120,497 results match your criteria Australian Archaeology[Journal]


Impact of hospital geographic remoteness on short-term outcomes after colorectal cancer resection using state-wide administrative data.

ANZ J Surg 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Colorectal Surgical Unit, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: This study aimed to use validated coding algorithms, applied to a central repository of administrative data (AD), to report on short-term outcomes following resection for colorectal cancer (CRC) comparing regional to metropolitan Victorian hospitals.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study using prospectively gathered AD. The primary outcome was prolonged length of stay (LOS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ans.15992DOI Listing

Management of pyogenic liver abscess: a South Australian experience.

ANZ J Surg 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Background: There have been declining mortality rates associated with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) in recent decades due to improvements in percutaneous drainage techniques, access to imaging and improvements in supportive care. The aim of this study was to analyse the aetiology, management and outcome of PLA at a tertiary hospital in Adelaide.

Methods: Data was collected retrospectively from 80 patients who were admitted with a PLA between 2011 and 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ans.15963DOI Listing

Correlating Digestion-Driven Self-Assembly in Milk and Infant Formulas with Changes in Lipid Composition.

ACS Appl Bio Mater 2020 May 4;3(5):3087-3098. Epub 2020 May 4.

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia.

Lipids in mammalian milks such as bovine milk and human breast milk have been shown to self-assemble into various liquid crystalline materials during digestion. In this study, the direct correlation between the composition of the lipids from three types of mammalian milk, three brands of infant formulas (IFs), and soy milk and the liquid crystalline structures that form during their digestion was investigated to link the material properties to the composition. The self-assembly behavior was assessed using digestion coupled with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsabm.0c00131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241073PMC

Influence of Mineral Composition of Chars Derived by Hydrothermal Carbonization on Sorption Behavior of CO, CH, and O.

ACS Omega 2020 May 8;5(19):10704-10714. Epub 2020 May 8.

Applied Thermodynamics, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09126 Chemnitz, Germany.

The doping of SiO and FeO into hydrochars that were produced by the hydrothermal carbonization of cellulose was studied with respect to its impact on the resulting surface characteristics and sorption behavior of CO, CH, and O. During pyrolysis, the structural order of the Fe-doped char changed, as the fraction of highly ordered domains increased, which was not observed for the undoped and Si-doped chars. The Si doping had no apparent influence on the oxidation temperature of the hydrochar in contrast to the Fe-doped char where the oxidation temperature was reduced because of the catalytic effect of Fe. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b04370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240835PMC

The effects of vitamin K-rich green leafy vegetables on bone metabolism: A 4-week randomised controlled trial in middle-aged and older individuals.

Bone Rep 2020 Jun 26;12:100274. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia.

Background: High vegetable intake is associated with beneficial effects on bone. However, the mechanisms remain uncertain. Green leafy vegetables are a rich source of vitamin K1, which is known to have large effects on osteoblasts and osteocalcin (OC) metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2020.100274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235933PMC

The Restorative Effect of the Natural Environment on University Students' Psychological Health.

J Environ Public Health 2020 8;2020:4210285. Epub 2020 May 8.

University of New England, Armidale, Australia.

The present study evaluated the effect of a three-week intervention aimed at improving psychological health in university students. Participants included 200 Australian students randomly assigned to an experimental or waitlist control group, with 42 adhering to intervention instructions. Participants in the experimental group read a story about someone who used the natural environment to decrease stress and burnout levels and to increase their perceived satisfaction with life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4210285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231194PMC

Exercise testing for children with cystic fibrosis: A systematic review.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.

Background: Exercise testing is routinely used to measure exercise capacity in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Various tests are available, however the psychometric properties of these measures have not been systematically reviewed for this population.

Method: A systematic search of electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, CINHAL, Cochrane, and PEDro) was performed to identify papers that: (a) reported original psychometric data, (b) examined a measure of exercise capacity, (c) examined children with CF aged eight to 18 years; and (d) were published in English after 1950. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24794DOI Listing

Genome-wide SNP analysis reveals an increase in adaptive genetic variation through selective breeding of coral.

Mol Ecol 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, 4810, Australia.

Marine heat waves are increasing in magnitude, duration, and frequency as a result of climate change and are the principal global driver of mortality in reef-building corals. Resilience-based genetic management may increase coral heat tolerance, but it is unclear how temperature responses are regulated at the genome level and thus how corals may adapt to warming naturally or through selective breeding. Here we combine phenotypic, pedigree, and genomic marker data from colonies sourced from a warm reef on the Great Barrier Reef reproductively crossed with conspecific colonies from a cooler reef to produce combinations of warm purebreds and warm-cool hybrid larvae and juveniles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.15482DOI Listing

Benchmarking predictions of MHC class I restricted T cell epitopes in a comprehensively studied model system.

PLoS Comput Biol 2020 May 26;16(5):e1007757. Epub 2020 May 26.

Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Immunology, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

T cell epitope candidates are commonly identified using computational prediction tools in order to enable applications such as vaccine design, cancer neoantigen identification, development of diagnostics and removal of unwanted immune responses against protein therapeutics. Most T cell epitope prediction tools are based on machine learning algorithms trained on MHC binding or naturally processed MHC ligand elution data. The ability of currently available tools to predict T cell epitopes has not been comprehensively evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1007757DOI Listing

Comprehensive analysis of the secreted proteome of adult Necator americanus hookworms.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 May 26;14(5):e0008237. Epub 2020 May 26.

Centre for Molecular Therapeutics, Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD, Australia.

The human hookworm Necator americanus infects more than 400 million people worldwide, contributing substantially to the poverty in these regions. Adult stage N. americanus live in the small intestine of the human host where they inject excretory/secretory (ES) products into the mucosa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008237DOI Listing

Sequence-based prediction of protein binding mode landscapes.

PLoS Comput Biol 2020 May 26;16(5):e1007864. Epub 2020 May 26.

MTA-DE Laboratory of Protein Dynamics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Debrecen, Hungary.

Interactions between disordered proteins involve a wide range of changes in the structure and dynamics of the partners involved. These changes can be classified in terms of binding modes, which include disorder-to-order (DO) transitions, when proteins fold upon binding, as well as disorder-to-disorder (DD) transitions, when the conformational heterogeneity is maintained in the bound states. Furthermore, systematic studies of these interactions are revealing that proteins may exhibit different binding modes with different partners. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1007864DOI Listing

Impact of uncertainty and ambiguous outcome phrasing on moral decision-making.

PLoS One 2020 26;15(5):e0233127. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Philosophy, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.

The literature has shown that different types of moral dilemmas elicit discrepant decision patterns. The present research investigated the role of uncertainty in contributing to these decision patterns. Two studies were conducted to examine participants' choices in commonly used dilemmas. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233127PLOS

Collaborative Care for Primary Care Treatment of Late-Life Depression in Singapore: Randomized Controlled Trial.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Formerly, Department of Psychological Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore.

Background: The effectiveness and portability of the collaborative care model in the primary care treatment of depression has not been demonstrated in many randomized controlled trials in healthcare settings across the world. We determined the effectiveness of collaborative care management of elderly depression in the primary care setting in Singapore.

Method: Eligible participants with depressive symptoms were randomized to six-month duration usual care (UC, N = 112) or collaborative care (CC, N = 102). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.5353DOI Listing

The future of community psychiatry and community mental health services.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Centre for Mental Health Research, Research School of Population Health, ANU College of Health and Medicine, Australian National University, Canberra.

Purpose Of Review: The aim of this article is to provide a framework and analysis of a series of critical components to inform the future design, development, sustaining, and monitoring of community mental health services.

Recent Findings: Many mental health services remain too hospital-centric, often without adequate outreach services. On the basis of outcome evidence, we need to shift the balance of mental health services from hospital-centered with community outreach when convenient for staff, to community-centered and mobile, with in-reach to hospital only when necessary. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0000000000000620DOI Listing

Rehabilitation Response in Pandemics.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, and Australian Rehabilitation Research Centre, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. Department of Medicine (Royal Melbourne Hospital), The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

The WHO declared a pandemic due to the serious health risk posed by Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The number of infected cases is on the rise globally with escalating human, economic and societal costs. COVID-19 survivors may suffer a range of clinical, functional and psychological impairments, resulting in disabilities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000001477DOI Listing

Evaluation of Electronic Mental Health Implementation in Northern Territory Services Using the Integrated "Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services" Framework: Qualitative Study.

JMIR Ment Health 2020 May 26;7(5):e14835. Epub 2020 May 26.

Menzies School of Health Research, Casuarina, Australia.

Background: Electronic mental health is a promising strategy to bridge the treatment gap in mental health care. Training workshops have been delivered to service providers working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people at a primary health care level to raise awareness and knowledge of electronic mental health approaches.

Objective: This study aimed to understand service providers' perspectives and experiences of electronic mental health adoption. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/14835DOI Listing

Evidence summaries and recommendations from the international evidence-based guideline for the assessment and management of polycystic ovary syndrome: Lifestyle management.

Obes Rev 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicineh, Monash University, Clayton, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Lifestyle is fundamental in chronic disease prevention and management, and it has been recommended as a first-line treatment in the Australian polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) guideline 2011. The first international evidence-based guideline on PCOS was developed in 2018, which expanded the scope and evidence in the Australian guideline. This paper summarizes the lifestyle recommendations and evidence summaries from the guideline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13046DOI Listing

Full Activation of Mn /Mn Redox in Na MnCr(PO ) as a High-Voltage and High-Rate Cathode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

Small 2020 May 26:e2001524. Epub 2020 May 26.

Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, Australian Institute for Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, 2522, Australia.

Developing high-voltage cathode materials is critical for sodium-ion batteries to boost energy density. NASICON (Na super-ionic conductor)-structured Na MnM(PO ) materials (M represents transition metal) have drawn increasing attention due to their features of robust crystal framework, low cost, as well as high voltage based on Mn /Mn and Mn /Mn redox couples. However, full activation of Mn /Mn redox couple within NASICON framework is still a great challenge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202001524DOI Listing

Hard palate defect repair by using haired angularis oris axial pattern flaps in dogs.

Vet Surg 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Brisbane Veterinary Specialist Centre, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Objective: To describe the repair of large hard palate defects with a haired angularis oris axial pattern flap (HAOF) and to report the postoperative outcome.

Study Design: Anatomical cadaver study and short case series.

Animals: One cadaver and three dogs with neoplasia of the caudal hard palate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vsu.13435DOI Listing

Comparative transcriptomic analyses of Chromera and Symbiodiniaceae.

Environ Microbiol Rep 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, 4811, Queensland, Australia.

Reef-building corals live in a mutualistic relationship with photosynthetic algae (family Symbiodiniaceae) that usually provide most of the energy required by the coral host. This relationship is sensitive to temperature stress; as little as a 1°C increase often leads to collapse of the association. This sensitivity has led to interest in the potential of more stress tolerant algae to supplement or substitute for the normal Symbiodiniaceae mutualists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1758-2229.12859DOI Listing

Metribuzin resistance via enhanced metabolism in a multiple herbicide resistant Lolium rigidum population.

Pest Manag Sci 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative (AHRI), School of Agriculture and Environment, University of Western Australia, WA, 6009, Australia.

Background: The PSII-inhibiting herbicides are important for Australian farmers to control Lolium rigidum Gaud. and other weed species in trazine tolerant (TT)-canola fields. A L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.5929DOI Listing

ROCK-mediated selective activation of PERK signalling causes fibroblast reprogramming and tumour progression through a CRELD2-dependent mechanism.

Nat Cell Biol 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology and the University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

It is well accepted that cancers co-opt the microenvironment for their growth. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie cancer-microenvironment interactions are still poorly defined. Here, we show that Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) in the mammary tumour epithelium selectively actuates protein-kinase-R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), causing the recruitment and persistent education of tumour-promoting cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which are part of the cancer microenvironment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41556-020-0523-yDOI Listing

Obstructive sleep apnea in professional rugby league athletes: An exploratory study.

J Sci Med Sport 2020 Apr 18. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Australia; School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Australia. Electronic address:

Objectives: To explore the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) within a professional rugby league team and determine associations of OSA with ethnicity, positional group, and physical characteristics.

Design: Observational prospective cohort study.

Methods: Twenty-two professional rugby league athletes underwent one night of home-based polysomnography with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), rapid eye movement (REM), non-REM and supine determined to indicate OSA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2020.04.014DOI Listing

The Australian Institute of Sport framework for rebooting sport in a COVID-19 environment.

J Sci Med Sport 2020 May 6. Epub 2020 May 6.

Australian Government Department of Health, Canberra ACT, Australia, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales,NSW, Australia; Children's Hospital Institute of Sports Medicine, Sydney Children's Hospital Network, Westmead NSW, Australia.

Sport makes an important contribution to the physical, psychological and emotional well-being of Australians. The economic contribution of sport is equivalent to 2-3% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating effects on communities globally, leading to significant restrictions on all sectors of society, including sport. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2020.05.004DOI Listing

Position Statement on the Management of Cardiac Electrophysiology and Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices in Australia during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Living Document.

Heart Lung Circ 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

The Royal Melbourne Hospital and University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

The COVID-19 pandemic poses a significant stress on health resources in Australia. The Heart Rhythm Council of the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand aims to provide a framework for efficient resource utilisation balanced with competing risks when appropriately treating patients with cardiac arrhythmias. This document provides practical recommendations for the electrophysiology (EP) and cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) services in Australia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2020.04.001DOI Listing

TOPS - a randomized controlled trial of exercise and education to prevent recurrence of low back pain: statistical analysis plan.

Braz J Phys Ther 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Sydney School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; Institute for Musculoskeletal Health, Sydney, Australia.

Background: This a priori statistical analysis plan describes the methods of analysis for the Trial Of Prevention Strategies for low back pain (TOPS).

Objectives: TOPS aimed to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of exercise and education classes compared with a minimal intervention control in preventing recurrence of low back pain (LBP) in people who have recently recovered from an episode of LBP.

Methods: TOPS is a superiority, pragmatic, parallel-group randomized controlled trial with allocation concealment, blinded outcome assessors, and intention-to-treat analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjpt.2020.05.001DOI Listing

The development and evaluation of a nationwide training program for oncology health professionals in the provision of genetic testing for ovarian cancer patients.

Gynecol Oncol 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Prince of Wales Clinical School, UNSW Sydney, Australia; Hereditary Cancer Centre, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Background: BRCA1/2 mutation status has increasing relevance for ovarian cancer treatments, making traditional coordination of genetic testing by genetic services unsustainable. Consequently alternative models of genetic testing have been developed to improve testing at the initial diagnosis for all eligible women.

Methods: A training module to enable mainstreamed genetic testing by oncology healthcare professionals was developed by genetic health professionals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.05.001DOI Listing

Risk Factor Management Before and After Atrial Fibrillation Ablation.

Card Electrophysiol Clin 2020 Jun;12(2):141-154

Centre for Heart Rhythm Disorders, University of Adelaide, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia. Electronic address:

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasingly recognized as the cardiac electrophysiologic manifestation of a multifactorial systemic disease. Several risk factors for development of AF have been identified; many are modifiable. There is evidence to suggest that aggressive management of modifiable risk factors has potential to significantly reduce the burden of AF, before and after AF ablation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccep.2020.02.009DOI Listing

Cohorts.

Twin Res Hum Genet 2020 May 26:1-2. Epub 2020 May 26.

Netherlands Twin Register, Dept Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Cohort studies are essential for conducting large studies of multiple exposures and outcomes in humans. Recently, the ability to combine data from multiple cohorts in, for example, meta-analyses, and the willingness in the genetics community to collaborate to enable replication studies has led to many new insights into the genetic and environmental determinants of human health and behaviors. The contribution of Professor Nicholas Martin to the development of cohort studies, particularly of twin and twin-family studies, over a period of several decades is reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/thg.2020.33DOI Listing

Differential antimicrobial susceptibility profiles between symptomatic and asymptomatic non-typhoidal infections in Vietnamese children.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 May 26:1-9. Epub 2020 May 26.

Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease (CITIID), Cambridge Biomedical Campus, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820001168DOI Listing

Study Protocol for Better Evidence for Selecting Transplant Fluids (BEST-Fluids): a pragmatic, registry-based, multi-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of intravenous fluid therapy with Plasma-Lyte 148 versus 0.9% saline on delayed graft function in deceased donor kidney transplantation.

Trials 2020 May 25;21(1):428. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Renal Medicine, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Delayed graft function, the requirement for dialysis due to poor kidney function post-transplant, is a frequent complication of deceased donor kidney transplantation and is associated with inferior outcomes and higher costs. Intravenous fluids given during and after transplantation may affect the risk of poor kidney function after transplant. The most commonly used fluid, isotonic sodium chloride (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04359-2DOI Listing

Reagents for detection of Rift Valley fever virus infection in sheep.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2020 May 25:1040638720926476. Epub 2020 May 25.

CSIRO-Australian Animal Health Laboratory, East Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes Rift Valley fever (RVF), resulting in morbidity and mortality in humans and ruminants. Evidence of transboundary outbreaks means that RVFV remains a threat to human health and livestock industries in countries that are free from the disease. To enhance surveillance capability, methods for detection of RVFV are required. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638720926476DOI Listing

Understanding mental health and its determinants from the perspective of adolescents: A qualitative study across diverse social settings in Indonesia.

Asian J Psychiatr 2020 May 6;52:102148. Epub 2020 May 6.

Global Adolescent Health Group, Maternal Child and Adolescent Health Program, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Australia; Centre for Adolescent Health, Royal Children's Hospital, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; Aboriginal Health Equity Theme, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Australia. Electronic address:

Poor mental health is a leading contributor to the burden of disease experienced by adolescents, including in resource constrained settings. However, little is known about how adolescents in these countries conceptualise mental health and its determinants which is essential to informing effective responses. This study aimed to explore how adolescents in Indonesia (a populous and rapidly developing country) conceptualise mental health and what they identify as important determinants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102148DOI Listing

Rates, types and associations of sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmitted infections in those with severe mental illness: a scoping review.

Psychiatry Res 2020 May 16;290:112946. Epub 2020 May 16.

Centre for Youth Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, VIC, Parkville, Australia; Orygen, Parkville, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

The aim of this scoping review was to: (i) determine rates and types of sexual risk behaviours and sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) in those with severe mental illness (SMI); and (ii) delineate correlates of poor sexual health outcome. The online databases OVID MedLine and PsycINFO were searched from databases inception to February 2018 for any literature with a focus on sexual risk behaviours (inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners, substance use and transactional sexual acts) or STIs in SMI populations. Fourteen studies were identified; the quality of these studies ranged from poor to moderate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112946DOI Listing

Metal-organic frameworks as protective matrices for peptide therapeutics.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2020 May 19;576:356-363. Epub 2020 May 19.

School of Chemical Engineering and Australian Centre for NanoMedicine, University of New South Wales Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia; Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, University of New South Wales Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. Electronic address:

An increasing number of peptide drugs have been identified or synthesized in recent decades, and they have played an important role in disease treatments and scientific research. Peptide drugs have become emerging candidates in the pharmaceutical market, despite some inherent disadvantages that have hindered their further development (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.05.057DOI Listing

Speaking of aging: Changes in gray matter asymmetry in Broca's area in later adulthood.

Cortex 2020 Apr 24;129:133-140. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

School of Psychology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; Centre for Research on Ageing Health and Wellbeing, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

Several theories suggest a change in the brain's asymmetry as we get older. However, it is currently unresolved whether Broca's area, consisting of left Brodmann Areas (BA) 45 and 44, undergoes age-related changes. To address this question, we mapped associations between chronological age and gray matter asymmetry of BA45 and BA44 in a large sample (n = 485) of adults ranging between 42 and 97 years of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2020.03.028DOI Listing

An Australian Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic and its Implications on the Practice of Neurosurgery.

World Neurosurg 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Neurosurgery, Gold Coast University Hospital, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.

Objective: This study was designed to assess the impact of public health policy in Australia in response to the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the delivery of neurosurgical services. Being essential services, we postulated that there would not be a decrease in elective and emergency neurosurgical presentations and surgeries.

Methods: This is a prospective, observational, epidemiological study in strict adherence to the STROBE guidelines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.05.136DOI Listing

Decreased cerebrospinal fluid neuronal pentraxin receptor is associated with PET-Aβ load and cerebrospinal fluid Aβ in a pilot study of Alzheimer's disease.

Neurosci Lett 2020 May 22:135078. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

Multifactorial pathological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) begin decades prior to clinical onset. Early identification of patients at risk of developing AD using biomarkers reflecting various aspects of pathogenesis is necessary for prevention and early intervention. Cortical β-amyloid (Aβ) burden assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of Aβ42 are validated biomarkers for early identification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135078DOI Listing

An international physical activity and public health research agenda to inform COVID-19 policies and practices.

J Sport Health Sci 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Prevention Research Center, Brown School, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2020.05.005DOI Listing

Acute lower respiratory infections in Indigenous infants in Australia's Northern Territory across three eras of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use (2006-15): a population-based cohort study.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2020 Jun;4(6):425-434

Child Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT, Australia; Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Queensland Children's Hospital, Centre for Children's Health Research, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Background: The burden of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in Indigenous children of Australia's Northern Territory is among the highest globally. No published data exists on the effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) introduction on ALRIs in this population beyond 2005. The aim of this study was to describe the rates of ALRI admissions to hospital in Indigenous infants in the Northern Territory from 2006 to 2015, across three periods of different PCV use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30090-0DOI Listing

Identifying community chronic kidney disease risk profile utilising general practice clinical records and spatial analysis: an approach to inform policy and practice.

Intern Med J 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Queensland Centre for Intellectual and Developmental Disability, MRI-UQ, University of Queensland.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes a significant health burden in Australia and up to 50% of Australians with CKD remain undiagnosed.

Aims: The objective of this study was to estimate the five-year risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD) from general practice clinical records, and to investigate the spatial variation and hot spots of CKD risk in an Australian community.

Method: A cross-sectional study designed using de-identified general practice clinical data recorded from 2010 to 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imj.14924DOI Listing

Development and validation of criteria for sparing confirmatory tests in diagnosing primary aldosteronism.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Endocrinology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Context: The Endocrine Society Guidelines for the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA) suggest that confirmatory tests (CFT) are not required when the following criteria are met: plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) is >20ng/dl, plasma renin is below detection levels and hypokalemia is present. The evidence for the applicability of the guideline criteria is limited.

Objective: To develop and validate optimized criteria for sparing CFT in the diagnosis of PA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa282DOI Listing

Macrophage development and activation involve coordinated intron retention in key inflammatory regulators.

Nucleic Acids Res 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Epigenetics and RNA Biology Program Centenary Institute, The University of Sydney, Camperdown 2050, Australia.

Monocytes and macrophages are essential components of the innate immune system. Herein, we report that intron retention (IR) plays an important role in the development and function of these cells. Using Illumina mRNA sequencing, Nanopore direct cDNA sequencing and proteomics analysis, we identify IR events that affect the expression of key genes/proteins involved in macrophage development and function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkaa435DOI Listing

Perspectives of speech and language therapists in paediatric palliative care: an international exploratory study.

Int J Lang Commun Disord 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Speech Pathology, School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Bilinga, QLD, Australia.

Background: The involvement of speech and language therapists (SLTs) within paediatric palliative care (PPC) settings has been recognized within the extant literature. However, there is little understanding of SLT's specific roles and practices when working with this vulnerable cohort of children and their families. As part of a larger body of work to develop consensus-based recommendations for SLTs working in PPC, it is important to investigate demographic and caseload characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1460-6984.12539DOI Listing

'Willy nilly' doctors, bad patients, and resistant bodies in general public explanations of antimicrobial resistance.

Sociol Health Illn 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

School of Psychological Sciences and Health, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.

Increased public engagement is a feature of policy and communications focussed on the reduction of antimicrobial resistance. Explaining antimicrobial resistance for general publics has proven difficult and they continue to endorse apparently mistaken knowledge, including the conflation of antimicrobial resistance with the notion of the resistant body. We interviewed members of the general public in Melbourne, Australia, to explore explanatory models for antimicrobial resistance and shed light on the persistence of the resistant body assumption and related concepts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.13111DOI Listing

Do callous-unemotional traits moderate the effects of the juvenile justice system on later offending behavior?

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Psychological Science, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.

Background: Research suggests that callous-unemotional (CU) traits, a recent addition to psychiatric classification of serious conduct problems, may moderate the influence of a number of contextual factors (e.g., parenting, deviant peer influence) on an adolescent's adjustment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13266DOI Listing