107,644 results match your criteria Australian & New Zealand Journal Of Statistics[Journal]


Characterizing the role of tissue-type plasminogen activator in a mouse model of Group A streptococcal infection.

Microbes Infect 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute and School of Chemistry and Molecular Bioscience, Molecular Horizons, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia. Electronic address:

Plasmin(ogen) acquisition is critical for invasive disease initiation by Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS). Host urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) plays a role in mediating plasminogen activation for GAS dissemination, however the contribution of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) to GAS virulence is unknown. Using novel tPA-deficient ALBPLG1 mice, our study revealed no difference in mouse survival, bacterial dissemination or the pathology of GAS infection in the absence of tPA in AlbPLG1/tPA mice compared to AlbPLG1 mice. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S12864579193005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2019.04.004DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The EXACT protocol: a multi-centre, single-blind, randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial to determine whether early oxygen titration improves survival to hospital discharge in adult OHCA patients.

Resuscitation 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Australia; Prehospital, Resuscitation and Emergency Care Research Unit, Curtin University, Australia; Alfred Hospital, Australia; Ambulance Victoria, Australia; Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Australia; SA Ambulance Service, Australia; Flinders University, Australia; St John Ambulance Western Australia, Australia; Warwick University, United Kingdom.

Background: Experimental and observational research suggests hyperoxia following resuscitation from cardiac arrest is associated with neurological injury and worse clinical outcomes. This paper describes the rationale and design of the EXACT trial. EXACT aims to determine whether reducing oxygen in the acute phase of post-resuscitation care for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) improves survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2019.04.023DOI Listing

The first complete mitochondrial genome of a cyclophorid land snail, with implications for architaenioglossan relationships (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Cyclophoroidea).

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

School of Life Sciences, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China. Electronic address:

Herein, we described the complete mitochondrial genome ('mitogenome') of the Chinese land snail Cyclophorus martensianus, which is the first published mitogenome for the caenogastropod family Cyclophoridae. This mitogenome is 15,308 bp long consisting of 37 genes: 13 protein-coding genes (PCG's), 22 tRNA genes and two rRNA genes. The A + T content (69. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.04.138DOI Listing

Comparison of the Moral Sensitivity, Judgment, and Actions of Australian and Turkish Veterinary Students in Relation to Animal Ethics Issues.

J Vet Med Educ 2019 Apr 22:1-10. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Veterinarians regularly face animal ethics conflicts, and research has identified the moral reasoning methods that they utilize to solve these. It is unclear whether students' sensitivity to animal ethics conflicts influences their reasoning methods, and the recent development of appropriate tests allows this to be assessed. We compared the moral reasoning methods, intended action and sensitivity of 112 first-year veterinary students in two contrasting veterinary schools, in Australia and Turkey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3138/jvme.1117-178r1DOI Listing

Physiological Factors Which Influence Cognitive Performance in Military Personnel.

Hum Factors 2019 Apr 22:18720819841757. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

University of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

Objective: To identify and detail physiological factors that influence cognition in military personnel.

Background: Maintenance of cognitive and task performance is important under several scenarios, none more so than in a military context. Personnel are prepared for and trained to tolerate many of the stressors they encounter; however, consideration of stressors typically extends only as far as the physical, psychological, and environmental requirements of a given task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018720819841757DOI Listing

A bibliometric study of the top 100 most-cited randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses published in endodontic journals.

Int Endod J 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Aim: To identify and analyse the main features of the top 100 most-cited randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses published in endodontic journals from 1961 to 2018.

Methodology: The Clarivate Analytics' Web of Science 'All Databases' was used to search and analyse the 100 most frequently cited randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses having "randomized", "randomised", "randomized controlled", "randomised controlled", "randomized controlled trial", "randomized controlled trials", "clinical trial", "systematic", "systematic review", "meta-analysis", and "meta-analyses" in the title section. The "International Endodontic Journal", "Journal of Endodontics", "Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology and Endodontology", "Australian Endodontic Journal", "Endodontics & Dental Traumatology", "Endo-Endodontic Practice Today", and "European Endodontic Journal" were included in the publication name section. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/iej.13131
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iej.13131DOI Listing
April 2019
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Effect of Albuterol Premedication vs Placebo on the Occurrence of Respiratory Adverse Events in Children Undergoing Tonsillectomies: The REACT Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Pediatr 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Telethon Kids Institute, Perth, Australia.

Importance: Tonsillectomy is a common pediatric procedure for the treatment of sleep-disordered breathing and chronic tonsillitis. Up to half of children having this procedure experience a perioperative respiratory adverse event.

Objective: To determine whether inhaled albuterol sulfate (salbutamol sulfate) premedication decreases the risk of perioperative respiratory adverse events in children undergoing anesthesia for tonsillectomy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.0788DOI Listing

Real-time Live-cell Flow Cytometry to Investigate Calcium Influx, Pore Formation, and Phagocytosis by P2X7 Receptors in Adult Neural Progenitor Cells.

J Vis Exp 2019 Apr 3(146). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne;

Live-cell flow cytometry is increasingly used among cell biologists to quantify biological processes in a living cell culture. This protocol describes a method whereby live-cell flow cytometry is extended upon to analyze the multiple functions of P2X7 receptor activation in real-time. Using a time module installed on a flow cytometer, live-cell functionality can be assessed and plotted over a given time period to explore the kinetics of calcium influx, transmembrane pore formation, and phagocytosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/59313DOI Listing

Fresh Red Cells for Transfusion in Critically Ill Adults: An Economic Evaluation of the Standard Issue Transfusion versus Fresher Red-Cell Use in Intensive Care (TRANSFUSE) Clinical Trial.

Crit Care Med 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Objectives: Trials comparing the effects of transfusing RBC units of different storage durations have considered mortality or morbidity as outcomes. We perform the first economic evaluation alongside a full age of blood clinical trial with a large population assessing the impact of RBC storage duration on quality-of-life and costs in critically ill adults.

Design: Quality-of-life was measured at 6 months post randomization using the EuroQol 5-dimension 3-level instrument. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000003781DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Patients' and Doctors' Perceptions of a Mobile Phone-Based Consultation Service for Maternal, Neonatal, and Infant Health Care in Bangladesh: A Mixed-Methods Study.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2019 Apr 22;7(4):e11842. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Research School of Population Health, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

Background: A mobile-based consultation service, or telehealth, can be used for remote consultations with health care professionals for screening, self-care management, and referral. In rural Bangladesh, where there is high demand for scarce male and even scarcer female doctors, remote consultations may help women seeking maternal and child health care. Aponjon is a mHealth service in Bangladesh that provides weekly voice or text messages to pregnant women, new mothers, and family members on various aspects of maternal, neonatal, and infant health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/11842DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Cognitive control and capacity for prospective memory in complex dynamic environments.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

School of Psychological Science.

Performing deferred actions in the future relies upon Prospective Memory (PM). Often, PM demands arise in complex dynamic tasks. Not only can PM be challenging in such environments, the processes required for PM may affect the performance of other tasks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000599DOI Listing

Floral colour structure in two Australian herbaceous communities: it depends on who is looking.

Ann Bot 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background And Aims: Pollinator-mediated interactions between plant species may affect the composition of angiosperm communities. Floral colour signals should play a role in these interactions, but the role will arise from the visual perceptions and behavioural responses of multiple pollinators. Recent advances in the visual sciences can be used to inform our understanding of these perceptions and responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcz043DOI Listing

Response of photosynthesis, growth and water relations of a savannah-adapted tree and grass grown across high to low CO2.

Ann Bot 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Background And Aims: By the year 2100, atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]a) could reach 800 ppm, having risen from ~200 ppm since the Neogene, beginning ~24 Myr ago. Changing [CO2]a affects plant carbon-water balance, with implications for growth, drought tolerance and vegetation shifts. The evolution of C4 photosynthesis improved plant hydraulic function under low [CO2]a and preluded the establishment of savannahs, characterized by rapid transitions between open C4-dominated grassland with scattered trees and closed forest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcz048DOI Listing

Left atrial appendage closure with WATCHMAN in Asian patients: 2 year outcomes from the WASP registry.

Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc 2019 Jun 9;23:100358. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

National Heart Institute, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Left atrial appendage closure is a non-pharmacological alternative for stroke prevention in high-risk non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients, but has not been widely studied in Asian patients. The prospective WASP registry assessed real-world outcomes for patients undergoing WATCHMAN implant in the Asia-Pacific region.

Methods: Data were collected from consecutive patients across 9 centres. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S23529067193002
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2019.100358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458488PMC
June 2019
1 Read

Traditional plant functional groups explain variation in economic but not size-related traits across the tundra biome.

Glob Ecol Biogeogr 2019 Jan 16;28(2):78-95. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Environmental Biology, Department Institute of Environmental Sciences, CML, Leiden University Leiden The Netherlands.

Aim: Plant functional groups are widely used in community ecology and earth system modelling to describe trait variation within and across plant communities. However, this approach rests on the assumption that functional groups explain a large proportion of trait variation among species. We test whether four commonly used plant functional groups represent variation in six ecologically important plant traits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/geb.12783DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472633PMC
January 2019

Chronic pain, pain severity and analgesia use in Australian women of reproductive age.

Women Birth 2019 Apr 7;32(2):e272-e278. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: The increasing prevalence and adverse outcomes associated with opioid analgesia use in women of reproductive age have become a significant public health issue internationally, with use during pregnancy potentially affecting maternal and infant health outcomes.

Objective: This study aims to provide national estimates of chronic pain, pain severity and analgesia use in Australian women of reproductive age by pregnancy status.

Method: Data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011-12 National Health Survey (n=20,426). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2018.06.013DOI Listing

Health literacy training for Australian home care workers: Enablers and barriers.

Home Health Care Serv Q 2019 Apr 20:1-16. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

a Faculty of Health , University of Technology Sydney , Broadway , NSW , Australia.

The rapidly expanding Australian home care workforce represents an untapped resource for improving health literacy (HL) and health outcomes of their clients. Nine home care workers (HCWs) were interviewed for this study to gain data around their experiences of providing HL support to their clients, key HL needs and priorities, and training that would best these needs. Findings indicate that HCWs are providing HL support, and identify a number of enablers and barriers to providing this support. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01621424.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01621424.2019.1604458DOI Listing
April 2019
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"It's not just the wheelchair, it's everything else": Australian parents' perspectives of wheelchair prescription for children with neuromuscular disorders.

Disabil Rehabil 2019 Apr 21:1-10. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

b Discipline of Paediatrics, School of Women's and Children's Health , UNSW Medicine, UNSW Sydney , Sydney , NSW , Australia.

Purpose: Standards of care for neuromuscular disorders recommend timely provision of wheelchair equipment to support independent and spontaneous movement, age-appropriate participation, and psychological, social, cognitive and communication skills. Parental engagement is crucial to initiating wheelchair prescription. No studies have investigated parents' perceptions of this process or their experiences of their child's transition to wheelchair equipment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2019.1595749DOI Listing

Is it time to revisit "Rural Proofing" of all Australian governments' policy development and implementation?

Authors:
Joanne Walker

Aust J Rural Health 2019 Apr;27(2):188-189

Policy and Strategy Development, National Rural Health Alliance, Canberra, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajr.12514DOI Listing

Determinants of objectively measured physical activity in rural East Timorese children.

Am J Hum Biol 2019 Apr 21:e23247. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

School of Human Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia.

Objectives: The human juvenile period evolved as a period of learning and physical development in a family environment that subsidizes the costs of these processes. Children allocate energy to physical activity, maintenance, and growth. How energy is allocated has consequences for adult body size and other life-history traits. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajhb.23247
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23247DOI Listing
April 2019
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The characterisation of Mozzarella cheese microstructure using high resolution synchrotron transmission and ATR-FTIR microspectroscopy.

Food Chem 2019 Sep 4;291:214-222. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

The ARC Dairy Innovation Hub, The Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia; The Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

Synchrotron Fourier transform infrared (S-FTIR) microspectroscopy allows the label-free examination of material microstructure but has not been widely applied to dairy products. Here, S-FTIR microspectroscopy was applied to observe the microstructure of Mozzarella cheese and assess the protein and lipid distribution within individual cheese blocks. High lipid and high protein areas were identified in transmission and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) analysis modes and the secondary structures of cheese proteins determined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.04.016DOI Listing
September 2019

Workforce survey of Australian graduate health information managers: Employability, employment, and knowledge and skills used in the workplace.

Health Inf Manag 2019 Apr 21:1833358319839296. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

1 La Trobe University, Australia.

Background: Employability, employment destinations and utilisation of knowledge-skill domains of new graduate health information managers (HIMs) have not been explored.

Objectives: To capture the timing from course completion to employment and employment locations of a 5-year cohort of health information management graduates of La Trobe University, Australia, in 2017-2018; identify professional knowledge and skills used by the graduates in executing their roles; and map these to four domains of the health information management curriculum.

Method: A mixed-methods descriptive study utilising a survey investigated early career pathways of new graduates of health information management courses from 2012 to 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1833358319839296DOI Listing

Socio-cultural beliefs about an ideal body size and implications for risk of excess weight gain after immigration: a study of Australian residents of sub-Saharan African ancestry.

Ethn Health 2019 Apr 22:1-16. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

a Centre for Social Research in Health, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences , University of New South Wales ,  Sydney , Australia.

Objectives: Though several studies have focused on risk factors associated with excess weight gain, little is known about the extent to which socio-cultural beliefs about body sizes may contribute to risk of excess weight gain, especially in non-Western migrant communities. Drawing on socio-cultural and attribution theories, this study mainly explored socio-cultural beliefs about an ideal body size among Australian residents who were born in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).  Implications of body size beliefs for risk of excess weight gain after immigration have also been discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13557858.2019.1607261DOI Listing

Trait structure and redundancy determine sensitivity to disturbance in marine fish communities.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

MARBEC, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, IFREMER, IRD, 34095, Montpellier Cedex, France.

'Functional' diversity is believed to influence ecosystem dynamics through links between organismal traits and ecosystem processes. Theory predicts that key traits and high trait redundancy - large species richness and abundance supporting the same traits - can buffer communities against environmental disturbances. While experiments and data from simple ecological systems lend support, large-scale evidence from diverse, natural systems under major disturbance is lacking. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/gcb.14662
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14662DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Osmotic adjustment and energy limitations to plant growth in saline soil.

New Phytol 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

ARC Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, Glen Osmond, SA, 5064, Australia.

Plant roots must exclude almost all of the Na and Cl in saline soil while taking up water, otherwise these ions would build up to high concentrations in leaves. Plants evaporate about 50 times more water than they retain, so 98% exclusion would result in shoot NaCl concentrations equal to that of the external medium. Taking up just 2% of the NaCl allows a plant to osmotically adjust with Na and Cl in vacuoles while organic solutes provide the balancing osmotic pressure in the cytoplasm. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/nph.15862
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.15862DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

New insight into human sweet taste: a genome-wide association study of the perception and intake of sweet substances.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: Individual differences in human perception of sweetness are partly due to genetics; however, which genes are associated with the perception and the consumption of sweet substances remains unclear.

Objective: The aim of this study was to verify previous reported associations within genes involved in the peripheral receptor systems (i.e. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aj
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz043DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Fit for purpose? OrganisationaL prOdUctivity and woRkforce wellbeIng in workSpaces in Hospital (FLOURISH): a multimethod qualitative study protocol.

BMJ Open 2019 Apr 20;9(4):e027636. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Introduction: Workspaces are socially constructed environments where social relationships are produced, reproduced, challenged and transformed. Their primary function is to support high-quality service delivery to the benefit of 'patients'. They are also settings where employees can work effectively, in a safe and healthy environment, delivering a high-quality service according to a 'Work-As-Done' rather than a 'Work-As-Imagined' model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-027636DOI Listing

Disease of the past re-emerging in modern Australian society.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Apr 20;12(4). Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Blacktown Hospital, Blacktown, New South Wales, Australia.

A 28-year-old man with fever, atraumatic lower limb pain and rash was noted to have multiple areas of ecchymosis involving both lower limbs. He was anaemic and also had a grossly swollen left leg. Differential diagnoses of compartment syndrome, vascular tear, platelet and clotting factor disorders, vasculitis and myositis were ruled out. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-228448DOI Listing

Ethics of crisis sedation: questions of performance and consent.

J Med Ethics 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Institute of Ethics, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.

This paper focuses on the practice of injecting patients who are dying with a relatively high dose of sedatives in response to a catastrophic event that will shortly precipitate death, something that we term 'crisis sedation.' We first present a confabulated case that illustrates the kind of events we have in mind, before offering a more detailed account of the practice. We then comment on some of the ethical issues that crisis sedation might raise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2018-105285DOI Listing

Exploration of gray matter correlates of cognitive training benefit in adolescents with chronic traumatic brain injury.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 Apr 16;23:101827. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Australian Catholic University, Mary McKillop Institute for Health Research Level 5, 215 Spring Street, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia. Electronic address:

Sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI) during adolescence has a profound effect on brain development and can result in persistent executive functioning deficits in daily life. Cognitive recovery from pediatric-TBI relies on the potential of neuroplasticity, which can be fostered by restorative training-programs. However the structural mechanisms underlying cognitive recovery in the immature brain are poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101827DOI Listing

Improving blood pressure control in primary care: The ImPress study.

Int J Nurs Stud 2019 Apr 4;95:28-33. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Hypertension is a preventable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death globally. When hypertension is present with tobacco smoking, poor nutrition, physical inactivity or excessive alcohol consumption, risk of cardiovascular disease is increased. Given the prolonged engagement and ongoing relationship with patients, general practice nurses are ideally situated to actively engage with patients about optimal blood pressure control and lifestyle risk reduction. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00207489193008
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2019.03.019DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

TAF5L and TAF6L Maintain Self-Renewal of Embryonic Stem Cells via the MYC Regulatory Network.

Mol Cell 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia; Development and Stem Cells Program, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia. Electronic address:

Self-renewal and pluripotency of the embryonic stem cell (ESC) state are established and maintained by multiple regulatory networks that comprise transcription factors and epigenetic regulators. While much has been learned regarding transcription factors, the function of epigenetic regulators in these networks is less well defined. We conducted a CRISPR-Cas9-mediated loss-of-function genetic screen that identified two epigenetic regulators, TAF5L and TAF6L, components or co-activators of the GNAT-HAT complexes for the mouse ESC (mESC) state. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10972765193022
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2019.03.025DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second-line treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children (ConSEPT): an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

Lancet 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, VIC, Australia; Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background: Phenytoin is the current standard of care for second-line treatment of paediatric convulsive status epilepticus after failure of first-line benzodiazepines, but is only effective in 60% of cases and is associated with considerable adverse effects. A newer anticonvulsant, levetiracetam, can be given more quickly, is potentially more efficacious, and has a more tolerable adverse effect profile. We aimed to determine whether phenytoin or levetiracetam is the superior second-line treatment for paediatric convulsive status epilepticus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30722-6DOI Listing

Association of Center-Specific Patient Volumes and Early Respiratory Management Practices with Death and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Preterm Infants.

J Pediatr 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Royal Hobart Hospital, Hobart, Australia; Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.

Objectives: To describe variability in admission volumes and approach to early respiratory support between neonatal intensive care units in the Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network and to evaluate whether these center-specific factors are associated with death and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Study Design: This retrospective cohort study included 19 099 neonates born between 25 and 32 weeks' gestation and admitted to 1 of 25 NICUs from 2007 to 2013. Center-specific factors evaluated were annual admission volume and rate of using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) rather than intubation as the first mode of respiratory support. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.02.036DOI Listing

Factors affecting knee abduction during weight-bearing activities in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Phys Ther Sport 2019 Apr 12;38:8-15. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

School of Exercise Science, Australian Catholic University, Brisbane, Australia.

Objective: To investigate if muscle strength and muscle activation patterns are associated with increased knee abduction during two functional tasks, commonly used in rehabilitation for individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR).

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Laboratory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2019.04.006DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Local weather, flooding history and childhood diarrhoea caused by the parasite Cryptosporidium spp.: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 28;674:300-306. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Building 62, Research School of Population Health, Australian National University, Acton, Canberra 2602, Australia.

Scientists have long predicted the impacts of climate-related infectious disease emergence. Yet, the combined effect of local socioeconomic and demographic factors and weather variation on child health is poorly understood. With a focus on childhood diarrhoea caused by the parasite Cryptosporidium spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.365DOI Listing

Ingenol mebutate for mycosis fungoides.

Br J Dermatol 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Ingenol mebutate is a macrocyclic diterpene ester, naturally found in the sap of the Australian plant Euphorbia peplus, which proved efficacious for actinic keratosis. In clinical routine, we observed local improvement of MF upon application of ingenol mebutate in MF patients treated for coincidental actinic keratosis within direct proximity of/overlapping with MF skin lesions. Hence, the objective of this study was to assess the effect of topical ingenol mebutate on MF skin lesions. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bjd.18018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjd.18018DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Energy costs of salt tolerance in crop plants.

New Phytol 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Australian Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, Glen Osmond, SA, 5064, Australia.

Agriculture is expanding into regions that are affected by salinity. This review considers energy costs of salinity tolerance in crop plants and provides a framework for a quantitative assessment of costs. Different sources of energy, and modifications of root system architecture that would maximise water versus ion uptake are addressed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.15864DOI Listing

Empathy for others' pain is disrupted at the neurophysiological level in schizophrenia.

Br J Clin Psychol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Objective: Previous research has shown that empathy for pain is disrupted at the neural level in people with schizophrenia. However, many of these studies have failed to assess key background contextual variables that have previously been linked to neurophysiological responding. Moreover, no study to date has examined the potential influence of schizotypal characteristics on neurophysiological responding in non-clinical individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjc.12220DOI Listing

Quantitative EEG measures in REM and NREM sleep are associated with AHI and nocturnal hypoxemia in men.

Sleep 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

The Health Observatory, Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital Campus, Woodville, South Australia, Australia.

Study Objectives: Quantitative EEG measures of sleep may identify vulnerability to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) sequelae, however, small clinical studies of sleep microarchitecture in OSA show inconsistent alterations. We examined relationships between quantitative EEG measures during rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep and OSA severity among a large population-based sample of men while accounting for insomnia.

Methods: All-night EEG (F4-M1) recordings from full in-home polysomnography (Embletta X100) in 664 men with no prior OSA diagnosis (age ≥40) were processed following exclusion of artefacts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsz092DOI Listing

Data gaps and opportunities for comparative and conservation biology.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Interdisciplinary Center on Population Dynamics, University of Southern Denmark, 5230 Odense M, Denmark;

Biodiversity loss is a major challenge. Over the past century, the average rate of vertebrate extinction has been about 100-fold higher than the estimated background rate and population declines continue to increase globally. Birth and death rates determine the pace of population increase or decline, thus driving the expansion or extinction of a species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1816367116DOI Listing
April 2019
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Postvaccination Febrile Seizure Severity and Outcome.

Pediatrics 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Febrile seizures (FSs) are a common pediatric condition caused by a sudden rise in temperature, affecting 3% to 5% of children aged ≤6 years. Although vaccination can cause FSs, little is known on whether FSs occurring in the time soon after vaccination (vaccine-proximate febrile seizures [VP-FSs] differ clinically from non-vaccine-proximate febrile seizures [NVP-FSs]). We compared the clinical profile and outcomes of VP-FS to NVP-FS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-2120DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

"A natural progression" - Australian women's attitudes about an individualised breast screening model.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Parkville Familial Cancer Centre, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre.

Individualised screening is our logical next step to improve population breast cancer screening in Australia. In order to explore breast screening participants' views of the current program in Victoria, Australia, examine their openness to change and attitudes toward an individualised screening model this qualitative work was performed. This work was designed to inform the development of a decision aid to facilitate women's decisions about participating in individualised screening, and to elicit Australian consumer perspectives on the international movement toward individualised breast screening. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-18-0443DOI Listing
April 2019
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Candida auris arriving on our shores: an Australian microbiology laboratory's experience.

Pathology 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Microbiology Department, Melbourne Health, Parkville, Vic, Australia; Pathology Department, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pathol.2019.01.009DOI Listing

Characteristics of yoga and meditation users among older Australian women - results from the 45 and up study.

Complement Ther Clin Pract 2019 May 6;35:219-223. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Australian Research Centre in Complementary and Integrative Medicine (ARCCIM), University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia; Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, Faculty of Medicine, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background And Purpose: Yoga and meditation are predominantly utilised by healthy well-educated young women, but little is known about utilisation by older chronically ill women. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of yoga and meditation use among middle-to-higher aged Australian women with chronic conditions.

Materials And Methods: This is a sub-study of the 45 and Up Study including 1925 Australian women aged 53-95 years diagnosed with chronic conditions (asthma, depression, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and osteoporosis). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S17443881183055
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2019.03.001DOI Listing
May 2019
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The prevalence, characteristics, expenditure and predictors of complementary medicine use in Australians living with gastrointestinal disorders: A cross-sectional study.

Complement Ther Clin Pract 2019 May 13;35:158-169. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

The University Sydney School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, 2006, NSW, Australia; The Australian Research Centre in Complementary and Integrative Medicine (ARCCIM), Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, 2007, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Aims: To determine the prevalence, characteristics, expenditure and predictors of complementary medicine (CM) use in Australian adults living with gastrointestinal disorders (GID).

Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 2,025 Australian adults was conducted. Participants were recruited through purposive convenience sampling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2019.02.008DOI Listing

A reference set of Health State Utility Values for gambling problem behaviour, a survey of the Australian general population: implications for future healthcare evaluations.

Authors:
Foruhar Moayeri

Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

a Eastern Health Clinical School, Eastern Health , Monash University , 110 Church Street, Richmond , VIC , 3121 , Australia.

Objectives Health state utility value (HSUV) measures have been widely used in health policy evaluations. This study sought to investigate the impact of gambling habits on HSUVs and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using SF-36 measure in the Australian general population. Methods Using the 2015 wave of Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australian survey (n=17,606). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737167.2019.1610397DOI Listing

Short Cationic Peptidomimetic Antimicrobials.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2019 Apr 18;8(2). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

The rapid growth of antimicrobial resistance against several frontline antibiotics has encouraged scientists worldwide to develop new alternatives with unique mechanisms of action. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted considerable interest due to their rapid killing and broad-spectrum activity. Peptidomimetics overcome some of the obstacles of AMPs such as high cost of synthesis, short half-life in vivo due to their susceptibility to proteolytic degradation, and issues with toxicity. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2079-6382/8/2/44
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8020044DOI Listing
April 2019
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Consumer Neuroscience and Digital/Social Media Health/Social Cause Advertisement Effectiveness.

Behav Sci (Basel) 2019 Apr 18;9(4). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Centre for Mental Health, Faculty of Health, Art and Design, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, Australia.

This research investigated the use of consumer neuroscience to improve and determine the effectiveness of action/emotion-based public health and social cause (HSC) advertisements. Action-based advertisements ask individuals to 'do something' such as 'act', 'share', make a 'pledge' or complete a 'challenge' on behalf of a brand, such as doing 'something good, somewhere, for someone else'. Public health messages as noncommercial advertisements attempt to positively change behavioural intent or increase awareness. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2076-328X/9/4/42
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bs9040042DOI Listing
April 2019
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Systems Biology and Multi-Omics Integration: Viewpoints from the Metabolomics Research Community.

Metabolites 2019 Apr 18;9(4). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E8, Canada.

The use of multiple omics techniques (i.e., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) is becoming increasingly popular in all facets of life science. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2218-1989/9/4/76
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo9040076DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read