120,579 results match your criteria Australian & New Zealand Journal Of Obstetrics & Gynaecology[Journal]


Freezing, melting and light stress on the photophysiology of ice algae: ex situ incubation of the ice algal diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus (Bacillariophyceae) using an ice tank.

J Phycol 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, North 10 West 5, Kita-Ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-0810, Japan.

Sea-ice algae contribute up to 25% of the primary productivity of polar seas and seed large-scale ice-edge blooms. Fluctuations in temperature, salinity, and light associated with the freeze/thaw cycle can significantly impact the photophysiology of ice-associated taxa. The effects of multiple co-stressors (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpy.13036DOI Listing

Alcohol advertisement characteristics that increase the likelihood of code breaches.

Int J Drug Policy 2020 May 25;81:102776. Epub 2020 May 25.

Cancer Council Western Australia, 420 Bagot Road, Subiaco, WA, 6008. Electronic address:

Background: Exposure to alcohol advertising is associated with adverse outcomes among youth. Alcohol advertising codes attempt to ensure that alcohol promotion meets community standards, especially in relation to minimising the exposure of children and young people. The aim of the present study was to assess the characteristics of Australian alcohol advertisements that breach the Alcohol Advertising Review Board's (AARB) Code, with a particular focus on provisions relating to youth exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102776DOI Listing

A cellulose degrading bacterial strain used to modify rice straw can enhance Cu(II) removal from aqueous solution.

Chemosphere 2020 May 21;256:127142. Epub 2020 May 21.

Fujian Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, 350007, Fujian Province, China. Electronic address:

The development of lignocellulose-based adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater has attracted much recent attention. In this work, a high-yield cellulose bacterial strain Comamonas testosteroni FJ17 was evaluated for its capacity to modify rice straw towards increased Cu(II) removal. For optimum modification time (45. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127142DOI Listing

Novel trial strategies to enhance the relevance, efficiency, effectiveness and impact of nephrology research.

Kidney Int 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Nephrology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Queensland, Australia; Australasian Kidney Trials Network, University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia; Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia.

Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) are considered the gold-standard for evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. However, criticisms of traditional designs are that they can be inefficient, inflexible, expensive and conducted in a manner disconnected from real-life clinical practice. Novel strategies and approaches are being utilised to overcome these limitations including comprehensive consumer engagement, core outcome sets, novel trial designs, streamlined data collection, cost-effectiveness and return on investment evaluations, knowledge dissemination plans and impact evaluation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.04.050DOI Listing

TESTOSTERONE SUPPRESSION DOES NOT EXACERBATE DISUSE ATROPHY AND IMPAIRS MUSCLE RECOVERY THAT IS NOT RESCUED BY HIGH PROTEIN.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

College of Health and Biomedicine, Victoria University, Australia.

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) decreases muscle mass, force, and physical activity levels but it is unclear if disuse atrophy and testosterone suppression are additive. Additionally, conflicting reports exist on load-mediated hypertrophy during ADT and if protein supplementation offsets these deficits. This study sought to determine the role of testosterone suppression and a high protein diet on 1) immobilization-induced atrophy and 2) muscle regrowth during reloading. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00752.2019DOI Listing

Four-week outcomes of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors for neovascular age related macular degeneration.

Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

The Save Sight Institute, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Importance: To assess early outcomes of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor treatment in neovascular age related macular degeneration (nAMD) before patients have a chance to miss or discontinue treatment.

Background: Intravitreal VEGF inhibitors used to treat nAMD have been compared in various ways. The present study compared the 4-week responses to the first injection of either aflibercept, bevacizumab or ranibizumab. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ceo.13798DOI Listing

'Being a good girl': mother-daughter sexual communication in contemporary Vietnam.

Authors:
Thu Huong Bui

Cult Health Sex 2020 May 28:1-14. Epub 2020 May 28.

Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

This paper examines the ways in which certain fractions of urban educated women residing in Hanoi, Vietnam communicate with their daughters about sex and pleasure, and the various meanings attributed to these verbal interchanges. Drawing on a limited number of qualitative in-depth interviews, the findings suggests that these intimate conversations were framed by discourses concerning the purity of 'modern' women. A distinct lack of sexual knowledge and experience, along with a more generalised shyness in communicating about sexual matters, continue to be highly indicative of those deemed to be 'women of purity', especially before marriage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13691058.2020.1742383DOI Listing

Factors associated with hypertension and its management among older rural Australians.

Aust J Rural Health 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.

Objectives: Hypertension is a leading risk factor for death and disability. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of hypertension in an older rural Australian cohort and identify predictors of hypertension management.

Design: Analysis of cross-sectional data collected from participants in a prospective cohort study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajr.12634DOI Listing

Indigenous Preferences for Inpatient Rooms in Australian Hospitals: A Mixed-Methods Study in Cross-Cultural Design.

HERD 2020 May 28:1937586720925552. Epub 2020 May 28.

Institute for Learning Sciences and Teacher Education, Australian Catholic University, Australia.

Aim: This mixed-method study aimed to establish preliminary evidence for spatial and design features that can improve the experience and participation of Indigenous inpatients in healthcare.

Background: Disadvantaged across a range of health measures, a disproportionately high number of Indigenous people leave hospital without receiving appropriate medical care. Australian government policies to improve cultural safety of Indigenous patients have largely ignored physical settings and their potential to improve health outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1937586720925552DOI Listing

Principles of disability support in rural and remote Australia: Lessons from parents and carers.

Health Soc Care Community 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Australia.

This study describes the understanding, experiences and expectations of families living in rural and remote Australia regarding core concepts relating to disability service provision, including person-centred practice (PCP), family-centred practice (FCP), transdisciplinary practice (TDP), choice, control, inclusion, and equity. Thirteen parents or carers, each with a child with an intellectual disability aged between 6 and 16 years, living in rural and remote areas as described by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification - Remoteness Area (ASGC-RA) and Modified Monash Model (MMM) - were recruited through distribution of flyers (hard copies or by email) to clinicians, schools, and advocacy agencies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants either in-person or via telephone between July and October 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hsc.13033DOI Listing

The genetic architecture of maternal effects across ontogeny in the red deer.

Evolution 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3FL, UK.

Maternal effects, either environmental or genetic in origin, are an underappreciated source of phenotypic variance in natural populations. Maternal genetic effects have the potential to constrain or enhance the evolution of offspring traits depending on their magnitude and their genetic correlation with direct genetic effects. We estimated the maternal effect variance and its genetic component for twelve traits expressed over the life-history in a pedigreed population of wild red deer (morphology, survival/longevity, breeding success). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evo.14000DOI Listing

Rural and remote dental care: Patient characteristics and health care provision.

Aust J Rural Health 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

The Royal Flying Doctor Service, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Objective: To describe the characteristics of patients who used the Royal Flying Doctor Service dental clinics and determine Royal Flying Doctor Service and non-Royal Flying Doctor Service dental service provision in mainland Australia.

Design: A prospective cohort study.

Setting: All Royal Flying Doctor Service dental clinics located throughout rural and remote Australia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajr.12631DOI Listing

Commentary on "Morphine-induced respiratory depression is independent of β-arrestin2 signalling".

Authors:
Karen J Gregory

Br J Pharmacol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Drug Discovery Biology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.15090DOI Listing

The major photoprotective role of anthocyanins in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana under long-term high light treatment: antioxidant or light attenuator?

Photosynth Res 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology for Plant Development, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Subtropical Biodiversity and Biomonitoring, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, People's Republic of China.

Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments in plants known for their photoprotective role against photoinhibitory and photooxidative damage under high light (HL). However, it remains unclear whether light-shielding or antioxidant activity plays a major role in the photoprotection exerted by anthocyanins under HL stress. To shed light on this question, we analyzed the physiological and biochemical responses to HL of three Arabidopsis thaliana lines (Col, chi, ans) with different light absorption and antioxidant characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11120-020-00761-8DOI Listing

Comorbid anxiety and irritability symptoms and their association with cognitive functioning in children with ADHD.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

School of Psychology, Faculty of Health, Deakin University Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Anxiety and irritability symptoms frequently co-occur in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This study aims to investigate whether irritability and anxiety are uniquely associated with performance on measures of cognitive functioning in children with ADHD and whether these associations hold when accounting for confounding variables. Baseline data was used from a randomised controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety in children with ADHD (N = 219, 8-13 years). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-020-00658-zDOI Listing

Pharmacological inhibition of sodium-proton-exchanger subtype 3-mediated sodium absorption in the gut reduces atrial fibrillation susceptibility in obese spontaneously hypertensive rats.

Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc 2020 Jun 20;28:100534. Epub 2020 May 20.

Klinik für Innere Medizin III, Universität des Saarlandes, 66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany.

Background: Increased sodium uptake has been shown to contribute to hypertension and cardiac end-organ damage. The sodium-proton-exchanger subtype 3 (NHE3) is an important mediator of intestinal sodium absorption. Whether a reduction in intestinal sodium absorption can prevent the development of an atrial arrhythmogenic substrate in hypertension is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2020.100534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243186PMC

Prevalence of intellectual disability in New South Wales, Australia: a multi-year cross-sectional dataset by Local Government Area (LGA).

Data Brief 2020 Aug 12;31:105673. Epub 2020 May 12.

University of Technology Sydney.

The presented dataset relates to a research project titled "My Home My Community" undertaken at University of Technology Sydney (UTS) which has been funded by the National Disability Insurance Agency (NDIA) Australia. The dataset reports estimated prevalence rates of Intellectual Disability in NSW by local government area (LGA) from 2010 - 2015. The dataset is a re-examination of a cohort of 92, 542 people with intellectual disability from a larger linked research dataset built by . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243054PMC

Social robots as treatment agents: Pilot randomized controlled trial to deliver a behavior change intervention.

Internet Interv 2020 Sep 7;21:100320. Epub 2020 May 7.

Centre for Children's Health Research, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation and School of Psychology and Counselling, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.

Social robots are increasingly demonstrating effectiveness as low-intensity behavior change agents. Key targets for these behavioral interventions include daily lifestyle behaviors with significant health consequences, such as the consumption of high-calorie foods and drinks ('snacks'). A pilot randomized controlled trial using a stepped-wedge design was conducted to determine the efficacy of a motivational intervention by an autonomous robot, to help reduce high-calorie snacks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2020.100320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240221PMC
September 2020

The non-specific and sex-differential effects of vaccines.

Nat Rev Immunol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

The textbook view of vaccination is that it functions to induce immune memory of the specific pathogen components of the vaccine, leading to a quantitatively and qualitatively better response if the host is exposed to infection with the same pathogen. However, evidence accumulated over the past few decades increasingly suggests that vaccines can also have non-specific effects on unrelated infections and diseases, with important implications for childhood mortality particularly in low-income settings. Furthermore, many of these non-specific effects, as well as the pathogen-specific effects, of vaccines show differences between the sexes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-020-0338-xDOI Listing

A modified technique for intraluminal stenting of glaucoma drainage devices: The guide-wire technique.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2020 Jun;68(6):1151-1153

Department of Ophthalmology, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, Australia.

Glaucoma drainage tubes have become increasingly popular in the surgical management of uncontrolled glaucoma. Flow restriction is essential to prevent early postoperative hypotony with non-flow restrictive glaucoma drainage devices. Herein, we describe a new way of using a 3-0 Supramid suture as an intraluminal stent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_1570_19DOI Listing

Semisynthesis of an evasin from tick saliva reveals a critical role of tyrosine sulfation for chemokine binding and inhibition.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

School of Chemistry, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia;

Blood-feeding arthropods produce antiinflammatory salivary proteins called evasins that function through inhibition of chemokine-receptor signaling in the host. Herein, we show that the evasin ACA-01 from the tick can be posttranslationally sulfated at two tyrosine residues, albeit as a mixture of sulfated variants. Homogenously sulfated variants of the proteins were efficiently assembled via a semisynthetic native chemical ligation strategy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2000605117DOI Listing

Cohort profile: the Australian genetics of depression study.

BMJ Open 2020 May 26;10(5):e032580. Epub 2020 May 26.

QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Queensland, Australia.

Purpose: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder and the largest contributor to global disability. The Australian Genetics of Depression study was established to recruit a large cohort of individuals who have been diagnosed with depression at some point in their lifetime. The purpose of establishing this cohort is to investigate genetic and environmental risk factors for depression and response to commonly prescribed antidepressants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-032580DOI Listing

CCL17 in Inflammation and Pain.

J Immunol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Medicine, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3050, Australia.

It has been reported that a GM-CSF→CCL17 pathway, originally identified in vitro in macrophage lineage populations, is implicated in the control of inflammatory pain, as well as arthritic pain and disease. We explore, in this study and in various inflammation models, the cellular CCL17 expression and its GM-CSF dependence as well as the function of CCL17 in inflammation and pain. This study used models allowing the convenient cell isolation from reporter mice; it also exploited both CCL17-dependent and unique CCL17-driven inflammatory pain and arthritis models, the latter permitting a radiation chimera approach to help identify the CCL17 responding cell type(s) and the mediators downstream of CCL17 in the control of inflammation and pain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2000315DOI Listing

COVID-19: in the footsteps of Ernest Shackleton.

Thorax 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Royal Australian College of General Practitioners, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

We describe what we believe is the first instance of complete COVID-19 testing of all passengers and crew on an isolated cruise ship during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Of the 217 passengers and crew on board, 128 tested positive for COVID-19 on reverse transcription-PCR (59%). Of the COVID-19-positive patients, 19% (24) were symptomatic; 6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2020-215091DOI Listing

Financial ties between leaders of influential US professional medical associations and industry: cross sectional study.

BMJ 2020 05 27;369:m1505. Epub 2020 May 27.

Charles Perkins Centre and School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Objective: To investigate the nature and extent of financial relationships between leaders of influential professional medical associations in the United States and pharmaceutical and device companies.

Design: Cross sectional study.

Setting: Professional associations for the 10 costliest disease areas in the US according to the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1505DOI Listing

Geographic service delivery for endovascular clot retrieval: Using Discrete Event Simulation to Optimize Resources.

World Neurosurg 2020 May 24. Epub 2020 May 24.

Interventional Neuroradiology Service - Department of Radiology, Austin Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; Interventional Neuroradiology Service - Department of Radiology, Monash Health, Melbourne, Australia; School of Medicine - Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Australia; Interventional Radiology Service - Department of Radiology, St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; Stroke Theme, The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Endovascular clot retrieval (ECR) is the standard of care for acute ischaemic stroke caused by large vessel occlusion. Reducing stroke symptom onset to reperfusion time is associated with improved functional outcomes. This study aims to develop a computational model to predict and identify time-related outcomes of community stroke calls within a geographic area based on variable parameters to support planning and coordination of ECR services. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.05.168DOI Listing

Hamstring strength and architectural adaptations following inertial flywheel resistance training.

J Sci Med Sport 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

School of Behavioural and Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia; Sports Performance, Recovery, Injury and New Technologies (SPRINT) Research Centre, Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Objectives: To investigate the architectural and strength adaptations of the hamstrings following 6-weeks of inertial flywheel resistance training.

Design: Randomised, stratified training intervention METHODS: Twenty healthy males undertook 6-weeks of a conventional (n=10) or eccentrically biased (n=10) flywheel leg-curl training intervention as well as a subsequent 4-week detraining period. Biceps femoris long head (BFlh) architecture was assessed weekly, whilst assessments of eccentric and isometric knee flexor strength and rate of force development (RFD) were conducted prior to and following the intervention and detraining periods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2020.04.007DOI Listing

Unification at the cost of realism and precision.

Behav Brain Sci 2020 May 28;43:e95. Epub 2020 May 28.

School of Philosophy, the Australian National University, Canberra, 0200ACT, Australia.

Veissière et al. must sacrifice explanatory realism and precision in order to develop a unified formal model. Drawing on examples from cognitive archeology, we argue that this makes it difficult for them to derive the kinds of testable predictions that would allow them to resolve debates over the nature of human social cognition and cultural acquisition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X19002760DOI Listing

Clinicians' attitudes and perceived barriers and facilitators to cancer treatment clinical practice guideline adherence: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative literature.

Implement Sci 2020 May 27;15(1):39. Epub 2020 May 27.

Australian Institute of Health Innovation (AIHI), Macquarie University, Level 6, 75 Talavera Road, Sydney, NSW, 2019, Australia.

Background: Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) synthesize the best available evidence to guide clinician and patient decision making. There are a multitude of barriers and facilitators to clinicians adhering to CPGs; however, little is known about active cancer treatment CPG adherence specifically. This systematic review sought to identify clinician attitudes, and perceived barriers and facilitators to active cancer treatment CPG adherence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13012-020-00991-3DOI Listing

Protocol for the economic evaluation of the InTENSE program for rehabilitation of chronic upper limb spasticity.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 May 27;20(1):478. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Neurosciences, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Assessment of the costs of care associated with chronic upper-limb spasticity following stroke in Australia and the potential benefits of adding intensive upper limb rehabilitation to botulinum toxin-A are key objectives of the InTENSE randomised controlled trial.

Methods: Recruitment for the trial has been completed. A total of 139 participants from 6 stroke units across 3 Australian states are participating in the trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05333-zDOI Listing

Inverse Relationship Between Lipopolysaccharide Concentration and Monocyte and Dendritic Cells Inflammatory Response.

J Interferon Cytokine Res 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Research and Development, Australian Red Cross Lifeblood, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes are key immunoregulatory cells that link the innate and adaptive immune response. However, understanding of human cell-specific responses to different doses of stimuli including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is limited. This study investigated the monocyte and classical DC (cDC)-specific, as well as the overall inflammatory response after exposure to varying doses of LPS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jir.2019.0244DOI Listing

Link between increased cellular senescence and extracellular matrix changes in COPD.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, Netherlands.

COPD is associated with features of accelerated aging, including cellular senescence, DNA damage, oxidative stress, and extracellular matrix (ECM) changes. We propose that these features are particularly apparent in patients with severe, early-onset (SEO-)COPD. Whether fibroblasts from COPD patients display features of accelerated aging and whether this is also present in, relatively young, SEO-COPD patients is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00028.2020DOI Listing

National Trends in Antibiotic Use in Australian Residential Aged Care Facilities, 2005-2016.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Registry of Senior Australians, Health Ageing Research Consortium, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Background: Understanding current patterns of antibiotic use in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) is essential to inform stewardship activities, but limited utilization data exist. This study examined changes in prevalence and consumption of antibiotics in Australian RACFs between 2005-2006 and 2015-2016.

Methods: This population-based, repeated cross-sectional analysis included all long-term permanent residents of Australian RACFs between July 2005 and June 2016 who were aged ≥ 65 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa436DOI Listing

Association of Age-Related Cataract With Skin Cancer in an Australian Population.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020 May;61(5):48

,.

Purpose: Ultraviolet radiation from sunlight contributes to age-related cataract and skin cancer. The EPHA2 gene is implicated in both these diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age-related cataract and skin cancer are associated in a cohort of older Australians. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.61.5.48DOI Listing

Algal turf sediments limit the spatial extent of function delivery on coral reefs.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 24;734:139422. Epub 2020 May 24.

ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies and College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia.

The presence of key organisms is frequently associated with the delivery of specific ecosystem functions. Areas with such organisms are therefore often considered to have greater levels of these functions. While this assumption has been the backbone of coral reef ecosystem-based management approaches for decades, we currently have only a limited understanding of how fish presence equates to function on coral reefs and whether this relationship is susceptible to stressors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139422DOI Listing

Towards modelling the future risk of cyclone wave damage to the world's coral reefs.

Glob Chang Biol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Australian Institute of Marine Science, Crawley, WA, Australia.

Tropical cyclones generate extreme waves that can damage coral reef communities. Recovery typically requires up to a decade, driving the trajectory of coral community structure. Coral reefs have evolved over millennia with cyclones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15136DOI Listing

Pertussis vaccination and Allergic illness in Australian children.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

There has been ongoing interest in the temporal association between the change from whole cell pertussis (wP)-containing to acellular pertussis (aP)-containing vaccines in the routine infant immunization schedule in Australia and increases in childhood food allergies. This is because of the tendency of aP, but not wP, vaccines to promote TH2 immune responses, which are known to predispose children to allergy and allergic disease A recent analysis of ICD coded data for anaphylaxis-related hospitalisations in Australia found that observed increases between the years 1998-1999 and 2004-2005 continued between the years 2005-2006 and 2011-20012, especially in older children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pai.13300DOI Listing

Gender differences in the longitudinal association between obesity, and disability with workplace absenteeism in the Australian working population.

PLoS One 2020 27;15(5):e0233512. Epub 2020 May 27.

Centre for Health Research, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD, Australia.

Background: Excess weight can increase absenteeism of workers and can have a negative influence on their productivity. Current evidence on this association is mostly based on cross-sectional data and there is little evidence concerning the longitudinal relationship between obesity, and disability with workplace absenteeism. Further, gender differences in this association have often ignored in the existing literature. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233512PLOS

A chronological model for the Late Paleolithic at Shuidonggou Locality 2, North China.

PLoS One 2020 27;15(5):e0232682. Epub 2020 May 27.

Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

The site of Shuidonggou Locality 2 offers important evidence for the Late Paleolithic sequence of north China. The site not only contains one of the earliest instances of ornamental freshwater shell and ostrich eggshell beads in the region, but also stone artifacts with features arguably resembling the Initial Upper Paleolithic (IUP) blade technology found farther north. The appearance of these innovative archaeological forms have been attributed to the arrival of hominin populations, possibly modern humans, into the region during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232682PLOS

The Effect of Overreaching on Neuromuscular Performance and Wellness Responses in Australian Rules Football Athletes.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 Jun;34(6):1530-1538

School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Queensland, Australia.

Campbell, PG, Stewart, IB, Sirotic, AC, and Minett, GM. Title: The effect of overreaching on neuromuscular performance and wellness responses in Australian rules football athletes. J Strength Cond Res 34(6): 1530-1538, 2020-This study seeks to evaluate the effect of periodized fluctuations in training load on wellness and psychological questionnaires, perceived exertion, performance, and neuromuscular measures in team-sport athletes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003603DOI Listing

Criterion Validity, and Interunit and Between-Day Reliability of the FLEX for Measuring Barbell Velocity During Commonly Used Resistance Training Exercises.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 Jun;34(6):1519-1524

School of Behavioural and Health Sciences, Australian Campus University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Weakley, J, Chalkley, D, Johnston, R, García-Ramos, A, Townshend, A, Dorrell, H, Pearson, M, Morrison, M, and Cole, M. Criterion validity, and interunit and between-day reliability of the FLEX for measuring barbell velocity during commonly used resistance training exercises. J Strength Cond Res 34(6): 1519-1524, 2020-The aim of this study was to assess the criterion validity, interunit reliability (accounting for technological and biological variance), and between-day reliability of a novel optic laser device (FLEX) for quantifying mean concentric velocity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003592DOI Listing

Do stress, life satisfaction, depression and alcohol use predict quitting among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers?

Aust N Z J Public Health 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

CSIRO, Victoria.

Objective: To examine whether baseline measures of stress, life satisfaction, depression and alcohol use predict making or sustaining quit attempts in a national cohort of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers.

Methods: We analysed data from the nationally representative quota sample of 1,549 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults who reported smoking at least weekly in the Talking About The Smokes baseline survey (April 2012-October 2013) and the 759 who completed a follow-up survey a year later (August 2013-August 2014).

Results: More smokers who reported negative life satisfaction, feeling depressed, higher stress or drinking heavily less often than once a week at baseline made a quit attempt between the baseline and follow-up surveys. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.12993DOI Listing

The emerging role of microfluidics in multi-material 3D bioprinting.

Lab Chip 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Applied Micro- and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia. and The Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, Australian National Fabrication Facility - Victorian Node, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia.

To assist the transition of 3D bioprinting technology from simple lab-based tissue fabrication, to fully functional and implantable organs, the technology must not only provide shape control, but also functional control. This can be accomplished by replicating the cellular composition of the native tissue at the microscale, such that cell types interact to provide the desired function. There is therefore a need for precise, controllable, multi-material printing that could allow for high, possibly even single cell, resolution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9lc01184fDOI Listing

Content and Quality of Infant Feeding Smartphone Apps: Five-Year Update on a Systematic Search and Evaluation.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2020 May 27;8(5):e17300. Epub 2020 May 27.

Susan Wakil School of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, Australia.

Background: Parents use apps to access information on child health, but there are no standards for providing evidence-based advice, support, and information. Well-developed apps that promote appropriate infant feeding and play can support healthy growth and development. A 2015 systematic assessment of smartphone apps in Australia about infant feeding and play found that most apps had minimal information, with poor readability and app quality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/17300DOI Listing

Dietary Intake Nutritional Status and Lifestyle of Adolescent Vegetarian and Nonvegetarian Girls in New Zealand (The SuNDiAL Project): Protocol for a Clustered, Cross-Sectional Survey.

JMIR Res Protoc 2020 May 27;9(5):e17310. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Background: Anecdotally, vegetarian eating patterns seem to be increasing in parallel with growing concerns about environmental sustainability. While this pattern of eating is widely believed to be associated with benefits for the planet and individual health, it may increase the risk of inadequate intakes and nutrient deficiency if not planned carefully. Adolescent girls may be particularly at risk, as they have increased requirements for nutrients such as iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamin B12 during growth and development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/17310DOI Listing

Transgenesis and web resources in quail.

Elife 2020 May 27;9. Epub 2020 May 27.

Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Australia.

Due to its amenability to manipulations, to live observation and its striking similarities to mammals, the chicken embryo has been one of the major animal models in biomedical research. Although it is technically possible to genome-edit the chicken, its long generation time (6 months to sexual maturity) makes it an impractical lab model and has prevented it widespread use in research. The Japanese quail () is an attractive alternative, very similar to the chicken, but with the decisive asset of a much shorter generation time (1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.56312DOI Listing

A Polydiacetylene-Based Colorimetric Sensor as an Active Use-By Date for Plant-Based Milk Alternatives.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2020 May 27:e2000172. Epub 2020 May 27.

School of Chemical Engineering and Australian Centre for Nanomedicine (ACN), The University of New South Wales (UNSW Sydney), Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia.

Existing date marking tools, such as use-by and sell-by dates, fail to inform decision-making throughout food distribution because they do not adapt to storage conditions such as temperature. Polymer-based sensors can be incorporated into food packaging to provide an indication of food quality in real time, which can greatly reduce waste. This work identifies free fatty acid (FFA) as a marker for the quality of plant-based milk and demonstrates the first detection tool for the freshness of almond milk using phospholipid-doped polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.202000172DOI Listing

Identifying Dense NiSe /CoSe Heterointerfaces Coupled with Surface High-Valence Bimetallic Sites for Synergistically Enhanced Oxygen Electrocatalysis.

Adv Mater 2020 May 27:e2000607. Epub 2020 May 27.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, P. R. China.

Constructing heterostructures with abundant interfaces is essential for integrating the multiple functionalities in single entities. Herein, the synthesis of NiSe /CoSe heterostructures with different interfacial densities via an innovative strategy of successive ion injection is reported. The resulting hybrid electrocatalyst with dense heterointerfaces exhibits superior electrocatalytic properties in an alkaline electrolyte, superior to other benchmarks and precious metal catalysts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202000607DOI Listing

Promoting healthy movement behaviours among children during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2020 Jun 29;4(6):416-418. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30131-0DOI Listing

Antimicrobial Resistance, Politics, and Practice in India.

Qual Health Res 2020 May 27:1049732320919088. Epub 2020 May 27.

Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

India is considered the epicenter of the global antimicrobial resistance crisis, with unprecedented antimicrobial consumption, production, and "misuse." But the story of resistance in India is complicated-emerging from intersections of industrial pharmaceutical development, rationing/purchasing of health care, policy infrastructure, and dynamics of disadvantage. What looks like rampant, escalating antimicrobial misuse and a need for tighter controls over drugs and "prescribers," emerges as a complex social problem. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049732320919088DOI Listing