103,485 results match your criteria Australian Critical Care [Journal]


Multi-segment spine kinematics: Relationship with dance training and low back pain.

Gait Posture 2018 Dec 4;68:274-279. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Centre for Sport Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, VIC 3125, Australia; Sport Performance Research Institute New Zealand, Auckland University of Technology, 17 Antares Place, Rosedale, Auckland 0632, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Background: Spine posture, range of motion (ROM) and movement asymmetry can contribute to low back pain (LBP). These variables may have greater impact in populations required to perform repetitive spine movements, such as dancers; however, there is limited evidence to support this.

Research Question: What is the influence of dance and LBP on spinal kinematics?

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, multi-segment spinal kinematics were examined in 60 female participants, including dancers (n = 21) and non-dancers (n = 39) with LBP (n = 33) and without LBP (n = 27). Read More

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December 2018
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Strategies in scheduling marine protected area establishment in a network system.

Ecol Appl 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia.

Instantaneous implementation of systematic conservation plans at regional scales is rare. More typically, planned actions are applied incrementally over periods of years or decades. During protracted implementation, the character of the connected ecological system will change as a function of external anthropogenic pressures, local metapopulation processes, and environmental fluctuations. Read More

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December 2018

Phenology of Trichodesmium spp. blooms in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon, Australia, from the ESA-MERIS 10-year mission.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208010. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Canberra, Australia.

Trichodesmium, a filamentous bloom-forming marine cyanobacterium, plays a key role in the biogeochemistry of oligotrophic ocean regions because of the ability to fix nitrogen. Naturally occurring in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), the contribution of Trichodesmium to the nutrient budget may be of the same order as that entering the system via catchment runoff. However, the cyclicity of Trichodesmium in the GBR is poorly understood and sparsely documented because of the lack of sufficient observations. Read More

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December 2018

Randomized Controlled Trial of Symptom Management Patient Education for People With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

J Nurs Care Qual 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Southern Cross University and Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia (Dr Stolic); Menzies Health Institute Queensland and Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia (Dr Lin); and Intensive Care Unit, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Griffith University and Menzies Health Institute, Brisbane, Australia (Dr Mitchell).

Background: Poorly managed acute coronary syndrome symptoms increase the risk of subsequent cardiovascular events.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of symptom management patient education on the knowledge of sublingual nitroglycerin for people with acute coronary syndrome.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate the 3-resource intervention. Read More

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December 2018

Enoldiazosulfones for Highly Enantioselective [3 + 3]-Cycloaddition with Nitrones Catalyzed by Copper(I) with Chiral BOX Ligands.

Org Lett 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Chemistry , University of Texas at San Antonio , San Antonio , Texas 78249 , United States.

Enoldiazosulfones undergo [3 + 3]-cycloaddition with nitrones when catalyzed by copper(I) catalysts, but not with dirhodium(II) catalysts. Under mild reaction conditions with chiral bisoxazoline ligands, copper(I) catalysts produce 1,2-oxazine-sulfone derivatives in high yields and enantioselectivities. Dirhodium(II) catalysts form stable donor-acceptor cyclopropenes that undergo uncatalyzed [3 + 2]-cycloaddition reactions with nitrones. Read More

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December 2018

Social cues affect quantitative genetic variation and covariation in animal personality traits.

Evolution 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Centre for Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley.

The social environment is expected to have substantial effects on behavior, and as a consequence its heritability and evolvability. We investigated these effects by exposing Australian field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) to either silence or recordings of male acoustic sexual signals. We used a combined pedigree and full-sib/half-sib breeding design to estimate the repeatability, heritability, and evolvability of behaviors related to boldness, exploration, and activity. Read More

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December 2018

The serine protease testisin is present on the surface of capacitated stallion spermatozoa and interacts with key zona pellucida binding proteins.

Andrology 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Science, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.

Background And Objectives: Serine proteases are emerging as important players in the spermatozoon's acquisition of functional competence. This study aimed to characterize the serine protease testisin (PRSS21) in stallion spermatozoa, examining its surface expression, possible origins in the testis and epididymis, and changes in response to capacitation and acrosome reaction, as well as its capacity to form high molecular weight complexes and interact with other proteins.

Materials And Methods: The role of serine proteases in spontaneous capacitation and acrosome reaction of stallion spermatozoa was established using the serine protease inhibitor, AEBSF. Read More

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December 2018

Climate change impact and adaptation for wheat protein.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 Jan 22;25(1):155-173. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation INRES, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Wheat grain protein concentration is an important determinant of wheat quality for human nutrition that is often overlooked in efforts to improve crop production. We tested and applied a 32-multi-model ensemble to simulate global wheat yield and quality in a changing climate. Potential benefits of elevated atmospheric CO concentration by 2050 on global wheat grain and protein yield are likely to be negated by impacts from rising temperature and changes in rainfall, but with considerable disparities between regions. Read More

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January 2019
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Changes in Australian practice patterns for glaucoma management.

Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology, The University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Importance: The demand for glaucoma care is projected to increase significantly with the ageing population.

Background: To characterise trends in Australian practice patterns for glaucoma management over the 15-year period between 2003 and 2017.

Design: Retrospective audit. Read More

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December 2018
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Pothole-rich Ultrathin WO Nanosheets that Trigger N≡N Bond Activation of Nitrogen for Direct Nitrate Photosynthesis.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, CAS Centre for Excellence in Nanoscience, iCHEM, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026, P. R. China.

Nitrate is a raw ingredient for the production of fertilizer, gunpowder, and explosives. Developing an alternative approach to activate the N≡N bond of naturally abundant nitrogen to form nitrate under ambient conditions will be of importance. Herein, pothole-rich WO was used to catalyse the activation of N≡N covalent triple bonds for the direct nitrate synthesis at room temperature. Read More

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November 2018

Mental health carers' experiences of an Australian Carer Peer Support program: Tailoring supports to carers' needs.

Health Soc Care Community 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Psychosocial Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Coburg, Victoria, Australia.

Carer Peer Support Workers (CPSWs) are people who have lived experience as carers/family members of persons with a mental illness, and are employed to provide support to other carers/family members. This qualitative study aimed to explore carers' experiences within a community-based CPSW pilot program in an Australian mental health service. Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with 20 carer participants in 2015, 5-10 months following their last contact with the service. Read More

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December 2018

Age but no sex effects on subareas of the amygdala.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

School of Psychology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

The amygdala, an anatomical composite of several nuclei that have been grouped anatomically and functionally into three major subareas, has been reported to decrease in size with increasing age and to differ in size between male and female brains. However, findings are rather inconsistent across existing studies, possibly reflecting differences in the cohorts examined or the approaches chosen to define and measure the dimensions of the amygdala. Here, we investigated possible effects of age and sex on the amygdala as well as age-by-sex interactions in 100 healthy subjects (50 men/50 women) aged 18-69 years. Read More

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December 2018
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Amino Acid Transport Across the Mammalian Intestine.

Compr Physiol 2018 Dec 13;9(1):343-373. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.

The small intestine mediates the absorption of amino acids after ingestion of protein and sustains the supply of amino acids to all tissues. The small intestine is an important contributor to plasma amino acid homeostasis, while amino acid transport in the large intestine is more relevant for bacterial metabolites and fluid secretion. A number of rare inherited disorders have contributed to the identification of amino acid transporters in epithelial cells of the small intestine, in particular cystinuria, lysinuric protein intolerance, Hartnup disorder, iminoglycinuria, and dicarboxylic aminoaciduria. Read More

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December 2018
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The impact of an alcohol consumption intervention in community sports clubs on safety and participation: an RCT.

Aust N Z J Public Health 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

The University of Newcastle, New South Wales.

Objective: Sports clubs have been identified as settings where high levels of risky alcohol consumption occurs. Settings characterised by such behaviour are likely to negatively impact on levels of safety, participation and amenity.

Design: The study was part of a randomised control trial, designed to help community sports clubs responsibly manage the sale and consumption of alcohol; the primary outcome was reduction in alcohol consumption. Read More

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December 2018

The health and wellbeing of Australian lesbian, gay and bisexual people: a systematic assessment using a longitudinal national sample.

Aust N Z J Public Health 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute for Social Science Research, The University of Queensland.

Objective: This study revisits disparities in health and wellbeing by sexual identity in Australia, identifying which domains demand priority policy intervention, documenting differences between gay/lesbian vs. bisexual populations, and examining change over time in the relative health and wellbeing of sexual minorities.

Method: I fitted multivariable ordinary least squares and random-effect panel regression models on 20 outcomes to compare the health and wellbeing of heterosexual, gay/lesbian and bisexual people, using 2012/2016 data from a national probability sample - the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. Read More

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December 2018

What young Australians think about a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages.

Aust N Z J Public Health 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

School of Medicine, Deakin University, Victoria.

Objective: To determine support for a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) among young Australian adults and the potential impact on SSB consumption if a tax is introduced.

Methods: Cross-sectional convenience survey of Australians aged 18-30 years sampled in the City of Greater Geelong, Australia, in November-December 2017.

Results: A total of 1,793 responses were recorded. Read More

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December 2018

A Fluorogenic Probe for Cell Surface Phosphatidylserine Using an Intramolecular Indicator Displacement Sensing Mechanism.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

University of Sydney, School of Chemistry, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

The detection of externalized phosphatidylserine (PS) on the cell surface is commonly used to distinguish between living, apoptotic, and necrotic cells. The tools of choice for many researchers to study apoptosis are annexin V-fluorophore conjugates. However, the use of this 35 kDa protein is associated with several drawbacks, including temperature sensitivity, Ca dependence, and slow binding kinetics. Read More

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November 2018

Sharpening the focus on ophthalmology teaching: has anything changed?

Authors:
Catherine Green

Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Dec;46(9):981-983

Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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December 2018
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Responsive Upconversion Nanoprobe for Background-Free Hypochlorous Acid Detection and Bioimaging.

Small 2018 Dec 13:e1803712. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Responsive nanoprobes play an important role in bioassay and bioimaging, early diagnosis of diseases and treatment monitoring. Herein, a upconversional nanoparticle (UCNP)-based nanoprobe, Ru@UCNPs, for specific sensing and imaging of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is reported. This Ru@UCNP nanoprobe consists of two functional components,, i. Read More

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December 2018

CropSNPdb: a database of SNP array data for Brassica crops and hexaploid bread wheat.

Plant J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Agriculture, The University of Western Australia, Perth, 6009, WA, Australia.

Advances in sequencing technology have led to a rapid rise in the genomic data available for plants, driving new insights into the evolution, domestication and improvement of crops. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are a major component of crop genomic diversity and are invaluable as genetic markers in research and breeding programs. High-throughput SNP arrays, or 'SNP chips', can generate reproducible sets of informative SNP markers and have been broadly adopted. Read More

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December 2018

In vitro antimicrobial activity of seven adjuvants against common pathogens associated with canine otitis externa.

Vet Dermatol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Australian Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance Ecology, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Roseworthy, South Australia, 5371, Australia.

Background: An antibiotic adjuvant is a chemical substance used to modify or augment the effectiveness of primary antimicrobial agents against drug-resistant micro-organisms. Its use provides an alternative approach to address the global issue of antimicrobial resistance and enhance antimicrobial stewardship.

Hypothesis/objectives: To determine the antimicrobial activity of a panel of potential antimicrobial adjuvants against common pathogens associated with canine otitis externa (OE). Read More

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December 2018
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Hospitalised burns in children up to 16 years old: A 10-year population-based study in Australia.

J Paediatr Child Health 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Aim: Globally, burns remain a significant public health issue that disproportionately affect young children. The current study examines the 10-year epidemiological profile of burn hospitalisations, hospital treatment cost and health outcomes by age group for children ≤16 years in Australia.

Methods: National, population-based, linked hospital and mortality data from 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2012 were used to identify burn-related hospitalisations. Read More

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December 2018

A meta-synthesis of how parents of children with autism describe their experience of advocating for their children during the process of diagnosis.

Health Soc Care Community 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

The diagnostic process for children with autism can be complex for parents to navigate as they advocate for their child in order to obtain answers to their concerns, and receive the subsequent support they need. Gaining an understanding of parents' experiences during this process, will assist service providers in supporting families adequately. This systematic review was undertaken to consolidate in-depth qualitative data from parents of their experience of advocating for their child with autism, during the process of diagnosis. Read More

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December 2018

Uptake of direct acting antiviral therapies for the treatment of hepatitis C virus among people who inject drugs in a universal health-care system.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Introduction And Aims: Direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment can reduce hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection incidence and mortality, although large scale uptake of these treatments is necessary to achieve those reductions. Targeting people who inject drugs (PWID) will be crucial to achieve the necessary reductions. Previously, treatment uptake has been very low (1-2%) among PWID, but these new DAAs have been subsidised in Australia since March 2016. Read More

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December 2018

A comparison of the EU regulatory approach to directed mutagenesis with that of other jurisdictions, consequences for international trade and potential steps forward.

New Phytol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Biotechnology Directorate, Ministry of AgroIndustry, Buenos Aires, Argentina; National University of Quilmes, Bernal, Argentina.

A special regulatory regime applies to products of recombinant nucleic acid modifications. A ruling from the European Court of Justice has interpreted this regulatory regime in a way that it also applies to emerging mutagenesis techniques. Elsewhere regulatory progress is also ongoing. Read More

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December 2018

Using photo-elicitation and interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore possessions as links to self-concept and the identities of others in hoarding disorder.

Psychol Psychother 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

School of Psychology, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the importance of possessions as extensions of self-concept and connections to significant others for people that hoard.

Design: A total of 10 participants were recruited through hoarding group treatment programmes. Participants photographed significant possessions in their home and discussed these in semi-structured interviews. Read More

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December 2018

Investigation of radiation-protection knowledge, attitudes, and practices of North Queensland dentists.

J Investig Clin Dent 2018 Dec 12:e12374. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland, Australia.

Aim: Queensland has current radiation-protection guidelines; however, with the absence of data exploring compliance and implementation, the efficacy is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes on radiation protection among private North Queensland (NQ) dentists.

Methods: A quantitative methodology was employed in an observational and descriptive study using questionnaires for data collection. Read More

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December 2018

The assessment, incidence and factors associated with urinary incontinence in older Aboriginal Australians.

Intern Med J 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Aged Care, Melbourne Health and University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Little is known about urinary incontinence in older Aboriginal Australians.

Aim: To describe urinary incontinence assessment, prevalence, incidence, and associated conditions in older Aboriginal Australians.

Methods: Wave 1 consisted of 363 Aboriginal participants aged ≥45 years from Western Australia. Read More

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December 2018

The Australian Trauma Registry.

ANZ J Surg 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Metro North Hospital and Health Service, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Introduction: Injuries are a major cause of disability and lost productivity. The case for a national trauma registry has been recognized by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care and at a policy level.

Background: The need was flagged in 1993 by the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and the Australasian Trauma Society. Read More

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December 2018

Recent Advances in 3D Graphene Architectures and Their Composites for Energy Storage Applications.

Small 2018 Dec 12:e1803858. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials (ISEM), Australian Institute for Innovative Materials (AIIM), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 2522, Australia.

Graphene is widely applied as an electrode material in energy storage fields. However, the strong π-π interaction between graphene layers and the stacking issues lead to a great loss of electrochemically active surface area, damaging the performance of graphene electrodes. Developing 3D graphene architectures that are constructed of graphene sheet subunits is an effective strategy to solve this problem. Read More

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December 2018
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Prospects for early childhood feeding interventions: An exploration of parent's concerns and acceptability towards social media intervention opportunities.

Nutr Diet 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

University of Queensland, School of Medicine, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Aim: The present study aims to (i) consult with parents regarding child feeding concerns, as relevant to child feeding interventions, (ii) determine parents' willingness to participate in online and social media-based interventions and (iii) determine differences in intervention acceptability based on geographic diversity and demographic characteristics.

Methods: Three hundred thirty Australian parents of children (2.0-5. Read More

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December 2018

Opportunities for better use of collective action theory in research and governance for invasive species management.

Conserv Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

W.A. Franke College of Forestry and Conservation, University of Montana, 440 CHCB, 32 Campus Drive, Missoula, MT 59812, U.S.A.

Controlling invasive species presents a public-good dilemma. Although environmental, social, and economic benefits of control accrue to society, costs are borne by only a few individuals and organizations. For decades, policy makers have used incentives and sanctions to encourage or coerce individual actors to contribute to the public good, with limited success. Read More

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December 2018

An evaluation of variation in pathology investigations and associated factors for adult patients presenting to emergency departments with chest pain: an observational study.

Int J Clin Pract 2018 Dec 10:e13305. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Centre for Health Systems and Safety Research, Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW, 2109, Australia.

Objective: To determine variation in pathology test ordering practices and identify associated factors for adult patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) with chest pain and subsequently admitted with ischemic heart disease.

Methods: A retrospective study across six hospital EDs in New South Wales, Australia. A total of 6,769 patient presentations between January 2014 and December 2017 met the inclusion criteria. Read More

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December 2018

Barriers and strategies: Implementing active learning in biomedical science lectures.

Biochem Mol Biol Educ 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800, Australia.

The traditional teaching style in higher education is didactic. However, the current literature states that student learning improves when they are active players in the process, triggering the move to implement active learning within the curriculum. In accordance, Monash University (an Australian research-intensive university) introduced the "Better Teaching Better Learning" agenda to deliver a more student-centered learning experience but its implementation has been inconsistent across its different schools. Read More

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December 2018

Tuning of delta-protocadherin adhesion through combinatorial diversity.

Elife 2018 Dec 14;7. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, United States.

The delta-protocadherins (δ-Pcdhs) play key roles in neural development, and expression studies suggest they are expressed in combination within neurons. The extent of this combinatorial diversity, and how these combinations influence cell adhesion, is poorly understood. We show that individual mouse olfactory sensory neurons express 0-7 δ-Pcdhs. Read More

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December 2018

Prediction error and repetition suppression have distinct effects on neural representations of visual information.

Elife 2018 Dec 14;7. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.

Predictive coding theories argue that recent experience establishes expectations in the brain that generate when violated. Prediction errors provide a possible explanation for , where evoked neural activity is attenuated across repeated presentations of the same stimulus. The predictive coding account argues repetition suppression arises because repeated stimuli are expected, whereas non-repeated stimuli are unexpected and thus elicit larger neural responses. Read More

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December 2018
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Epidemiology of Taenia saginata taeniosis/cysticercosis in the Russian Federation.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Dec 14;11(1):636. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Section of Epidemiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, 8057, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Russia is traditionally an endemic area for Taenia saginata infection, where a programme for the prevention of infection has been implemented for sixty years. This paper aims, therefore, to review the recent epidemiology data of Taenia saginata infection in the Russian Federation.

Methods: We undertook a systematic review of published and grey literature, and official data for information on the incidence, prevalence and distribution of Taenia saginata taeniosis and cysticercosis in the Russian Federation between 1st January 1991 and 31st December 2017. Read More

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December 2018

Economic evaluations in community aged care: a systematic review.

BMC Health Serv Res 2018 Dec 14;18(1):967. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute for Choice, University of South Australia Business School, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Background: This paper reports the methods and findings from a systematic review of economic evaluations conducted in the community aged care sector between 2000 and 2016.

Methods: Online databases searched were PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and web of science, CINAHL and informit. Studies were included if they 1) were full economic evaluations that compared both the costs and outcomes of two or more interventions 2) in study population of people aged 65 years and over 3) dependent older people living in the community 4) alternatives being compared were care models or service delivery interventions in the community aged care sector (a group of programs that have been established as a support system to allow older people to remain living in their own homes for as long as possible, as an alternative to institutional or residential care) and 5) published in the English language between 2000 and November 2016. Read More

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December 2018

Effectiveness of repellent delivered through village health volunteers on malaria incidence in villages in South-East Myanmar: a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised controlled trial protocol.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 14;18(1):663. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: To combat emerging drug resistance in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) the World Health Organization and GMS countries have committed to eliminating malaria in the region by 2030. The overall approach includes providing universal access to diagnosis and treatment of malaria, and sustainable preventive measures, including vector control. Topical repellents are an intervention that can be used to target residual malaria transmission not covered by long lasting insecticide nets and indoor residual spraying. Read More

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December 2018

Effect of cardiac rehabilitation on 24-month all-cause hospital readmissions: A prospective cohort study.

Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs 2018 Dec 14:1474515118820176. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

1 Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Australia.

Background:: Ageing populations and increasing survival following acute coronary syndrome has resulted in large numbers of people living with cardiovascular disease and at high risk of hospitalizations. Rising hospital admissions have a significant financial cost to the healthcare system.

Aim:: The purpose of this study was to determine whether cardiac rehabilitation is protective against long-term hospital readmission (frequency and length) following acute coronary syndrome. Read More

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December 2018

Implications of Dedicated Seismometer Measurements on Newtonian-Noise Cancellation for Advanced LIGO.

Phys Rev Lett 2018 Nov;121(22):221104

Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

Newtonian gravitational noise from seismic fields will become a limiting noise source at low frequency for second-generation, gravitational-wave detectors. It is planned to use seismic sensors surrounding the detectors' test masses to coherently subtract Newtonian noise using Wiener filters derived from the correlations between the sensors and detector data. In this Letter, we use data from a seismometer array deployed at the corner station of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) Hanford detector combined with a tiltmeter for a detailed characterization of the seismic field and to predict achievable Newtonian-noise subtraction levels. Read More

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November 2018

Limits on Supernova-Associated ^{60}Fe/^{26}Al Nucleosynthesis Ratios from Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Measurements of Deep-Sea Sediments.

Phys Rev Lett 2018 Nov;121(22):221103

University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics-Isotope Research and Nuclear Physics, VERA Laboratory, Währingerstr. 17, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

We searched for the presence of ^{26}Al in deep-sea sediments as a signature of supernova influx. Our data show an exponential dependence of ^{26}Al with the sample age that is fully compatible with radioactive decay of terrigenic ^{26}Al. The same set of samples demonstrated a clear supernova ^{60}Fe signal between 1. Read More

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November 2018

Controlled Ordering of Topological Charges in an Exciton-Polariton Chain.

Phys Rev Lett 2018 Nov;121(22):225302

Nonlinear Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.

We demonstrate, experimentally and theoretically, controlled loading of an exciton-polariton vortex chain into a 1D array of trapping potentials. Switching between two types of vortex chains, with topological charges of the same or alternating signs, is achieved by appropriately shaping an off-resonant pump beam that drives the system to the regime of bosonic condensation. In analogy to spin chains, these vortex sequences realize either a "ferromagnetic" or an "antiferromagnetic" order, whereby the role of spin is played by the orbital angular momentum. Read More

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November 2018

Cognitive training benefit depends on brain injury location in adolescents with traumatic brain injury: a pilot study.

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Executive dysfunctioning after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been linked to poor outcomes in school performance, social functioning and employment. The credibility of training-induced cognitive enhancement in TBI is threatened by its limited proof of benefit in executive skills of daily living.

Aim: Our primary aim was to investigate if cognitive intervention for improving impairments in executive functions in the chronic stage of traumatic brain injury is effective during adolescence. Read More

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December 2018
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Early Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (eHDGC) is Characterized by Subtle Genomic Instability and Active DNA Damage Response.

Pathol Oncol Res 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Biomedical Science and Biochemistry, Research School of Biology, ANU College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, Australian National University, P.O. Box: 2601, Canberra, Australia.

Diffuse gastric cancer (DGC) is one of the two primary types of stomach cancer. Carriers of germline mutations in the gene encoding E-cadherin are predisposed to DGC. The primary aim of the present study was to determine if genomic instability is an early event in DGC and how it may lead to disease progression. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read
1.806 Impact Factor

Urbanization affects peak timing, prevalence, and bimodality of influenza pandemics in Australia: Results of a census-calibrated model.

Sci Adv 2018 Dec 12;4(12):eaau5294. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Complex Systems Research Group, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and IT, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

We examine salient trends of influenza pandemics in Australia, a rapidly urbanizing nation. To do so, we implement state-of-the-art influenza transmission and progression models within a large-scale stochastic computer simulation, generated using comprehensive Australian census datasets from 2006, 2011, and 2016. Our results offer a simulation-based investigation of a population's sensitivity to pandemics across multiple historical time points and highlight three notable trends in pandemic patterns over the years: increased peak prevalence, faster spreading rates, and decreasing spatiotemporal bimodality. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Cartilage Tissue Engineering Using Stem Cells and Bioprinting Technology-Barriers to Clinical Translation.

Front Surg 2018 27;5:70. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

There is no long-term treatment strategy for young and active patients with cartilage defects. Early and effective joint preserving treatments in these patients are crucial in preventing the development of osteoarthritis. Tissue engineering over the past few decades has presented hope in overcoming the issues involved with current treatment strategies. Read More

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November 2018

Eucalypt leaf litter impairs growth and development of amphibian larvae, inhibits their antipredator responses and alters their physiology.

Conserv Physiol 2018 10;6(1):coy066. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Ecology, Evolution and Development Group, Doñana Biological Station (CSIC), C/ Americo Vespucio 26, Sevilla, Spain.

Consequences of human actions like global warming, spread of exotic species or resource consumption are pushing species to extinction. Even species considered to be at low extinction risk often show signs of local declines. Here, we evaluate the impact of eucalypt plantations, the best-known exotic tree species worldwide and its interaction with temperature and predators on amphibian development, growth, antipredator responses and physiology. Read More

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December 2018

Subsequent Migration of Immigrants Within Australia, 1981-2016.

Popul Res Policy Rev 2018 31;37(6):1053-1077. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

School of Demography, Australian National University, 9 Fellows Road, Acton, ACT 2601 Australia.

Australia is a major immigration country and immigrants currently represent around 28% of the total population. The aim of this research is to understand the long-term consequences of this immigration and, particularly, how migrants respond to opportunities within the country after arriving through the process of subsequent (internal) migration. The focus is on major immigrant groups in Australia, including persons born in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, China and India, and how their patterns differ from persons born in Australia. Read More

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