4,030 results match your criteria Austral Entomology[Journal]


Bioactive Polyphenols from Southern Chile Seaweed as Inhibitors of Enzymes for Starch Digestion.

Mar Drugs 2020 Jul 8;18(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Centro FONDAP de Investigación Dinámica de Ecosistemas Marinos de Altas Latitudes (IDEAL), Valdivia 5090000, Chile.

The increment of non-communicable chronic diseases is a constant concern worldwide, with type-2 diabetes mellitus being one of the most common illnesses. A mechanism to avoid diabetes-related hyperglycemia is to reduce food digestion/absorption by using anti-enzymatic (functional) ingredients. This research explored the potential of six common Chilean seaweeds to obtain anti-hyperglycemic polyphenol extracts, based on their capacity to inhibit key enzymes related with starch digestion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md18070353DOI Listing

Chemical Fingerprinting, Isolation and Characterization of Polyphenol Compounds from (Phil.) I.M. Johnst and Its Endothelium-Dependent Vascular Relaxation Effect in Rat Aorta.

Molecules 2020 Jul 8;25(14). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Laboratorio de Fisiología Experimental (EPhyL), Instituto Antofagasta (IA), Universidad de Antofagasta, Antofagasta 1240000, Chile.

is an endemic species of the northern coast of Chile and is used as folk medicine. The polyphenolic composition of the methanolic and aqueous extract of the endemic Chilean species was investigated using Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography, Heated Electrospray Ionization and Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap-HESI-MS). Fifty-three compounds were detected, mainly derivatives of benzoic acid, flavonoids, and some phenolic acids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143105DOI Listing

Impact of Mixed Infections of Gut Parasites and on the Lifespan and Immune-related Biomarkers in .

Insects 2020 Jul 8;11(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Laboratories of Virology and Bee Pathology, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Av. Vicente Méndez, Chillán 595, Chile.

currently appears to be the predominant trypanosome in honey bees worldwide. Although, the specific effects of by single or mixed with other gut parasites such as on honey bees' health is still unclear. We consequently measured bees' survival, parasite loads, the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and vitellogenin gene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects11070420DOI Listing

Nivicolous Trichiales from the austral Andes: unexpected diversity including two new species.

Mycologia 2020 Jul 10:1-28. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Real Jardín Botánico, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas , Plaza de Murillo 2, 28014 Madrid, Spain.

Nivicolous myxomycetes are a group of amoebozoan protists dependent on long-lasting snow cover worldwide. Recent fine-scale analysis of species diversity from the austral Andes revealed high intraspecific variability of most taxa, suggesting independent evolutionary processes and significant differences in species compositions between the Northern (NH) and Southern (SH) Hemispheres. The present study is the second part of this analysis based on representatives of Trichiales. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2020.1759978DOI Listing

Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Glycemic Control in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes and Overweight or Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial With Partial Crossover.

Diabetes Care 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes Centre, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Objective: To study the effect of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes and overweight or obesity.

Research Design And Methods: Thirty inactive adults with type 1 diabetes who had BMI ≥25 kg/m and HbA ≥7.5% were randomized to 12 weeks of either HIIT exercise intervention consisting of 4 × 4-min HIIT (85-95% peak heart rate) performed thrice weekly or usual care control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-0342DOI Listing

Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) protects against Huntington's disease through the extracellular disposal of protein aggregates.

Acta Neuropathol 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Faculty of Medicine, Biomedical Neuroscience Institute, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Impaired neuronal proteostasis is a salient feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, highlighting alterations in the function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We previously reported that targeting the transcription factor XBP1, a key mediator of the ER stress response, delays disease progression and reduces protein aggregation in various models of neurodegeneration. To identify disease modifier genes that may explain the neuroprotective effects of XBP1 deficiency, we performed gene expression profiling of brain cortex and striatum of these animals and uncovered insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) as the major upregulated gene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-020-02183-1DOI Listing

Predicting mortality after autologous transplant: Development of a novel risk score.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Hematology Transplant Unit, Hospital Universitario Austral, Derqui, Argentina.

There have been several efforts to predict mortality after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), such as the Hematopoietic Cell Transplant-Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI), described for allogeneic-SCT and validated for ASCT, however there is no composite score in the setting of ASCT combining comorbidities with other clinical characteristics. Our aim is to describe a comprehensive score combining comorbidities with other clinical factors and to analyze the impact of this score on non-relapse mortality (NRM), overall survival (OS) and early morbidity end-points (mechanical ventilation, shock or dialysis) after ASCT. For the training cohort, we retrospectively reviewed data of 2068 adult patients who received an ASCT in Argentina (10/2002-06/2017) for multiple myeloma or lymphoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.06.028DOI Listing

Phenolic Fingerprinting, Antioxidant, and Deterrent Potentials of Extracts.

Molecules 2020 Jul 3;25(13). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Laboratorio de Ecología Química, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Gral. Flores 2124 CP 11800, Montevideo 11800, Uruguay.

(Polygonaceae) (known as lady's thumb) is an annual morphologically variable weed that is widely distributed in Chile. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifeedant potential of methanolic (MeOH), ethanolic (EtOH), and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts from the aerial parts of this plant collected in the Valparaíso and Curicó provinces (Chile) and relate this activity to the antioxidant capacity and the presence of phenolic compounds in the extracts. A phenolic profile based on HPLC-ESI-MS/MS allowed the identification of 26 phenolic compounds, most of them glycosyl derivatives of isorhamnetin, quercetin, and kaempferol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133054DOI Listing

Six hundred years of South American tree rings reveal an increase in severe hydroclimatic events since mid-20th century.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Cs. Ambientales, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), 5500 Mendoza, Argentina.

South American (SA) societies are highly vulnerable to droughts and pluvials, but lack of long-term climate observations severely limits our understanding of the global processes driving climatic variability in the region. The number and quality of SA climate-sensitive tree ring chronologies have significantly increased in recent decades, now providing a robust network of 286 records for characterizing hydroclimate variability since 1400 CE. We combine this network with a self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) dataset to derive the South American Drought Atlas (SADA) over the continent south of 12°S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2002411117DOI Listing

Performance Assessment of Thermal Infrared Cameras of Different Resolutions to Estimate Tree Water Status from Two Cherry Cultivars: An Alternative to Midday Stem Water Potential and Stomatal Conductance.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Jun 25;20(12). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Digital Agriculture, Food and Wine Group, School of Agriculture and Food, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia.

The midday stem water potential (Ψs) and stomatal conductance (gs) have been traditionally used to monitor the water status of cherry trees ( L.). Due to the complexity of direct measurement, the use of infrared thermography has been proposed as an alternative. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20123596DOI Listing

In Vitro Anthelmintic Evaluation of , , and : Fingerprint Analysis of Extracts by UHPLC-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry.

Molecules 2020 Jun 30;25(13). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad del Tolima, Ibagué 730001, Colombia.

In the present work, the anthelmintic activity (AA) of ethanolic extracts obtained from , , and was evaluated using the third-stage-larval (L) exsheathment inhibition test (LEIT) and egg hatch test (EHT) on . Extracts were tested at concentrations of 0.3, 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133002DOI Listing

Dietary Potassium Downregulates Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme, Renin, and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2.

Front Pharmacol 2020 18;11:920. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Facultad de Medicina, Institute of Anatomy, Histology and Pathology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

Background: The importance of dietary potassium in health and disease has been underestimated compared with that placed on dietary sodium. Larger effort has been made on reduction of sodium intake and less on the adequate dietary potassium intake, although natural food contains much more potassium than sodium. The benefits of a potassium-rich diet are known, however, the mechanism by which it exerts its preventive action, remains to be elucidated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00920DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314933PMC

Adaptive evolution of peptidoglycan recognition protein family regulates the innate signaling against microbial pathogens in vertebrates.

Microb Pathog 2020 Jul 2:104361. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resource Utilization, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

The innate immune system is the first line of defense in vertebrates against microbial pathogens. This defense system depends on the peptidoglycan pathogen recognition of receptors (PGRPs) existing in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Although some studies revealed the structural and functional differences between them, however, the evolutionary history and the selection pressures on these genes during adaptive evolution are poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104361DOI Listing

Remote ischaemic conditioning in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention: an updated meta-analysis of clinical outcomes.

Acta Cardiol 2020 Jul 3:1-9. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Cardiology, Deutsches Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

All previous meta-analyses including clinical outcomes after remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction STEMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) demonstrated that RIC significantly reduced all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Following the publication of these meta-analyses, three new randomised controlled clinical trials (RCT) including 5712 patients were reported. The objective of this study was to perform an updated meta-analysis about the effectiveness of RIC in reducing MACE in patients with STEMI undergoing PCI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00015385.2020.1766259DOI Listing

Optimal cut-off points for waist circumference in the definition of metabolic syndrome in Chile.

Public Health Nutr 2020 Jul 3:1-6. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of European and Mediterranean Cultures: Architecture, Environment and Cultural Heritage (DICEM), University of Basilicata, Matera, Italy.

Objective: To identify sex-specific cut-off points for waist circumference (WC) in the definition of metabolic syndrome (MetS) for the Chilean adult population.

Design: MetS was defined as the presence of at least two out of four of the following criteria: TAG ≥1·7 mmol/l; HDL-cholesterol: <1·3 mmol/l in women and <1·0 mmol/l in men; systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mmHg; and fasting glucose ≥ 5·6 mmol/l or current treatment for diabetes. The receiver operating characteristics curve and the AUC were computed to derive the specificity and sensitivity using bootstrapping (10 000 iterations restricted to have at least between 40 and 60 % of the original population). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980020001469DOI Listing

The linearity of the El Niño teleconnection to the Amundsen Sea region.

Q J R Meteorol Soc 2020 Apr 3;146(728):1169-1183. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

School of Earth and Environment University of Leeds Leeds UK.

El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives interannual variability in West Antarctic climate through altering atmospheric circulation in the Amundsen Sea region (ASR). The El Niño-ASR teleconnection is known to be strongest in austral winter and spring, but its variation with El Niño amplitude is underexplored. This study uses experiments from the HadGEM3-A climate model to investigate the El Niño-ASR teleconnection for a range of imposed SST perturbations spanning weak (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/qj.3731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317404PMC

Genomic analysis of the domestication and post-Spanish conquest evolution of the llama and alpaca.

Genome Biol 2020 Jul 2;21(1):159. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China.

Background: Despite their regional economic importance and being increasingly reared globally, the origins and evolution of the llama and alpaca remain poorly understood. Here we report reference genomes for the llama, and for the guanaco and vicuña (their putative wild progenitors), compare these with the published alpaca genome, and resequence seven individuals of all four species to better understand domestication and introgression between the llama and alpaca.

Results: Phylogenomic analysis confirms that the llama was domesticated from the guanaco and the alpaca from the vicuña. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-020-02080-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331169PMC

Ecology of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) as a host for Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) infection in Ethiopia.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Penryn, UK.

The global programme for the eradication of Guinea worm disease, caused by the parasitic nematode Dracunculus medinensis, has been successful in driving down human cases, but infections in non-human animals, particularly domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), now present a major obstacle to further progress. Dog infections have mainly been found in Chad and, to a lesser extent in Mali and Ethiopia. While humans classically acquire infection by drinking water containing infected copepods, it has been hypothesised that dogs might additionally or alternatively acquire infection via a novel pathway, such as consumption of fish or frogs as possible transport or paratenic hosts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13711DOI Listing

Attachment Style Classification Questionnaire for latency age: Psychometrics properties of Argentine Sample.

Int J Psychol Res (Medellin) 2019 Jul-Dec;12(2):59-70

Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones en Psicología Matemática y Experimental (CIIPME) - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) Argentina.

The purpose of this article was to perform a psychometric study of the Attachment Style Classification Questionnaire (ASCQ) in Spanish language. This paper included three studies. The objectives of study 1 were to analyze the discriminative power of items, to carry out an EFA to determine the structure of the questionnaire, and to calculate the internal consistency of factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21500/20112084.4058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318390PMC

Differential Gene Expression and Allele Frequency Changes Favour Adaptation of a Heterogeneous Yeast Population to Nitrogen-Limited Fermentations.

Front Microbiol 2020 15;11:1204. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Santiago, Chile.

Alcoholic fermentation is fundamentally an adaptation process, in which the yeast outperforms its competitors and takes over the fermentation process itself. Although wine yeast strains appear to be adapted to the stressful conditions of alcoholic fermentation, nitrogen limitations in grape must cause stuck or slow fermentations, generating significant economic losses for the wine industry. One way to discover the genetic bases that promote yeast adaptation to nitrogen-deficient environments are selection experiments, where a yeast population undergoes selection under conditions of nitrogen restriction for a number of generations, to then identify by sequencing the molecular characteristics that promote this adaptation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307137PMC

Association of guideline publication and delays to treatment in pediatric status epilepticus.

Neurology 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

Objective: To determine whether publication of evidence on delays in time to treatment shortens time to treatment in pediatric refractory convulsive status epilepticus (rSE), we compared time to treatment before (2011-2014) and after (2015-2019) publication of evidence of delays in treatment of rSE in the pediatric status epilepticus research group (pSERG) as assessed by patient interviews and record review.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected dataset from June 2011 to September 2019 on pediatric patients (1 month to 21 years of age) with rSE.

Results: We studied 328 patients (56% males) with median (p-p) age of 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010174DOI Listing

Dairy Calf Welfare and Factors Associated with Diarrhea and Respiratory Disease Among Chilean Dairy Farms.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;10(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Instituto de Ciencia Animal, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare and Livestock Production Systems, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 5090000, Chile.

This study aimed to describe management practices that may compromise the welfare of unweaned dairy calves on 29 dairy farms in Chile, and identify factors associated with diarrhea and respiratory disease (n = 700 calves). Evaluations were divided into protocol-, facility-, and animal-based measurements. Calf diarrhea and respiratory disease data were analyzed using logistic regression models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071115DOI Listing

Comparative phylogeography of two Agarophyton species in the New Zealand archipelago.

J Phycol 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 114-D, Santiago, Chile.

Molecular studies have reported the co-existence of two species of Agarophyton in New Zealand: the newly described A. transtasmanicum with an apparently restricted distribution to some sites in the North Island, and the more wide-spread A. chilense. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpy.13046DOI Listing

Meropenem for management of valproic acid overdose: a case report.

Drug Metab Pers Ther 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Hospital Base de Valdivia, Valdivia, Chile.

Objectives Valproic acid (VPA) is an anticonvulsant used in several clinical scenarios. VPA has been increasingly associated with intentional or unintentional overdose. In patients presenting with severe VPA overdose, supportive care and airway protection are cornerstones of treatment, while levocarnitine is suggested in patients with hyperammonemia and hemodialysis is recommended in patients with VPA serum concentrations (SC) >1,300 mg/L and presence of cerebral edema or shock. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/dmpt-2019-0028DOI Listing

Parasites of the Shiny Cowbird, Molothrus bonariensis, and the Austral Blackbird, Curaeus curaeus, (Passeriformes: Icteridae) in Chile.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2020 26;29(2):e021819. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Laboratorio de Parásitos y Enfermedades de Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad de Concepción, Chillán, Chile.

Comparative studies of parasites in sympatric bird species have been generally scarce. Parasitic infection/transmission can be spread in a number of ways that suggests possible direct and indirect, horizontal transmission between avian hosts. In order to determine whether two sympatric icterids from Central and Southern Chile share their parasite fauna (ecto- and endoparasites), we examined parasites of 27 Shiny Cowbirds, Molothrus bonariensis, and 28 Austral Blackbirds, Curaeus curaeus, including individuals captured in the wild and carcasses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612020022DOI Listing

Rodents as potential reservoirs for Borrelia spp. in northern Chile.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2020 26;29(2):e000120. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Laboratorio de Parásitos y Enfermedades de Fauna Silvestre, Departamento de Ciencia Animal, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad de Concepción, Chillán, Ñuble, Chile.

Small mammals play an essential role in the transmission and maintenance cycles of Borrelia spirochetes. In Chile, recent studies have characterized novel Borrelia genotypes in ticks collected from small mammals, a fact that suggests these vertebrates are hosts for spirochetes from this genus. Considering this evidence, the goal of this study was to determine the presence of Borrelia DNA in small mammals inhabiting northern Chile. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612020029DOI Listing

Performance, genomic rearrangements, and signatures of adaptive evolution: Lessons from fermentative yeasts.

Ecol Evol 2020 Jun 2;10(12):5240-5250. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES) Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas Universidad Católica de Chile Santiago Chile.

The capacity of some yeasts to extract energy from single sugars, generating CO and ethanol (=fermentation), even in the presence of oxygen, is known as the Crabtree effect. This phenomenon represents an important adaptation as it allowed the utilization of the ecological niche given by modern fruits, an abundant source of food that emerged in the terrestrial environment in the Cretaceous. However, identifying the evolutionary events that triggered fermentative capacity in Crabtree-positive species is challenging, as microorganisms do not leave fossil evidence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319171PMC

Climate drives intraspecific differentiation in the expression of growth-defence trade-offs in a long-lived pine species.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 29;10(1):10584. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Misión Biológica de Galicia - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (MBG-CSIC), 36143, Pontevedra, Spain.

Intraspecific variation in plant defences is expected to be the result of adaptive and plastic responses to environmental conditions, where trade-offs between growth and defences are thought to play a key role shaping phenotypic patterns in defensive investment. Axial resin ducts are costly defensive structures that remain imprinted in the tree rings of conifers, therefore being a valuable proxy of defensive investment along the trees' lifespan. We aimed to disentangle climate-driven adaptive clines and plastic responses to both spatial and temporal environmental variation in resin duct production, and to explore growth-defence trade-offs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67158-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324371PMC

In vitro and in vivo activity of voriconazole and benznidazole combination on trypanosoma cruzi infection models.

Acta Trop 2020 Jun 27;211:105606. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Servicio de Parasitología y Enfermedad de Chagas, Hospital de Niños "Dr. Ricardo Gutiérrez". Ministerio de Salud. GCBA, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Instituto Multidisciplinario de Investigaciones en Patologías Pediátricas (IMIPP), CONICET-GCBA, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Division of Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Pediatrics, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Combination therapy has been proposed as an ideal strategy to reduce drug toxicity and improve treatment efficacy in Chagas disease. Previously, we demonstrated potent in vivo anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of voriconazole. In this work, we aimed to study the synergistic effect of voriconazole (VCZ) and benznidazole (BZ) both in vitro and in vivo models of T. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105606DOI Listing

Plastic response of the oyster Ostrea chilensis to temperature and pCO2 within the present natural range of variability.

PLoS One 2020 29;15(6):e0234994. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Centro Fondap de Investigación Dinámica de Ecosistemas Marinos de Altas Latitudes (IDEAL), Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

Estuaries are characterized by high fluctuation of their environmental conditions. Environmental parameters measured show that the seawater properties of the Quempillén estuary (i.e. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234994PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323991PMC

Psychometric Study of the Scale for the Assessment of Developmental Assets in the Neighborhood in a Sample of Chilean Adolescents.

Front Psychol 2020 12;11:972. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Psychology, Temuco Catholic University, Temuco, Chile.

The Scale for the Assessment of Developmental Assets in the Neighborhood (SADAN) has shown acceptable psychometric properties for use in Spain and Chile. However, the original factor structure of five correlated factors and a second-order factor is not yet entirely clear. This study aimed to evaluate the scale's psychometric properties of reliability and validity in a sample of Chilean adolescents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304306PMC

Use of Zinc Carbonate Spiking to Obtain Phytotoxicity Thresholds Comparable to Those in Field-collected Soils.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Landscape Design and Sustainable Ecosystems, RUDN University, Moscow, Russia.

Several studies reported the presence of smithsonite (ZnCO ) in soils polluted by zinc mining. This study aimed to determine upper critical threshold values of Zn phytotoxicity in a substrate spiked with ZnCO and to compare them with those obtained in field-collected soils. We studied Zn toxicity to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.4809DOI Listing

Acceptability, Preferences, and Palatability of Diets Containing Summer and Winter Brassica Forage in Growing Pigs: A Pilot Study.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 23;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Instituto de Producción Animal, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Austral de Chile Independencia 631, Valdivia 5110566, Chile.

Brassica forage may be included in pigs' diet as a dietary fiber ingredient to reduce feeding costs, benefit gut health, immune system, reproductive traits, and welfare. However, they contain antinutritional factors which may affect feeding behavior. This study evaluated feeding behavior of growing pigs offered winter (kale and swede) and summer (turnip and forage rape) brassicas incorporated on their diets as dried ground meal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10061080DOI Listing

Letter: Transesophageal Echocardiography-Guided Ventriculoatrial Shunt Insertion.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Consejo Latinoamericano de Neurointensivismo- CLaNi Cartagena, Colombia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opaa182DOI Listing

The internal origin of the west-east asymmetry of Antarctic climate change.

Sci Adv 2020 Jun 12;6(24):eaaz1490. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea.

Recent Antarctic surface climate change has been characterized by greater warming trends in West Antarctica than in East Antarctica. Although this asymmetric feature is well recognized, its origin remains poorly understood. Here, by analyzing observation data and multimodel results, we show that a west-east asymmetric internal mode amplified in austral winter originates from the harmony of the atmosphere-ocean coupled feedback off West Antarctica and the Antarctic terrain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaz1490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7292640PMC

Oleic and Linoleic Acids Induce the Release of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Pannexin 1-Dependent ATP Release and P2X1 Receptor Activation.

Front Vet Sci 2020 5;7:260. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Laboratory of Inflammation Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Institute of Pharmacology and Morphophysiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) such as oleic acid (OA) and linoleic acid (LA) are associated with a higher incidence of infectious diseases such as metritis and mastitis during the bovine peripartum. Fatty acids can induce an increase in the release of ATP, and changes in the expression levels of purinergic receptors in bovine polymorphonuclears (PMN) during peripartum have also been reported. PMN respond to inflammatory processes with production of ROS, release of proteolytic and bactericidal proteins, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291836PMC

Prokaryotic Response to Phytodetritus-Derived Organic Material in Epi- and Mesopelagic Antarctic Waters.

Front Microbiol 2020 9;11:1242. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Oceanography Division, Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - OGS, Trieste, Italy.

Particulate organic matter (POM) export represents the underlying principle of the biological carbon pump, driving the carbon flux from the sunlit to the dark ocean. The efficiency of this process is tightly linked to the prokaryotic community, as >70% of POM respiration is carried out by particle-associated prokaryotes. In the Ross Sea, one of the most productive areas of the Southern Ocean, up to 50% of the surface primary production is exported to the mesopelagic ocean as POM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296054PMC

In Vitro Fermentation Patterns and Methane Output of Perennial Ryegrass Differing in Water-Soluble Carbohydrate and Nitrogen Concentrations.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 22;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Rothamsted Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB, UK.

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of perennial ryegrass (PRG) forages differing in their concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and crude protein (CP), and collected in spring and autumn, on in vitro rumen fermentation variables, nitrogen (N) metabolism indicators and methane (CH) output, using a batch culture system. Two contrasting PRG pastures, sampled both in autumn and spring, were used: high (HS) and low (LS) sugar pastures with WSC concentrations of 322 and 343 g/kg for HS (autumn and spring), and 224 and 293 g/kg for LS in autumn and spring, respectively. Duplicates were incubated for 24 h with rumen inocula in three different days (blocks). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10061076DOI Listing

Recovering : In palliative care, medicine, and life.

Palliat Support Care 2020 Jun 24:1-2. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Agrupamento de Centros de Saúde de Lisboa Central, Lisboa, Portugal.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S147895152000036XDOI Listing

Ecology of the collapse of Rapa Nui society.

Proc Biol Sci 2020 Jun 24;287(1929):20200662. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1066, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway.

Collapses of food producer societies are recurrent events in prehistory and have triggered a growing concern for identifying the underlying causes of convergences/divergences across cultures around the world. One of the most studied and used as a paradigmatic case is the population collapse of the Rapa Nui society. Here, we test different hypotheses about it by developing explicit population dynamic models that integrate feedbacks between climatic, demographic and ecological factors that underpinned the socio-cultural trajectory of these people. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2020.0662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329031PMC

Species vulnerability under climate change: Study of two sea urchins at their distribution margin.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Aug 21;728:138850. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Scientific Department, Chilean Antarctic Institute, Plaza Muñoz Gamero Punta Arenas, Chile.

In order to develop powerful predictions on the impact of climate change on marine organisms, it is critical to understand how abiotic drivers such as temperature can directly and indirectly affect marine organisms. Here, we evaluated and compared the physiological vulnerability of the leading-edge populations of two species of sea urchins Loxechinus albus and Pseudechinus magellanicus in response to predicted ocean warming and food limitation. After exposing sea urchins to a 60-day experimental period to contrasting temperature (1 °C, 7 °C and 14 °C corresponding respectively to the actual average summer temperature in Antarctica, the control treatment temperature and the predicted future temperature in the Strait of Magellan) and diet levels (ad libitum or food limitation), sea urchin stress tolerance was assessed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138850DOI Listing

Assessment of peripheral blood neutrophil respiratory burst, phagocytosis and apoptosis in obese non-insulin dysregulated horses.

Res Vet Sci 2020 Jun 12;132:127-132. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Instituto de Ciencias Clínicas Veterinarias, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile. Electronic address:

Obesity is a highly prevalent condition in horses. Dysfunctional neutrophil activity has been reported in metabolically healthy obese humans, but minimal data exist regarding horses. The present study evaluated the effect of obesity on apoptosis, phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity of peripheral blood neutrophils from lean and obese non-insulin dysregulated horses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2020.06.013DOI Listing

Withaferin A suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation by inhibition of the two-pore domain potassium (K2P9) channel TASK-3.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Jun 17;129:110383. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Centro de Investigaciones Médicas (CIM), Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Talca, Casilla 3460000, Talca, Chile; Programa de Investigación Asociativa en Cáncer Gástrico (PIA-CG), Universidad de Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile. Electronic address:

Withaferin A (WFA), a C,C-epoxy steroidal lactone isolated from the medicinal plant Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, inhibits growth of tumor cells in different cancer types. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of WFA on tumor cells are not fully understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110383DOI Listing

Alexandrium catenella cyst accumulation by passive and active dispersal agents: Implications for the potential spreading risk in Chilean Patagonian fjords.

Harmful Algae 2020 Jun 1;96:101832. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Centro Oceanográfico de Vigo, Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO), Subida a Radio Faro 50, Vigo 36390, Spain.

The dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella is responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning and negative socioeconomic impacts on the fishing industry and aquaculture. In Chilean Patagonia, the reasons underlying the significant increase in the geographical extension (from south to north) of A. catenella blooms during the last five decades are not well understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2020.101832DOI Listing

[Analysis of a case series of adult patients with severe atopic dermatitis treated with dupilumab in Argentina].

Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba 2020 06 9;77(2):94-99. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Consultorio Particular de Dermatología; Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires.

Introduction: Severe atopic dermatitis (AD) treatment is an unmet need, given the limited efficacy and safety of classical systemic treatments (CSTs). Dupilumab is a monoclonal antibody that blocks the signaling of the interleukins that mediate the inflammatory response involved in AD.

Methods: the clinical response of a group of patients from Argentina with severe AD and insufficient response and/or toxicity to CSTs who were treated with dupilumab before commercial availability was analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.31053/1853.0605.v77.n2.27845DOI Listing

Tamoxifen and its metabolites induce mitochondrial membrane depolarization and caspase-3 activation in equine neutrophils.

Vet Med Sci 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

Neutrophils participate in innate immunity as the first line of host defence against microorganisms. However, persistent neutrophil activity and delayed apoptosis can be harmful to surrounding tissues; this problem occurs in diverse inflammatory diseases, including asthma-affected horses. Previous studies in horses with acute lung inflammation indicated that treatment with tamoxifen (TX), a selective oestrogen receptor modulator, produces a significant decrease in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) neutrophil content. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/vms3.316DOI Listing

Targeting NF-κB by the Cell-Permeable NEMO-Binding Domain Peptide Improves Albuminuria and Renal Lesions in an Experimental Model of Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 13;21(12). Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Renal, Vascular and Diabetes Research Laboratory, IIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a multifactorial disease characterized by hyperglycemia and close interaction of hemodynamic, metabolic and inflammatory factors. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a principal matchmaker linking hyperglycemia and inflammation. The present work investigates the cell-permeable peptide containing the inhibitor of kappa B kinase γ (IKKγ)/NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO)-binding domain (NBD) as therapeutic option to modulate inflammation in a preclinical model of type 2 diabetes (T2D) with DN. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124225DOI Listing