133,440 results match your criteria Australian & New Zealand Journal Of Obstetrics & Gynaecology[Journal]

Analysis of the Australia and New Zealand referral criteria for transfer to a liver unit for paracetamol overdose.

Emerg Med Australas 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Critical Care, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Objectives: Paracetamol overdose is common and can lead to fulminant hepatic failure. In cases that are not improving with standard medical therapy with N-acetylcysteine, some patients may require liver transplant. The Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) referral criteria for transfer to a liver unit have not been extensively studied for its predictive value. Read More

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CD8 T cells specific for an immunodominant SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid epitope cross-react with selective seasonal coronaviruses.

Immunity 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia; Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC 3086, Australia. Electronic address:

Efforts are being made worldwide to understand the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, including the impact of T cell immunity and cross-recognition with seasonal coronaviruses. Screening of SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools revealed that the nucleocapsid (N) protein induced an immunodominant response in HLA-B7 COVID-19-recovered individuals that was also detectable in unexposed donors. A single N-encoded epitope that was highly conserved across circulating coronaviruses drove this immunodominant response. Read More

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Immunocompromised Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure: "Don't Wait to Intubate?"

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

The Canberra Hospital, Intensive Care Unit, Woden (Canberra) , Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

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CCL17-expressing dendritic cells in the intestine are preferentially infected by Salmonella but CCL17 plays a redundant role in systemic dissemination.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Immunology and Environment, Life and Medical Sciences (LIMES) Institute, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Introduction: Salmonella spp. are a recognized and global cause of serious health issues from gastroenteritis to invasive disease. The mouse model of human typhoid fever, which uses Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM) in susceptible mouse strains, has revealed that the bacteria gain access to extraintestinal tissues from the gastrointestinal tract to cause severe systemic disease. Read More

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Gendering the seed: Mitochondrial replacement techniques and the erasure of the maternal.

Bioethics 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

In order to avoid the implication that 'mitochondrial replacement techniques' (MRT) would produce 'three parent babies', discourses around these techniques typically dismiss the contribution of the mitochondria to genetic parenthood and personal identity. According to many participants in debates about MRT, 'real parenthood' is a matter of contributing nuclear DNA, which in turn implies that men and women make the same contribution to the embryo. Even when the importance of the mitochondria is acknowledged, an emphasis on mitochondrial DNA still has the effect of valorizing the role of DNA (and thus the paternal contribution to conception) at the expense of the role played by the cytoplasm of the oocyte in the development of the embryo and placenta, and that of the mother's body in gestation. Read More

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Tree growth responses to temporal variation in rainfall differ across a continental-scale climatic gradient.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0249959. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Globally, many biomes are being impacted by significant shifts in total annual rainfall as well as increasing variability of rainfall within and among years. Such changes can have potentially large impacts on plant productivity and growth, but remain largely unknown, particularly for much of the Southern Hemisphere. We investigate how growth of the widespread conifer, Callitris columellaris varied with inter-annual variation in the amount, intensity and frequency of rainfall events over the last century and between semi-arid (<500 mm mean annual rainfall) and tropical (>800 mm mean annual rainfall) biomes in Australia. Read More

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DRAXIN regulates interhemispheric fissure remodelling to influence the extent of corpus callosum formation.

Elife 2021 May 4;10. Epub 2021 May 4.

Queensland Brain Institute, School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Corpus callosum dysgenesis (CCD) is a congenital disorder that incorporates either partial or complete absence of the largest cerebral commissure. Remodelling of the interhemispheric fissure (IHF) provides a substrate for callosal axons to cross between hemispheres, and its failure is the main cause of complete CCD. However, it is unclear whether defects in this process could give rise to the heterogeneity of expressivity and phenotypes seen in human cases of CCD. Read More

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A Review of Regulatory Frameworks Governing Biobanking in the Low and Middle Income Member Countries of BCNet.

Biopreserv Biobank 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Center of Genomics and Policy, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Biomedical research based on the sharing and use of ever larger volumes of samples and data is increasingly becoming an essential component of scientific discovery. The success of biobanking and genomic research is dependent on the broad sharing of resources for use by investigators. However, important ethical challenges need to be addressed for the sample and data sharing to be successful. Read More

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"Indium-labelled autologous platelet sequestration studies predict response to splenectomy in immune thrombocytopenia: An Australian experience".

Intern Med J 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Consultant Haematologist Andrew Love Cancer Centre, University Hospital Geelong.

Background: Splenectomy is an effective intervention in primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Attempts to define pre-clinical predictors of platelet response to splenectomy are inconsistent. Based on international studies defining the likelihood of platelet response using platelet sequestration, patients with relapsed/refractory ITP being considered for splenectomy at a regional Australian hospital were assessed with Indium-labelled autologous platelet sequestration (ILAPS) studies. Read More

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Has consumer-directed care improved the quality of life of older Australians? An exploratory empirical assessment.

Australas J Ageing 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Health and Social Care Economics Group, College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Objectives: To assess the impact of a Consumer Directed Care (CDC) model of service delivery on the quality of life of older people receiving home care packages.

Methods: Quality of life was assessed using validated instruments. The relationship between quality of life and length of time exposed to CDC was examined using descriptive statistical and multivariate regression analyses. Read More

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Dead or alive: microbial viability treatment reveals both active and inactive bacterial constituents in the fish gut microbiota.

J Appl Microbiol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Faculty of Science Engineering and Built Environment, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Vic., Australia.

Aims: This study evaluated the microbial viability of fish gut microbiota in both digesta (faecal) and mucosal samples using a modified propidium monoazide (PMA) protocol, followed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing.

Methods And Results: Digesta and gut mucosal samples from farmed yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) were collected and a modified PMA treatment was applied prior to DNA extraction to differentiate both active and nonviable microbial cells in the samples. All samples were then sequenced using a standard 16S rRNA approach. Read More

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Evolving landscape of cancer survivorship research: an analysis of the Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 2007-2020.

J Cancer Surviv 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

Purpose: To provide an analysis of papers published by the Journal of Cancer Survivorship (JCSU) from March 1, 2007 (its inception) until December 31, 2020.

Methods: Characteristics (locations, study type, cancer type, keywords assigned by original authors) of all included articles were extracted into EndNote X9 and were coded and analyzed using Excel, NVivo v.R1. Read More

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Characteristics Associated with Monitoring and Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B in a Large Cohort of Australian Adults.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Public Health and Community Medicine, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, 2052, Australia.

Background: Regular monitoring and treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are known to reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. We sought to describe patterns of monitoring and treatment among adults diagnosed with CHB in Australia.

Methods: Population-based prospective cohort study of Australian adults aged 45 + years followed by record-linkage to hepatitis B notifications, monitoring and treatment. Read More

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Non-glandular trichomes of sunflower is important in the absorption and translocation of foliar-applied Zn fertilizer.

J Exp Bot 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

The University of Queensland, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, St Lucia, Queensland, 4072, Australia.

Trichomes are potentially important for absorption of foliar fertilizers, yet little is known in this regard despite previous study showing that the non-glandular trichromes (NGTs) of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) accumulate high concentrations of foliar-applied Zn. This study investigated how foliar-applied Zn accumulates in the NGTs and the subsequent fate of this Zn. Time resolved synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy and transcriptional analyses were used to probe the movement of Zn in the NGTs, with the cuticle composition of the NGTs examined using confocal Raman microscopy. Read More

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The Global Field Epidemiology Roadmap: Enhancing Global Health Security by Accelerating the Development of Field Epidemiology Capacity Worldwide.

Health Secur 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Patrick W. O'Carroll, MD, MPH, is Sector Head, Health Systems Strengthening, The Task Force for Global Health, Decatur, GA. Martyn D. Kirk, MAppEpid, PhD, is a Professor, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. Carl Reddy, MBChB, FCPHM, MSc, is Director, Training Programs in Epidemiology and Public Health Interventions Network (TEPHINET), Decatur, GA. Oliver W. Morgan, FFPH, is Director, Health Emergency Information and Risk Assessment, Health Emergencies Programme, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Henry C. Baggett, MD, MPH, is Chief, Workforce and Institute Development Branch, Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. The findings and conclusions in this study are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or World Health Organization. A draft of the recommendations included as part of this commentary was presented at the 10th TEPHINET Global Scientific Conference in Atlanta, GA, October 29, 2019.

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Can new herbicide discovery allow weed management to outpace resistance evolution?

Pest Manag Sci 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Bayer AG, Industriepark Höchst, 65926 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

While herbicides are the most effective and widely adopted weed management approach, the evolution of multiple herbicide resistance in damaging weed species threatens the yield and profitability of many crops. Weeds accumulate multiple resistance mechanisms through sequential selection and/or gene flow, with long-range and international transport of herbicide resistant weeds proving to be a serious issue. Metabolic resistance mechanisms can confer resistance across multiple sites of action and even to herbicides not yet discovered. Read More

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Paediatric deceased donor kidney transplant in Australia: A 30-year review-What have paediatric bonuses achieved and where to from here?

Pediatr Transplant 2021 May 4:e14019. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Nephrology, Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia.

Background: In this 30-year national review, we describe trends in DD transplantation for paediatric recipients, assess the impact of paediatric allocation bonuses and identify outstanding areas of need for this population.

Methods: A retrospective review of all DD kidney only transplants to paediatric recipients (<18 years old) in Australia between 1989 and 2018 was conducted using deidentified extracts from the ANZDATA.

Results: Of the 1011 kidney only transplants performed in paediatric recipients during the study period, 426 (42%) were from deceased donors. Read More

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Prevalence of distress, its associated factors and referral to support services in people with cancer.

J Clin Nurs 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia.

Aims And Objectives: To (i) characterise prevalence of distress amongst people diagnosed with cancer, (ii) determine factors associated with increasing distress, (iii) describe reported problems for those with clinically significant distress and (iv) investigate the factors associated with referral to support services.

Background: International studies report a high prevalence of clinically significant distress in people with cancer. Australian studies are notably lacking. Read More

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Excitable models: Projections, targets, and the making of futures without disease.

Sociol Health Illn 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

In efforts to control disease, mathematical models and numerical targets play a key role. We take the elimination of a viral infection as a case for exploring mathematical models as 'evidence-making interventions'. Using interviews with mathematical modellers and implementation scientists, and focusing on the emergence of models of 'treatment-as-prevention' in hepatitis C control, we trace how projections detach from their calculative origins as social and policy practices. Read More

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Non-targeted screening of drugs.

Adam Cawley

Drug Test Anal 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Australian Racing Forensic Laboratory, Racing NSW, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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Eyes grow towards mild hyperopia rather than emmetropia in Chinese preschool children.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Preventative Ophthalmology, Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center, Shanghai Eye Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: To document one-year changes in refraction and refractive components in preschool children.

Methods: Children, 3-5 years old, in the Jiading District, Shanghai, were followed for one year. At each visit, axial length (AL), refraction under cycloplegia (1% cyclopentolate), spherical dioptres (DS), cylinder dioptres (DC), spherical equivalent refraction (SER) and corneal curvature radius (CR) were measured. Read More

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Exposure time is an important variable in quantifying post-dispersal seed removal.

Ecol Lett 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Evolution & Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, UNSW Sydney, Kensington, NSW, Australia.

A literature synthesis concluded that small mammals have the greatest impact on post-dispersal removal of intermediate-sized seeds (Dylewski et al. 2020). However, this study failed to consider the duration of seed exposure to predators. Read More

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Low dose CT detected interstitial lung abnormalities in a population with low asbestos exposure.

Am J Ind Med 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Curtin Medical School, Curtin University, Perth, Western, Australia.

Background: The use of low dose CT (LDCT) chest is becoming more widespread in occupationally exposed populations. There is a knowledge gap as to heterogeneity in severity and the natural course of asbestosis after low levels of exposure. This study reports the characteristics of LDCT-detected interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA). Read More

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Association between knee symptoms, change in knee symptoms over 6-9 years, and SF-6D health state utility among middle-aged Australians.

Qual Life Res 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.

Objectives: Health state utilities (HSUs) are an input metric for estimating quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) in cost-utility analyses. Currently, there is a paucity of data on association of knee symptoms with HSUs for middle-aged populations. We aimed to describe the association of knee symptoms and change in knee symptoms with SF-6D HSUs and described the distribution of HSUs against knee symptoms' severity. Read More

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Do Psychological Needs Play a Role in Times of Uncertainty? Associations with Well-Being During the COVID-19 Crisis.

J Happiness Stud 2021 Apr 28:1-27. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Developmental, Personality, and Social Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Ghent University, Henri Dunantlaan 2, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Across the world, measures were taken to contain the spreading of the COVID-19 virus. Many of these measures caused a sudden rupture in people's daily routines, thereby eliciting considerable uncertainty and potentially also hampering the satisfaction of individuals' psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Drawing upon Maslow's Hierarchical Need Theory and Self-Determination Theory, this study examined the unique role of felt insecurity and the psychological needs, as well as their dynamic interplay, in the prediction of mental health. Read More

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Metabolic flexibility allows bacterial habitat generalists to become dominant in a frequently disturbed ecosystem.

ISME J 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Microbiology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

Ecological theory suggests that habitat disturbance differentially influences distributions of habitat generalist and specialist species. While well-established for macroorganisms, this theory has rarely been explored for microorganisms. Here we tested these principles in permeable (sandy) sediments, ecosystems with much spatiotemporal variation in resource availability and physicochemical conditions. Read More

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Chlorine disinfection facilitates natural transformation through ROS-mediated oxidative stress.

ISME J 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Advanced Water Management Centre (AWMC), The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

The bacterial infection that involves antimicrobial resistance is a rising global threat to public health. Chlorine-based water disinfection processes can inactivate antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, at the same time, these processes may cause the release of antibiotic resistance genes into the water as free DNA, and consequently increase the risk to disseminate antibiotic resistance via natural transformation. Read More

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A global carbon and nitrogen isotope perspective on modern and ancient human diet.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(19)

Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Australian Biodiversity and Heritage, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD 4870, Australia.

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses are widely used to infer diet and mobility in ancient and modern human populations, potentially providing a means to situate humans in global food webs. We collated 13,666 globally distributed analyses of ancient and modern human collagen and keratin samples. We converted all data to a common "Modern Diet Equivalent" reference frame to enable direct comparison among modern human diets, human diets prior to the advent of industrial agriculture, and the natural environment. Read More

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