups but should be consistent when possible, (vii) a global list must balance conflicting needs for currency and stability by having archived versions, (viii) contributors need appropriate recognition, (ix) list content should be traceable, and (x) a global listing process needs both to encompass global diversity and to accommodate local knowledge of that diversity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000736DOI Listing

Endocardial-Epicardial Phase Mapping of Prolonged Persistent Atrial Fibrillation Recordings: High Prevalence of Dissociated Activation Patterns.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Cardiology, Royal Melbourne Hospital & Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

- Endocardial-epicardial dissociation (EED) and focal breakthroughs in humans with atrial fibrillation (AF) have been recently demonstrated using activation mapping of short 10-second AF segments. In the current study we used simultaneous endo-epi phase mapping to characterise endo-epi activation patterns on long segments of human persistent AF (PeAF). - Simultaneous intra-operative mapping of endo- and epicardial lateral RA wall was performed in patients with PeAF using two high-density grid catheters (16 electrodes, 3mm spacing). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.120.008512DOI Listing

Maternity iron, anaemia and blood management in South Australia: a practice-based evidence for clinical practice improvement.

Vox Sang 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Lyell McEwin Hospital, Northern Adelaide Local Health Network, Elizabeth Vale, SA, Australia.

Background: Anaemia at delivery is a strong modifiable risk factor for transfusion in women with a postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). A Maternity Patient Blood Management (PBM) Practice Based Evidence Clinical Practice Improvement (CPI) was conducted to optimize antenatal haemoglobin and iron stores prior to delivery.

Methods: Australian maternity PBM CPI resources (featuring algorithms on diagnosing iron deficiency with both haemoglobin and ferritin screening, as well as information on oral iron therapy for maternity patients) were introduced at a major tertiary hospital from November 2016 to March 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vox.12969DOI Listing

Ecklonia radiata extract containing eckol protects neuronal cells against Aβ evoked toxicity and reduces aggregate density.

Food Funct 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Discipline of Pharmacology, Adelaide Medical School, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Brown seaweed (Phaeophyceae) polyphenolics such as phlorotannins are ascribed various biological activities, including neuroprotection. Of these seaweeds, Ecklonia radiata (E. radiata) is found abundantly along South Australian coastal regions; however it has not been explored for various biological activities relative to any component phlorotannins previously ascribed neuroprotective capacity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo01438aDOI Listing

Gender differences in social harms from drinking among young Australians: findings from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy and its Outcomes.

J Addict Dis 2020 Jul 7:1-13. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Institute for Social Science Research, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: Despite the growing interest in investigating social harms from drinking, little is known about drinkers' reports of these harms and their gender differences among Australian young adults at age 30. We aimed to examine gender differences of social harms from drinking as reported by drinkers.

Methods: 2,200 young adults at age 30 with complete data on social harms from drinking were drawn from the 30-year follow-up of the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10550887.2020.1767324DOI Listing

The Mental Health of Online Learners within the Educational Sector.

Issues Ment Health Nurs 2020 Jul 7:1-3. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

School of Health Sciences, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01612840.2020.1776552DOI Listing

Trends and characteristics in barbiturate deaths Australia 2000-2019: a national retrospective study.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2020 Jul 7:1-7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Introduction: There have been increasing reports documenting barbiturate-related deaths, despite routine prescribing for only relatively rare indications. The aims of the current study were to examine trends in barbiturate-related deaths in Australia from 2000 to 2019 and determine the case characteristics and circumstances of barbiturate-related deaths.

Methods: All barbiturate-related deaths identified in the Australian National Coronial Information System were examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2020.1789653DOI Listing

'Extreme personal stress' and 'a lot of pain': Exploring the physical, mental and social contexts of extramedical pharmaceutical opioid use in Australian paramedic case descriptions.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Turning Point, Eastern Health, Melbourne, Australia.

Introduction And Aims: Despite growing concerns over the extramedical use of pharmaceutical opioids, few studies have focused on the contexts that shape this use or how it might lead to harm. There is also limited research examining how contexts might vary across different opioids, such as those with well-established abuse liabilities (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dar.13118DOI Listing

Aeromedical retrievals in Queensland: A five-year review.

Emerg Med Australas 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Discipline of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia.

Objective: Aeromedical services are an essential part of the healthcare system. Centralised coordination of aeromedical retrieval tasking offers benefits for safety, timeliness and efficiency in service delivery. The aim of the present study is to review aeromedical retrievals in Queensland exploring patient demographics, temporal patterns and usage characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1742-6723.13559DOI Listing

Current outlook and future research needs for harvest weed seed control in North American cropping systems.

Pest Manag Sci 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Sustainable Agricultural Systems Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD, USA.

Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) comprises a set of tools and tactics that prevents the addition of weed seed to the soil seed bank, attenuating weed infestations and providing a method to combat the development and spread of herbicide-resistant weed populations. Initial HWSC research efforts in North America are summarized and, combined with the vast area of crops suitable to HWSC, clearly indicate strong potential for this technology. But potential limitations exist that are not present in Australian cropping systems, where HWSC was developed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.5986DOI Listing

Hyperendemic rheumatic heart disease in a remote Australian town identified by echocardiographic screening.

Med J Aust 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, NT.

Objectives: Using echocardiographic screening, to estimate the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in a remote Northern Territory town.

Design: Prospective, cross-sectional echocardiographic screening study; results compared with data from the NT rheumatic heart disease register.

Setting, Participants: People aged 5-20 years living in Maningrida, West Arnhem Land (population, 2610, including 2366 Indigenous Australians), March 2018 and November 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5694/mja2.50682DOI Listing