147,993 results match your criteria Australian & New Zealand Journal Of Statistics[Journal]


'Low-normal' motor skills in infants at high risk for poor developmental outcomes: A prevalence and prognostic study.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

Mater Research Institute-The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Aim: To investigate the prevalence and prognostic value of 'low-normal' motor skills in infants at high-risk for poor developmental outcomes.

Method: Infants born extremely low-birthweight and extremely preterm discharged from neonatal intensive care between 2015 and 2018 completed the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS), Neuro-Sensory Motor Developmental Assessment (NSMDA) at corrected age 4, 8, and 12 months, and Griffiths Mental Development Scale at corrected age 12 months.

Results: Participating infants (n = 191) with a mean gestational age (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 26. Read More

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A multimodal intervention to optimise antimicrobial use in residential aged care facilities (ENGAGEMENT): protocol for a stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial.

Trials 2022 May 21;23(1):427. Epub 2022 May 21.

UQ Centre for Health Services Research, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4102, Australia.

Background: Inappropriate antibiotic use can cause harm and promote antimicrobial resistance, which has been declared a major health challenge by the World Health Organization. In Australian residential aged care facilities (RACFs), the most common indications for antibiotic prescribing are for infections of the urinary tract, respiratory tract and skin and soft tissue. Studies indicate that a high proportion of these prescriptions are non-compliant with best prescribing guidelines. Read More

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The ENJOY MAP for HEALTH: Exercise interveNtion outdoor proJect in the cOmmunitY for older people-More Active People for HEALTHier communities: a study protocol.

BMC Public Health 2022 May 21;22(1):1027. Epub 2022 May 21.

Rehabilitation, Ageing and Independent Living Research Centre, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Physical activity is important to maintain health in older age, with physical activity in the outdoors providing mental and physical health benefits for all age groups. One way by which older people can engage in physical activity in the outdoors is through using suitable age-friendly outdoor exercise equipment, the Seniors Exercise Park. The ENJOY MAP for HEALTH aims to evaluate the effect of the Seniors Exercise Park installation and associated capacity building activities on park visitation, park-based physical activity by older people and delivery of community physical activity programs. Read More

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The relationships between school children's wellbeing, socio-economic disadvantage and after-school activities: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Pediatr 2022 May 21;22(1):297. Epub 2022 May 21.

Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity, UniSA Allied Health and Human Performance, University of South Australia, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, South Australia, 5001, Australia.

Background: Lower socioeconomic status is associated with poorer wellbeing among children. Identifying how children participate in after-school activities and how after-school activities are associated with wellbeing may inform interventions to improve wellbeing among children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. This study explored whether children's after-school activities varied by socioeconomic status and examined the associations between after-school activities and wellbeing in low socioeconomic status children. Read More

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Characteristics and co-admissions of mothers and babies admitted to residential parenting services in the year following birth in NSW: a linked population data study (2000-2012).

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2022 May 21;22(1):428. Epub 2022 May 21.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW, 2751, Australia.

Background: There is a tiered healthcare system in Australia to support maternal and child health, including, non-psychiatric day stay and residential parenting services (RPS) such as Tresillian and Karitane (in New South Wales [NSW]). RPS are unique to Australia, and currently there is limited information regarding the healthcare trajectory of women accessing RPS and if they are more likely to have admissions to other health facilities within the first-year post-birth. This study aimed to examine differences in hospital co-admissions for women and babies admitted to RPS in NSW in the year following birth compared to non-RPS admitted women. Read More

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Cross-sectional metabolic subgroups and 10-year follow-up of cardiometabolic multimorbidity in the UK Biobank.

Sci Rep 2022 May 21;12(1):8590. Epub 2022 May 21.

Australian Centre for Precision Health, Unit of Clinical and Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.

We assigned 329,908 UK Biobank participants into six subgroups based on a self-organizing map of 51 biochemical measures (blinded for clinical outcomes). The subgroup with the most favorable metabolic traits was chosen as the reference. Hazard ratios (HR) for incident disease were modeled by Cox regression. Read More

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Detection and distribution of Stephanofilaria sp. in buffalo flies and buffalo fly lesions in north Australian beef cattle.

Vet Parasitol 2022 May 7:109715. Epub 2022 May 7.

The University of Queensland, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, Centre for Animal Science, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

Buffalo flies (Haematobia irritans exigua) are ectoparasites of major animal health and production concern in north Australian beef herds. Skin lesions associated with buffalo fly infestation, cause hide damage and welfare issues and are manifested as dermatitis or ulcerated areas found most commonly near the medial canthus of the eye, along the lateral and ventral neck and on the abdomen. Buffalo flies can transmit a nematode, Stephanofilaria sp. Read More

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Screening for depressive symptoms in adolescence: A Rasch analysis of the short-form childhood depression inventory-2 (CDI 2:SR[S]).

J Affect Disord 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Graduate School of Education, The University of Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Screening for depressive symptoms during adolescence is of high clinical significance. The shorter 12-item version of the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI 2:SR[S]) was specifically developed for this purpose. Evaluations of the CDI 2:SR[S] psychometrics are limited, however. Read More

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Anthocyanin intake is associated with improved memory in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

Nutr Res 2022 Apr 25;104:36-43. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

School of Medical, Indigenous and Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health. University of Wollongong. Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia; School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania, 7250. Electronic address:

Research on the role of dietary anthocyanins in preventing cognitive decline in older adults shows promise. This study investigated the association between usual anthocyanin intake and indices of memory and cognition in 40 older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment that were recruited to a randomized clinical trial. It was hypothesized that daily anthocyanin intake would be similar to healthy older adults and that higher anthocyanin intake would be associated with better cognitive performance. Read More

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Evaluation of the MilA ELISA for the diagnosis of herd infection with Mycoplasma bovis using bulk tank milk and estimation of the prevalence of M. bovis in Australia.

Vet Microbiol 2022 May 13;270:109454. Epub 2022 May 13.

Asia-Pacific Centre for Animal Health, Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Infection with Mycoplasma bovis has been identified as a growing threat in dairy industries worldwide and there is an urgent need for an inexpensive and accurate herd-level screening tool to identify herds that have been exposed to M. bovis. This study aimed to evaluate the use of the MilA ELISA for testing bulk tank milk (BTM) samples for antibodies against M. Read More

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Perceptions of Australian cattle farmers regarding the impact of pinkeye on farm productivity and animal welfare.

Prev Vet Med 2022 May 10;204:105665. Epub 2022 May 10.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Camden, NSW 2570, Australia. Electronic address:

Pinkeye (infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, IBK) is an important disease of cattle worldwide. It has a substantial negative impact on farm productivity and is a major cost burden, but specific data on losses are lacking. This study was conducted to understand farmers' perceptions of the impact of pinkeye on farm productivity and animal welfare, and factors influencing the money farmers estimated spending on pinkeye in 2018. Read More

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Mitochondria as the powerhouses of sexual selection: Testing mechanistic links between development, cellular respiration, and bird song.

Horm Behav 2022 May 18;142:105184. Epub 2022 May 18.

Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

The developmental environment can affect the expression of sexually selected traits in adulthood. The physiological mechanisms that modulate such effects remain a matter of intense debate. Here, we test the role of the developmental environment in shaping adult mitochondrial function and link mitochondrial function to expression of a sexually selected trait in males (bird song). Read More

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Engaging women and men in the gender-synchronised, community-based Mbereko+Men intervention to improve maternal mental health and perinatal care-seeking in Manicaland, Zimbabwe: A cluster-randomised controlled pragmatic trial.

J Glob Health 2022 May 21;12:04042. Epub 2022 May 21.

Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Maternal mental morbidity and low perinatal health service utilisation in resource-constrained settings contribute substantially to the global burden of poor maternal, newborn, and child health. The community-based Mbereko+Men program in rural Zimbabwe engaged women and men in complementary activities to improve men's support for women and babies, coparents' equitable, informed health decision-making, and ultimately, maternal mental health and care-seeking for maternal and newborn health services. The study aimed to test the effectiveness of the Mbereko+Men program on maternal mental health at 0-6 months after childbirth. Read More

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Track and trace: how soil labelling techniques have revealed the secrets of resource transport in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

Mycorrhiza 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

The Waite Research Institute and School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, South Australia, 5064, Australia.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonise plant roots, and by doing so forge the 'mycorrhizal uptake pathway(s)' (MUP) that provide passageways for the trade of resources across a specialised membrane at the plant-fungus interface. The transport of nutrients such as phosphorus (P), nitrogen and zinc from the fungus, and carbon from the plant, via the MUP have mostly been quantified using stable or radioactive isotope labelling of soil in a specialised hyphae-only compartment. Recent advances in the study of AM fungi have used tracing studies to better understand how the AM association will function in a changing climate, the extent to which the MUP can contribute to P uptake by important crops, and how AM fungi trade resources in interaction with plants, other AM fungi, and friend and foe in the soil microbiome. Read More

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The batched stepped wedge design: A design robust to delays in cluster recruitment.

Stat Med 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Stepped wedge designs are an increasingly popular variant of longitudinal cluster randomized trial designs, and roll out interventions across clusters in a randomized, but step-wise fashion. In the standard stepped wedge design, assumptions regarding the effect of time on outcomes may require that all clusters start and end trial participation at the same time. This would require ethics approvals and data collection procedures to be in place in all clusters before a stepped wedge trial can start in any cluster. Read More

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Australian women's information-seeking preferences and needs in preparation for pregnancy.

Health Promot J Austr 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Issue Addressed: The preconception period provides opportunities for health behaviour optimisation for improved maternal and child wellbeing. However, preconception information sources women engage with are not well-known.

Methods: To address this gap, the current cross-sectional study retrospectively explored (1) preconception information or advice accessed on recommended preconception health topics and (2) preferred sources of preconception information among pregnant women receiving care through Australian public and private maternity settings. Read More

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Clinical and behavioral attributes leading to sleep disorders in children on the autism spectrum.

Autism Res 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

School of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, UNSW Sydney, Kensington, New South Wales, Australia.

Sleep disorders are a common comorbid condition in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder ("autism"). However, the relationship between the clinical features of autism and sleep disorders remains unclear. A better understanding of the inherent autism-related characteristics linked to comorbid sleep disorders would improve comprehensive assessment and management. Read More

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Advancing PTSD Diagnosis and the Treatment of Trauma in Humanitarian Emergencies via Mobile Health: Protocol for a Proof-of-Concept Non-Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Res Protoc 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, the University of Sydney, 94 Mallett St, Sydney, AU.

Background: Decentralized health systems in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) impacted by humanitarian crises lack resources and a qualified workforce to attend to the overwhelming demand for mental health care in emergencies. Innovative approaches that are safe, cost-effective, and scalable are needed to address the burden of traumatic stress brought by emergencies. High mobile phone ownership rates combined with the precision of neural, cognitive, and biometric measures of trauma and its feasible integration with Artificial Intelligence (AI) makes digital application (app) interventions a promising pathway to promote precision diagnosis and high-impact care. Read More

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A Nurse Led Asthma Care Team transitioning patients from hospital to home improves asthma control: a pilot study exploring an alternative model of care.

Health Promot J Austr 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Western Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Introduction: Recurrent asthma admissions are frequent in our patients at a tertiary Australian hospital, and commonly related to poor health literacy and medication adherence. A need exists to improve these asthma self-management skills within our current model of care, especially during the vulnerable post discharge period.

Aim: To examine if the addition of a nurse led Asthma Care Transition Team (ACTT) compared with usual care alone (UC) (1)improves asthma control at 12 weeks post hospital discharge; (2) the number of patients using a Written Action Plan (WAP), compliance with inhaler therapy at 12 weeks, and readmission rates at 6 months. Read More

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SkM-ing information from traumatized tissue.

J Thromb Haemost 2022 Jun;20(6):1306-1308

ACRF Department Cancer Biology and Therapeutics, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

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Review article: Latent tuberculosis in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases receiving immunosuppression-Risks, screening, diagnosis and management.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Background: One quarter of the world's population has latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Systemic immunosuppression is a risk factor for LTBI reactivation and the development of active tuberculosis. Such reactivation carries a risk of significant morbidity and mortality. Read More

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Morbidity of salvage radical prostatectomy: limited impact of the minimally invasive approach.

World J Urol 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Urology Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Purpose: We aimed to report the morbidity profile of salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP) after radiotherapy failure and assess the impact of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) on postoperative complications and functional outcomes.

Materials And Methods: Between 1985 and 2019, a total of 293 patients underwent SRP; 232 underwent open SRP; and 61 underwent laparoscopic SRP with or without robotic assistance. Complications were recorded and classified into standardized categories per the Clavien-Dindo classification. Read More

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Redefining the 'arsenal of democracy'.

Nat Hum Behav 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Cyber Security Cooperative Research Centre, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

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Use of Parental Disability Trajectories to Identify Adolescents Who are Young Carers.

J Youth Adolesc 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Centre for Mental Health, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Carlton, VIC, Australia.

Being a young carer can have significant impacts on the lives of children and adolescents. Identifying young carers is difficult, making the provision of support challenging for service providers. This sample contained 4464 Australian children/adolescents across 11 years (49% female, aged 6/7 years at baseline, and 16/17 years at final wave). Read More

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Trabecular Bone Score Adjustment for the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX®).

Calcif Tissue Int 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

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In-verse reflection: structured creative writing exercises to promote reflective learning in medical students.

J Med Humanit 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Epworth Clinical School, Melbourne, Australia.

Medical educators recognize the value of reflection for medical students and the role creative writing can play in fostering this. However, direct creative writing tasks can be challenging for many students, particularly those with limited experience in the arts and humanities. An alternative strategy is to utilize an indirect approach, engaging students with structured tasks that obliquely encourage reflection. Read More

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Wastewater inflow time series forecasting at low temporal resolution using SARIMA model: a case study in South Australia.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Sustainable Infrastructure and Resource Management (SIRM), UniSA STEM, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, SA, 5095, Australia.

Forecasts of wastewater inflow are considered as a significant component to support the development of a real-time control (RTC) system for a wastewater pumping network and to achieve optimal operations. This paper aims to investigate patterns of the wastewater inflow behaviour and develop a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) forecasting model at low temporal resolution (hourly) for a short-term period of 7 days for a real network in South Australia, the Murray Bridge wastewater network/wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Historical wastewater inflow data collected for a 32-month period (May 2016 to December 2018) was pre-processed (transformed into an hourly dataset) and then separated into two parts for training (80%) and testing (20%). Read More

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Deep learning network for integrated coil inhomogeneity correction and brain extraction of mixed MRI data.

Sci Rep 2022 May 20;12(1):8578. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, and Graduate Institute of Artificial Intelligence, Chang Gung University, No. 259, Wenhua 1st Rd., Guishan Dist., Taoyuan, 33302, Taiwan.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been widely used to acquire structural and functional information about the brain. In a group- or voxel-wise analysis, it is essential to correct the bias field of the radiofrequency coil and to extract the brain for accurate registration to the brain template. Although automatic methods have been developed, manual editing is still required, particularly for echo-planar imaging (EPI) due to its lower spatial resolution and larger geometric distortion. Read More

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