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    1822 results match your criteria Australasian Psychiatry [Journal]

    1 OF 37

    To screen or not to screen? Vitamin D deficiency in chronic mental illness.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Sep 1:1039856217726717. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District, Wollongong, NSW, and; Graduate School of Medicine, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Objectives: The objective of the current study was to examine the pathology test utilisation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) within an Australian inpatient psychiatric setting.

    Method: A retrospective audit of 300 random hospital files of those admitted as inpatients between Nov 2014 and Nov 2015 was undertaken. Data was quantitatively analysed and described. Read More

    How adolescents perceive that community-based exercise improves their well-being.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Sep 1:1039856217726718. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Academic Theme Leader & Affiliated Researcher, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Objectives: To determine if adolescents perceive community-based exercise as beneficial to their well-being and in what ways.

    Methods: A New South Wales Police Citizens Youth Club ran a four-week fitness course. The classes involved: 1) sports including basketball and soccer, 2) non-contact boxing drills, and 3) games, both team games such as dodgeball and non-team games such as line tag. Read More

    Supervising trainees in research: what does it take to be a scholarly project supervisor?
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Sep 1:1039856217726696. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Department of Psychological Medicine, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Objectives: Scholarly projects (SPs) are a compulsory component of psychiatry training in Australasia. This article outlines the role of a research supervisor in supporting a trainee to complete an SP.

    Methods: A total of 10 old age and forensic psychiatry SPs were reviewed with regard to aims, methodology, supervisor input, trainee tasks and additional resources. Read More

    Psychiatric advance directives in Australian mental-health legislation.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Sep 1:1039856217726719. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Clinical Senior Lecturer, School of Medicine, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, NSW, and; Senior Staff Specialist Psychiatrist, Department of Psychiatry, Professor Marie Bashir Centre, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW, and; Graduate Student, College of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY, USA.
    Objective: Following the recent widespread reform of mental-health legislation in Australia, psychiatric advance directives (PADs) have now been incorporated in four jurisdictions. We contextualise the potential role for PADs within the Australian legal framework and note their varying introduction across jurisdictions, with a focus on progressive legislation in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT).

    Conclusion: The formal recognition of PADs effectively shifts the trajectory of mental-health law towards a stronger recognition of consumer autonomy, albeit to varying degrees across jurisdictions. Read More

    The 2016 RANZCP Guidelines for the Management of Schizophrenia and Related Disorders - what's next?
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Sep 1:1039856217726691. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Professor of Psychiatry, Discipline of Psychiatry, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA and; Ramsay Health Care (SA) Mental Health; Northern Adelaide Local Health Network, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Objectives: The recently published RANZCP guidelines for schizophrenia and related disorders reviewed recent scientific evidence, and, where lacking, referred to clinical expertise to supply a template for raising the standard of care. This paper builds on the guidelines and recommends how they might be used to improve outcomes.

    Methods: The guidelines call for evidence-based mental health policies, inclusive of mobilising affected families, communities and the public in support of policies that ensure better care and protect the wellbeing of people with severe mental disorders. Read More

    Expanding collaborative care: integrating the role of dietitians and nutrition interventions in services for people with mental illness.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Sep 1:1039856217726690. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Clinical Senior Lecturer, PhD, Psychiatry, Northern Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Objective: This article aims to draw mental health clinicians' attention to the connections between nutrition and mental health, and the roles that Accredited Practising Dietitians play in improving mental and physical health through dietary change.

    Methods: Selective narrative review.

    Results: Unhealthy dietary practices are common in high prevalence and severe mental illness. Read More

    Hope, recovery and symptoms: the importance of hope for people living with severe mental illness.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Sep 1:1039856217726693. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Professor of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne and North Western Mental Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Objectives: Hope is an important part of recovery from severe mental illness. Our aim was to assess hope and its correlation with symptoms in people living with severe mental illness.

    Methods: We used validated questionnaires to assess hope, social isolation, quality of life and symptoms among 60 people living with severe mental illness. Read More

    Anticholinergic burden in older inpatients on psychotropic medication: do we care?
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Sep 1:1039856217726687. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Project Supervisor Supervisor, Consultant Psychogeriatrician, West Moreton Mental Health Services, Ipswich, QLD, Australia.
    Objectives: This quality activity explored the prescribing patterns in an Older Persons Mental Health Inpatient Unit in order to establish whether the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden Scale (ACB Scale) score on admission was reviewed to minimise anticholinergic cognitive burden (ACB) while maintaining therapeutic effects.

    Methods: A retrospective electronic chart review of 50 discharged patients for any documented ACB review by the treating team, as well as the ACB Scale scores on admission and discharge.

    Findings: ACB was rarely considered. Read More

    Original opinion: the use of Bloom's Taxonomy to teach and assess the skill of the psychiatric formulation during vocational training.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Aug 1:1039856217726692. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry, Waikato District Health Board, Hamilton, New Zealand.
    Objectives: This paper proposes the use of the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy, an educational classification system, to guide the critical thinking required for the composition of the psychiatric formulation during the various stages of specialist training.

    Conclusions: Bloom's Taxonomy offers a hierarchical, structured approach to clinical reasoning. Use of this method can assist supervisors and trainees to understand better the concepts of and offer a developmental approach to critical reasoning. Read More

    Misrepresenting community treatment orders.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Aug 1:1039856217726699. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Consultant Psychiatrist, Kapiti Community Mental Health Team, Capital & Coast District Health Board, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Objectives: To explore a contradiction between evidence suggesting community treatment order (CTO) ineffectiveness and clinical experience.

    Conclusions: The literature pertaining to CTOs actually provides an evidence base for both positions. The headline that three randomised controlled trials and subsequent meta-analyses fail to demonstrate significant differences between groups reflects selection bias. Read More

    The making of mind.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Aug 1:1039856217726697. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    University of Sydney, Cumberland Hospital, Parramatta BC, NSW, Australia.
    Objectives The ordinary, ongoing sense of personal existing, variously called higher order consciousness, mind, or self, is disintegrated, constricted and distorted in those who have suffered repetitive psychological traumata. Their speech has the form of a 'chronicle', literal and asymbolic. This paper offers a condensed rationale for a relational approach to this, so far, neglected problem. Read More

    Game-based interventions and their impact on dementia: a narrative review.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Aug 1:1039856217726686. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Professor, School of Computing and Information Technology, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Objective: The aim of this review was to examine the efficacy of game-based interventions for people with dementia.

    Methods: Seven studies that met the inclusion criteria were found in four databases. Their interventions and key findings were analysed and synthesised. Read More

    Building a bridge: A case report on communicating mental-health diagnoses to patients of a culturally and linguistically diverse background.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Aug 1:1039856217726685. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Clinical Psychologist/Clinical Consultant and Practice Improvement Manager, NSW Transcultural Mental Health Centre, North Parramatta, NSW Australia Placement Coordinator, Postgraduate Psychology Programs; Discipline of Psychology, School of Social Sciences and Psychology, Western Sydney University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Objective: This paper is based on a case report, describing a protocol to help practitioners communicate mental-health diagnosis to patients from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. The protocol was presented by integrating the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) and the SPIKES protocol for communicating the diagnosis of cancer, yielding a modified CFI-SPIKES protocol (i.e. Read More

    Navigating the social synapse: the neurobiology of bedside manner.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Aug 1:1039856217726224. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Research, Mental Health Service, Sydney Local Health District, Concord, NSW, Australia.
    Objectives: This paper seeks to explore the application of neurobiology to further understanding the importance of developing, refining and modelling good bedside manner in psychiatry. The concept of a social synapse is used as a framework to understand the impact of verbal and non-verbal information that crosses between two attuned individuals. Research shows that widely distributed cortical and subcortical networks are involved in processing of social information and the perception of safety. Read More

    Amelioration of mild and moderate depression through Pranic Healing as adjuvant therapy: randomised double-blind controlled trial.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Aug 1:1039856217726449. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Professor, Pathology Department, Mysore Medical College & Research Institute, Mysuru, India.
    Objectives: Depression is a mental disorder, affecting the quality of life. Our study explores the efficacy of Pranic Healing (PH), as an adjuvant therapy in treating depression Methods: In this randomised double-blind controlled trial, 52 participants with a mean age of 34.4 years, with mild to moderate depression were assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating (HAM-D) scale during the 5-week study. Read More

    A review of ECG and QT interval measurement use in a public psychiatric inpatient setting.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Aug 1:1039856217726212. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Hunter New England Mental Health Service, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.
    Objectives: There is an increased rate of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in mental health patients. Some antipsychotic medications are known to prolong the QT interval, thus increasing a patient's risk of SCD via the arrhythmia, torsades de pointes (TdP). Our aim was to evaluate assessment for QT prolongation within a public inpatient mental health facility by auditing electrocardiograph (ECG) use. Read More

    An audit of patient aggression in an adult psychiatric unit: 2013-2014.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Aug 1:1039856217726222. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Chair of Psychiatry, St Vincent's Mental Health, Fitzroy, VIC, Australia.
    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the rates of patient aggression in a psychiatric unit over 12 months and to determine underlying causes, notably the role of substances.

    Methods: A retrospective file audit was undertaken of all patients admitted to St Vincent's psychiatric unit (Melbourne, Australia) in the first half of 2013 and 2014 involved in an aggressive incident. Patient information included demographics, psychiatric, substance and aggression history. Read More

    'Not quite out of the woods': potential for misdiagnosis of delayed neurologic syndrome of carbon monoxide poisoning as relapse of mental illness.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Aug 1:1039856217726695. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Visiting Psychiatrist and Clinical Lead, Redcliffe-Caboolture Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry Service, Caboolture, QLD, Australia.
    Objective: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the delayed neurologic syndrome of carbon monoxide poisoning and its clinical importance in psychiatric settings.

    Method: A brief review of carbon monoxide poisoning is presented with a focus on the delayed neurologic syndrome and a case of deliberate self- poisoning is described.

    Results: As in the case described, the delayed manifestations of carbon monoxide poisoning can resemble a relapse of psychiatric illness. Read More

    The trip of a lifetime: hallucinogen persisting perceptual disorder.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Aug 1:1039856217726694. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Neuropsychiatrist Royal Melbourne Hospital, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Parkville, VIC, Australia.
    Objectives: The differential diagnosis of psychotic symptoms is broad and extends beyond primary psychotic and affective disorders. We aim to illustrate that the chronology and phenomenological nature of hallucinatory symptoms may provide clues towards alternative diagnoses, such as hallucinogen persisting perceptual disorder (HPPD). We describe the resurgence of visual pseudo-hallucinations in a young woman in the context of previous substance-induced hallucinatory symptoms and a prior diagnosis of occipital lobe epilepsy. Read More

    Assessment of yoga as an adjuvant treatment for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Aug 1;25(4):354-357. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Associate Professor, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA.
    Objectives: This study assessed yoga as an adjuvant strategy for symptoms of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Methods: Subjects had significant, combat-related PTSD. Control data were collected during an eight-week waiting period. Read More

    A perspective on the contribution of animal models to the pharmacological treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Aug;25(4):342-347
    Head of Research, Neurofit SAS, Illkirch, France.
    Objectives: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, chronic, disabling disorder that may develop following exposure to a traumatic event. This review summarizes currently used animal models of PTSD and their potential role in the development of better therapeutics. Heterogeneity is one of the main characteristics of PTSD with the consequence that many pharmacological approaches are used to relieve symptoms of PTSD. Read More

    Where pseudo-hallucinations meet dissociation: a cluster analysis.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Aug 1;25(4):364-368. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Psychiatry Registrar, Hollywood Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Objectives: The possible link between cognitive areas of perception and integration of consciousness was examined using assessments of hallucinations and derealisation/depersonalization.

    Methods: Sixty-five subjects in three main diagnostic groups - posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia - identified by their treating psychiatrist as hearing voices were surveyed regarding characteristics of hallucinations, derealisation/depersonalization, delusions and childhood/adult trauma.

    Results: A cluster analysis produced two clusters predominantly determined by variables of hallucinations measures, childhood sexual abuse and derealisation/depersonalization scores. Read More

    Prevalence, characteristics and management of headache experienced by people with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: a cross sectional cohort study.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Aug 8;25(4):381-384. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Professor, The University of Notre Dame Australia, Fremantle, WA, Australia.
    Objectives: Headache is the most common type of pain reported by people with schizophrenia. This study aimed to establish prevalence, characteristics and management of these headaches.

    Methods: One hundred participants with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder completed a reliable and valid headache questionnaire. Read More

    Developing a metformin prescribing tool for use in adults with mental illness to reduce medication-related weight gain and cardiovascular risk.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Aug 1;25(4):387-390. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Regional Director of Training, Northern Adelaide Local Health Network, Adelaide, SA, and; Discipline of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, and; Ramsay Health Care (SA) Mental Health Services, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Objectives: There is considerable evidence that metformin reduces weight gain associated with antipsychotic medication. The aim of this study was to develop an easy-to-use metformin prescribing tool in order to enable clinicians to prescribe metformin safely and confidently.

    Methods: The authors undertook a survey of clinicians and reviewed the published literature and existing guidelines concerning the use of metformin to reduce weight gain in adults with mental illness. Read More

    The changing face of posttraumatic stress disorder in modern warfare.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Aug 21;25(4):336-338. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    Clinical Psychologist, Australian Army Psychology Corps, Australian Defence Force, Randwick, NSW, Australia.
    Objectives: This study examined aspects of modern warfare and determined whether they have changed the clinical presentation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Conclusions: The relationship between PTSD, mild traumatic brain injury, unmanned aerial vehicle operations and women in combat examined. It was concluded that there are significant changes in how contemporary combat veterans may present with PTSD. Read More

    Out, out, damned blind spot! The problem of anxiety with dynamic psychotherapy.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Jul 1:1039856217716294. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Specialist Mental Health Services for Older Persons, Hornsby Hospital, Sydney, NSW, and; Clinical Lecturer, School of Medicine Sydney University Senior Lecturer, School of Medicine Western Sydney University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Objectives: This article discusses Lady Macbeth's famous sleepwalking scene from the Shakespearean tragedy, and how it became used as a template for the formulation of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Conclusions: Psychoanalysis maintained its role in understanding the condition, despite the lack of evidence base and the repeated finding from many therapists of a failure to control symptomatology. It is suggested that psychodynamic psychotherapy suffered from a failure to recognise what components of its practice were aesthetically attractive concepts rather than evidence-based medicine and outcome measures, and is an important issue in considering its future directions. Read More

    Zoophilia in an adolescent with high-functioning autism from Sri Lanka.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Jul 1:1039856217715997. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Senior Registrar in Psychiatry, Colombo North Teaching Hospital, Ragama, Sri Lanka.
    Objective: Zoophilia is a rare paraphilic disorder with intense sexual urges involving animals. Autism is characterised by impairments in social communication and repetitive, restricted behaviours (RRB). Reported cases of zoophilia are limited worldwide, and zoophilia in autism is rarer. Read More

    Publish or perish: Dr Victor Webster and cardiazol treatment in Western Australia, 1937-1938.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Jul 1:1039856217715994. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Clinical Research Centre, NMHS MH, Australia; and Adjunct Senior Research Fellow, University of Western Australia, Mount Claremont, WA, Australia.
    Objective: To examine the role of Dr Victor Henry Webster (1905-1980) in the introduction of cardiazol therapy to Western Australia in November 1937.

    Method: A range of primary and secondary sources were consulted.

    Results: Webster experimented with cardiazol treatment at Heathcote Reception Home, and published his findings in April 1938, at the same time as Ellery and Lear, but was not able to publish his results in a nationally-recognised journal. Read More

    Characteristics and outcomes of patients with drug overdose requiring admission to Intensive Care Unit.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Jul 1:1039856217706824. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Consultant in intensive care medicine, Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Frankston Hospital, Peninsula Health, Frankston, VIC, and; Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Objective: Approximately 20% of patients admitted to hospital with drug overdose will require intensive care unit (ICU) admission. An understanding of the characteristics of these patients may assist with their management and identify those patients at risk of multiple hospital presentations due to drug overdose. Our aim was to examine the characteristics of patients admitted to ICU following drug overdoses and identify the predictors of multiple hospital presentations due to drug overdose. Read More

    What's to be done when 'foul whisp rings are abroad'? Gossip and rumour in health organisations.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Jul 1:1039856217716292. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Department of Psychiatry, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, and; Department of Psychiatry University of NSW, Sydney, NSW; Sydney Local Health District; School of Medicine University of Western Sydney, NSW, and; Department of Psychiatry, Hanoi Medical University, Vietnam.
    Objectives: This article explores the relevance of gossip and rumour to health organisations and presents what limited empirical research is available specific to the management of gossip and rumour in health organisations.

    Conclusion: The concept of a sentinel function for gossip and rumour in health organisations is proposed as a topic worthy of further research. Read More

    Supervision: 'a random bag of arrangements'? Perspectives from psychiatrists on how to improve clinical teaching.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Jul 1:1039856217716291. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Director of Training (Psychiatry), Upper Central North Island, Waikato District Health Board, Hamilton, New Zealand.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore psychiatrists' perspectives on how clinical teaching and supervision can be improved in postgraduate psychiatric training.

    Method: All New Zealand members of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (fellows: n=367; affiliates: n=167) were invited to participate in an online survey that collected responses to two open-ended questions. The responses were then analysed qualitatively. Read More

    Activity-based funding in mental health: a disastrous path.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Jul 1:1039856217716293. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Senior researcher and lecturer, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Objectives: On the basis of the experience of the Netherlands, this critical commentary will argue why activity-based funding (ABF) in mental health care is a disastrous path that Australia should not take.

    Conclusions: ABF leads to an exponential growth in health care spending as it encourages diagnostic inflation and overproductivity. It also leads to fraud and an increased bureaucracy that goes hand in hand with demoralisation among health workers. Read More

    Neurofeedback as an adjunct therapy for treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder related to refugee trauma and torture experiences: two case studies.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Aug 12;25(4):358-363. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Associate Professor of Psychiatry Discipline of Psychiatry, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, and; Clinical Director, Brain Dynamics Centre, the Westmead Institute for Medical Research, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW Australia.
    Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the use of neurofeedback for refugee-related chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in two case studies.

    Methods: We describe the assessment and application of neurofeedback integrated into the treatment of two clients with chronic PTSD. We include details of our treatment schedule, symptoms and quantitative electrophysiological data for each case. Read More

    Divided we fall: clinicians and academic psychiatrists need to stand together.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Jul 1:1039856217716296. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Clinical Director, Mental Health Services, Southern Adelaide Local Health Network, Adelaide, SA, and; Professor and Head of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, and; Flinders Human Behaviour and Health Research Unit, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Objective: Psychiatry faces urgent problems requiring united action. These problems affect academic psychiatrists in the universities, and clinicians in publicly funded mental health services. Academic units are isolated and endangered, finding it difficult to recruit. Read More

    Variability amongst urine toxicology amphetamine readings with concurrent administration of fenofibrate.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Jul 1:1039856217715991. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Associate Professor, Chemical Pathology, St Vincent's Hospital Sydney, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to highlight that concurrent administration of the common lipid-lowering agent fenofibrate may lead to false-positive amphetamine results in often-used immunoassay-based urine drug screens. It also aimed to show that there are significant moral and clinical challenges associated with the interpretation of such results amongst psychiatric inpatients.

    Conclusions: It is evident that different pathology laboratories may utilise different commercial urine drug-screen immunoassays in their toxicology analysis, with variability in the test specificities. Read More

    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder: diminished responsibility and mitigation of sentence.
    Australas Psychiatry 2017 Jul 1:1039856217716289. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Forensic Psychiatrist, Prison Mental Health Service, The Park - Centre for Mental Health, Treatment and Rehabilitation, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Objective: The objective of this study was to consider the implications of a recent Western Australia Court of Appeal decision in which an indigenous youth who had been sentenced for the manslaughter of his neonate child was later diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder.

    Conclusion: The increased use of the 2016 Australian guide to the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder should be encouraged to enable clinicians to not only diagnose and manage Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder, but also counsel families to prevent it. Read More

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