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    3395 results match your criteria Atypical Mycobacterial Diseases

    1 OF 68

    Dual-Specificity Phosphatase 12 Targets p38 MAP Kinase to Regulate Macrophage Response to Intracellular Bacterial Infection.
    Front Immunol 2017 9;8:1259. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, Singapore, Singapore.
    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are activated in innate immune cells such as macrophages upon the detection of microbial infection, critically regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1. As a result, activation of MAPKs is tightly regulated to ensure appropriate and adequate immune responses. Dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) are a family of proteins which specifically dephosphorylates threonine and tyrosine residues essential for MAPK activation to negatively regulate their activation. Read More

    Strange case of dimorphic skin rash in a patient with cirrhosis: atypical herpes simplex and sweet's syndrome.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Oct 20;2017. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Department of Gastroenterology, PVS Memorial Hospital, Cochin, Kerala, India.
    A middle-aged man with decompensated cirrhosis and a dimorphic multisite skin rash is diagnosed with rare atypical herpes simplex infection, manifesting Sweet's syndrome (SS) in the absence of other described associations. SS, an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, has three common forms-classical or idiopathic, malignancy associated and drug induced. Systemic autoimmune, connective tissue diseases and infections are also strong associations. Read More

    Leprosy Associated with Atypical Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Nicaragua and Honduras.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Oct;97(4):1103-1110
    University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    In Central America, few cases of leprosy have been reported, but the disease may be unrecognized. Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and histology. Preliminary field work in Nicaragua and Honduras found patients, including many children, with skin lesions clinically suggestive of atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis or indeterminate leprosy. Read More

    An unusual cutaneous infection caused by Mycobacterium marinum.
    JMM Case Rep 2017 Apr 12;4(4):e005088. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Department of Health Science, University of Eastern Piedmont, Novara, Italy.
    Introduction.Mycobacterium marinum is a non-tubercular mycobacterium residing in fresh or salt water (in tropical or temperate areas); it is a fish and human pathogen, and in immunocompromised patients can cause severe cutaneous and subcutaneous infections. Case presentation. Read More

    Tuberculosis mortality and the male survival deficit in rural South Africa: An observational community cohort study.
    PLoS One 2017 10;12(10):e0185692. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Africa Health Research Institute, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.
    Background: Women live on average five years longer than men, and the sex difference in longevity is typically lower in populations with high mortality. South Africa-a high mortality population with a large sex disparity-is an exception, but the causes of death that contribute to this difference are not well understood.

    Methods: Using data from a demographic surveillance system in rural KwaZulu-Natal (2000-2014), we estimate differences between male and female adult life expectancy by HIV status. Read More

    Mycobacterium abscessus Complex Infections in Children: A Review.
    Curr Infect Dis Rep 2017 Oct 5;19(11):46. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and International Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, 420 Delaware Street SE, MMC # 250, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: Infections in children with Mycobacterium abscessus complex represent a particular challenge for clinicians. Increasing incidence of these infections worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. Published medical literature was reviewed, with emphasis on material published in the past 5 years. Read More

    Osteomyelitis due to multiple rare infections in a patient with idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia.
    Intractable Rare Dis Res 2017 Aug;6(3):206-210
    Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    A 26-year-old male patient presented with features suggestive of osteomyelitis involving the entire left femur, hip joint and knee joint. Culture from the debrided tissue grew Acinetobacter spp. and he was treated with sensitivity based antibiotics but the symptoms did not resolve. Read More

    Multifocal ulceronecrotic skin lesions-A stigmatizing case.
    IDCases 2017 11;10:61-62. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM), Montreal, Canada.
    Mycobacterium chelonae is a rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria, ubiquitous in the environment and mostly involved in skin, soft tissue and bone infections. An atypical, severe and multifocal dermatological manifestation of Mycobacterium chelonae infection in an immunocompetent patient is described here. The lesions completely resolved using a multidisciplinary approach. Read More

    Implantable cardiac defibrillator infections: the emerging importance of Mycobacterium fortuitum.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Sep 19;2017. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department t of Internal Medicine Critical Care, TTUHSC, Lubbock, Texas, USA.
    Infection is a clinically relevant complication associated with intracardiac devices. Atypical mycobacteria, particularly Mycobacterium fortuitum, have been increasingly implicated in cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections. We present a case of M. Read More

    Sporotrichoid-Like Spread of Cutaneous Mycobacterium chelonae in an Immunocompromised Patient.
    Case Rep Dermatol Med 2017 23;2017:8219841. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Mycobacterium chelonae is a rapidly growing mycobacterium found in water and soil that can cause local cutaneous infections in immunocompetent hosts but more frequently affects immunocompromised patients. Typically, patients will present with painful subcutaneous nodules of the joints or soft tissues from traumatic inoculation. However, exhibiting a sporotrichoid-like pattern of these nodules is uncommon. Read More

    Tuberculous otitis media: a resurgence?
    J Laryngol Otol 2017 Sep 20;131(9):785-792. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Madras ENT Research Foundation,Chennai,Tamil Nadu,India.
    Objective: Tuberculosis is a global health problem that is especially prevalent in developing countries such as India. Recently, atypical presentation has become more common and a high index of suspicion is essential. This study analysed the various presenting symptoms and signs of tuberculous otitis media and the role of diagnostic tests, with the aim of formulating criteria for the diagnosis. Read More

    [[Video-assisted pulmonary resection application for pulmonary tuberculosis].]
    Klin Khir 2016 Aug(8):40-43
    Results of application of video-assisted (video-assisted thoracic surgery VATS) pulmonary resection for pulmonary tuberculosis in 63 patients in 2008 - 2016 yrs were analyzed. Typical lobectomy was done in 28 (44.4%) patients, pulmonectomy - in 1 (1. Read More

    Nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in childhood - update on diagnostic approaches and treatment.
    J Infect 2017 Jun;74 Suppl 1:S136-S142
    Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia; Academic Unit of Clinical & Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; NIHR Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK; Global Health Research Institute, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; Department of Paediatric Infectious Diseases & Immunology, Evelina London Children's Hospital, Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. Electronic address:
    Recent studies suggest that the incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in children may be increasing. Nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis, skin and soft tissue infection, and pulmonary disease each present unique challenges in relation to diagnosis and treatment. In this update, we critically review the recent literature on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic approaches and treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in children. Read More

    The impact of glycemic status on radiological manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis in diabetic patients.
    PLoS One 2017 19;12(6):e0179750. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Department of Chest Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Setting: Diabetes mellitus (DM) may increase risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and influence its radiological manifestations.

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of glycemic status on radiological findings of PTB in diabetic patients.

    Methods: Between January 2010 and December 2015, chest radiographs (CXRs) in consecutive 214 DM patients with culture-proved PTB and 123 available thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans were enrolled. Read More

    Original Mycobacterial Sin, a consequence of highly homologous antigens?
    Vet Microbiol 2017 May 27;203:286-293. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    Division of Immunology, Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1, 3584 CL, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa.
    The role of antigens shared between Mycobacteria in in-vivo cross-reactive immune responses in host animals, have been reported to be responsible for reduced BCG vaccination efficacy as well reduced specificity of routine immunological diagnostic tests. This presents with significant disease control challenges in humans and animals. The present review highlights the results of previous studies on the effect of pre-sensitization to environmental mycobacteria on either pathogenic mycobacteria and/or M. Read More

    Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Tochigi prefecture, a local region of Japan.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 May 25;17(1):365. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Tochigi Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental Science, Utsunomiya, Tochigi, Japan.
    Background: Foreign-born patients with tuberculosis (TB) may introduce globally disseminated isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis into large cities in Japan. The risk of dissemination of these isolates into local regions, however, has not been determined. This study analyzed the molecular epidemiology of M. Read More

    Treatment of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease.
    Curr Treat Options Infect Dis 2016 Dec 11;8(4):275-296. Epub 2016 Oct 11.
    Department of Medicine and Academic Affairs, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado.
    Treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTM-LD) is challenging for several reasons including the relative resistance of NTM to currently available drugs and the difficulty in tolerating prolonged treatment with multiple drugs. Yet-to-be-done, large, multicenter, prospective randomized studies to establish the best regimens will also be arduous because multiple NTM species are known to cause human lung disease, differences in virulence and response to treatment between different species and strains within a species will make randomization more difficult, the need to distinguish relapse from a new infection, and the difficulty in adhering to the prescribed treatment due to intolerance, toxicity, and/or drug-drug interactions, often necessitating modification of therapeutic regimens. Furthermore, the out-of-state resident status of many patients seen at the relatively few centers that care for large number of NTM-LD patients pose logistical issues in monitoring response to treatment. Read More

    Development of a potent invigorator of immune responses endowed with both preventive and therapeutic properties.
    Biologics 2017 2;11:55-63. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    This article reviews briefly the making of an immunoprophylactic-cum-immunotherapeutic vaccine against leprosy. The vaccine is based on cultivable, heat-killed atypical mycobacteria, whose gene sequence is now known. It has been named Mycobacterium indicus pranii. Read More

    Modulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific humoral immune responses is associated with Strongyloides stercoralis co-infection.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 May 1;11(5):e0005569. Epub 2017 May 1.
    National Institutes of Health-NIRT-International Center for Excellence in Research, Chennai, India.
    Background / Objectives: Helminth infections are known to influence T cell responses in latent tuberculosis (LTBI). Whether helminth infections also modulate B cell responses in helminth-tuberculosis co-infection is not known.

    Methods: We assessed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-antigen specific IgM and IgG levels, circulating levels of the B cell growth factors, BAFF and APRIL and the absolute numbers of the various B cell subsets in individuals with LTBI, LTBI with coincident Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss) infection (LTBI/Ss) and in those with Ss infection alone (Ss). Read More

    An Amidase_3 domain-containing N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase is required for mycobacterial cell division.
    Sci Rep 2017 Apr 25;7(1):1140. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    DST/NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, 2001, South Africa.
    Mycobacteria possess a multi-layered cell wall that requires extensive remodelling during cell division. We investigated the role of an amidase_3 domain-containing N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase, a peptidoglycan remodelling enzyme implicated in cell division. We demonstrated that deletion of MSMEG_6281 (Ami1) in Mycobacterium smegmatis resulted in the formation of cellular chains, illustrative of cells that were unable to complete division. Read More

    Severe type 1 upgrading leprosy reaction in a renal transplant recipient: a paradoxical manifestation associated with deficiency of antigen-specific regulatory T-cells?
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Apr 24;17(1):305. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Laboratory of Medical Investigation Unit 56, Division of Clinical Dermatology, Medical School, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: Due to its chronic subclinical course and large spectrum of manifestations, leprosy often represents a diagnostic challenge. Even with proper anti-mycobacteria treatment, leprosy follow up remains challenging: almost half of leprosy patients may develop reaction episodes. Leprosy is an infrequent complication of solid organ transplant recipients. Read More

    Tuberculosis-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with initial presentation of fever of unknown origin in a general hospital: An analysis of 8 clinical cases.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Apr;96(16):e6575
    Department of General Internal Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH), Chinese Academy of Medical Science (CAMS), and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing, China.
    The study aimed to investigate the clinical features and prognoses of patients with tuberculosis (TB) who had secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH).Patients first presenting with fever of unknown origin, who were ultimately diagnosed with TB-associated secondary HLH, were assessed retrospectively. We summarized and analyzed clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, diagnoses, treatments, and prognoses of patients using clinical data, outpatient follow-up, and telephone follow-up in combination with literature review. Read More

    Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection of the musculoskeletal system in immunocompetent hosts.
    Indian J Orthop 2017 Mar-Apr;51(2):205-212
    Department of Pathology, Hinduja Hospital and Medical Research Center, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
    Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) were considered saprophytic organisms for many years but now are recognized as human pathogens. Although humans are routinely exposed to NTM, the rate of clinical infection is low. Such infections usually occur in the elderly and in patients who are immunocompromised. Read More

    Atypical spinal tuberculosis involved noncontiguous multiple segments: Case series report with literature review.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Apr;96(14):e6559
    aDepartment of Orthopedics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University bDepartment of Orthopedics, Sichuan Orthopaedic Hospital, Chengdu, China.
    In its typical form, spinal tuberculosis (TB) presents as destroyed contiguous vertebral bodies with involvement of intervertebral discs and paravertebral or psoas abscesses. Atypical forms are uncommonly reported. Here, we describe 8 patients with noncontiguous multisegmental spinal TB with no intervertebral disc involvement. Read More

    Biofilm colonization in chronic treatment refractory infections presenting with discharging sinuses: A study in a tertiary care hospital of Eastern India.
    J Lab Physicians 2017 Apr-Jun;9(2):125-131
    Department of Microbiology, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Introduction: Treatment refractory chronic recurrent infections mean those chronic infections which recur by same causal agents with similar drug responsiveness after apparent relief following full course of recommended antimicrobial management.

    Materials And Methods: Fifty different samples were collected from patients with chronic surgical site infections, laparoscopic port site infections, anal fistula, mesh hernioplasty, chronic dacryocystitis, chronic osteomyelitis, and chronic burn wounds. Samples were processed for culture, identification, antibiotic sensitivity testing using standard microbiological techniques. Read More

    Atypical Mycobacterial Infections of the Upper Extremity: Becoming More Atypical?
    Hand (N Y) 2017 Mar 7;12(2):188-192. Epub 2016 Jul 7.
    University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, USA.
    Background: Atypical mycobacterial infections are uncommon and characterized by a chronic, indolent course before diagnosis. Historically, these infections are associated with marine-related injury and/or immune dysfunction. Our institution has successfully diagnosed and treated an increasing number of these infections. Read More

    Atypical Hand Infections.
    Orthop Clin North Am 2017 Apr 1;48(2):229-240. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Department of Hand Surgery, The Hand Center of San Antonio, 21 Spurs Lane, #310, San Antonio, TX 78240, USA.
    Atypical infections of the hand are caused by organisms such as Mycobacterium, fungi, and viruses, and often do not respond to conventional management. They exist within a wide spectrum of presentations, ranging from cutaneous lesions to deep infections such as tenosynovitis and osteomyelitis. Having a high clinical suspicion for atypical hand infections is vital because diagnosis often requires special tests and/or cultures. Read More

    Port-site infections by nontuberculous mycobacterium: A retrospective clinico-microbiological study.
    Int J Mycobacteriol 2017 Jan-Mar;6(1):34-37
    Department of Microbiology, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Background: Port-site infection (PSI) is a prevailing, chronic, nagging, treatment refractory complication of laparoscopic surgery (LS). It neutralizes the advantages of minimally invasive surgery and increases morbidity, treatment cost of patient, leading to loss of confidence on operating surgeon. PSIs are preventable with appropriate preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative measures. Read More

    Pseudotumoral form of soft tissue tuberculosis of the hand: six cases.
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 21;25:178. Epub 2016 Nov 21.
    Orthopedic surgery and Trauma Department, Maamouri Hospital, Nabeul, Tunisia.
    Musculoskeletal involvement is not uncommon in extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, but the localization in the soft tissue of the hand is very rare. Diagnosis is much more difficult because of the atypical location and non-specific symptoms. We report 6 cases of pseudotumoral form of soft tissue tuberculosis of the hand treated in our department during the past 12 years. Read More

    Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: An Imaging Perspective.
    Can Assoc Radiol J 2017 May 7;68(2):161-170. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Department of Radiodiagnosis, PGIMER, Dr. RML Hospital, New Delhi-110001, India.
    The increasing prevalence of tuberculosis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals in recent years makes the disease a topic of universal concern. It has insidious onset and can affect virtually any organ system in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS). CNS tuberculosis (TB) is becoming more and more complex and atypical with onset of multidrug-resistant TB. Read More

    Miliary Tuberculosis.
    Microbiol Spectr 2017 Mar;5(2)
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati 517 507, India.
    Miliary tuberculosis (TB) results from a massive lymphohematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli and is characterized by tiny tubercles evident on gross pathology resembling millet seeds in size and appearance. The global HIV/AIDS pandemic and widespread use of immunosuppressive drugs and biologicals have altered the epidemiology of miliary TB. Considered to be predominantly a disease of infants and children in the pre-antibiotic era, miliary TB is increasingly being encountered in adults as well. Read More

    Expect the Unexpected: Mycobacterial Infection in Post Total Knee Arthroplasty Patients.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Jan 1;11(1):RD01-RD02. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    Associate Professor, Department of Orthopaedics, Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M. Hospital , Mumbai, Maharashtra, India .
    Orthopaedic Surgeons rarely encounter mycobacterial infections in Post Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) patients. We present series of two cases to create awareness among clinicians to expect the unexpected. Tuberculosis typical/ atypical is a hidden culprit in catch clinical situations when chronic infection is Suspected, but the lab investigations are negative in persistently symptomatic patients. Read More

    Screening in Maternity to Ascertain Tuberculosis Status (SMATS) study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Mar 6;17(1):191. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    URC Swaziland, Mbabane, Swaziland.
    Background: Diagnosis of tuberculosis is difficult among pregnant women because the signs and symptoms of the disease, such as fatigue, shortness of breath, sweating, cough, and mild fever are similar to some manifestations of pregnancy. It is particularly challenging among HIV-infected women as symptoms are often masked or atypical. Currently, WHO recommends a standard four-symptom screening tool for pregnant and lactating women. Read More

    Tuberculosis After Kidney Transplant in the Samara Region of Russia: Possible Solutions to Diagnosis and Treatment.
    Exp Clin Transplant 2017 Feb;15(Suppl 1):68-70
    Samara State Medical University, Samara, Russian Federation.
    Infections are the most important of all fatal complications in the first year after kidney transplant. They often differ in the severity of their course and can manifest in atypical symptoms. Further, their complex presentation significantly impedes diagnosis and treatment selection. Read More

    Posttransplant Tuberculosis.
    Exp Clin Transplant 2017 Feb;15(Suppl 1):10-15
    Department of Nephrology, İstanbul School of Medicine, Millet Caddesi, Çapa, İstanbul, Turkey.
    Tuberculosis is a major problem in the posttransplantation period, because of its high incidence and prevalence, difficulty in diagnosis as well as high risk of morbidity and mortality. In solid-organ transplant recipients, the diagnosis of tuberculosis is complex because it is paucisymptomatic. Tuberculin skin testing results may be negative, and interferon-gamma release assays may be insufficiently sensitive. Read More

    Mycobacterial Arthritis and Synovitis in Painted Reed Frogs (Hyperolius marmoratus).
    J Comp Pathol 2017 Feb - Apr;156(2-3):275-280. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Several species of atypical mycobacteria have been isolated from wild and captive amphibians. In captive anurans, cutaneous and visceral mycobacteriosis are common and can result in significant mortality, particularly when animals are immunocompromised. Mycobacterial arthritis and synovitis are reported rarely in amphibians. Read More

    Molecular identification and distribution of non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from clinical specimens by PCR-sequencing method in West of Iran.
    Clin Respir J 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Shirudi Shahid Boulevard, Daneshgah Street, Kermanshah, 67148-69914, Iran.
    Background And Aims: Infections by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has rapidly increased in recent years, due to high infection rates related to the populations at risk like immunocompromised individuals, patients predisposed by prior pulmonary. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of NTM in clinical samples and genetic diversity using 16S rRNA and rpoB sequence analysis.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 45 diverse isolates collected from sputum in 2 years 2014-2015 using standard decontamination procedure. Read More

    Vulvar infections: beyond sexually transmitted infections.
    Int J Dermatol 2017 Apr 15;56(4):361-369. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
    The vulva is an under-studied area of the female genitourinary tract which is prone to maceration, overgrowth of organisms, and atypical presentations of common dermatologic conditions. In current practice, dermatologists must recognize and manage vulvar infections and infestations beyond the more commonly recognized sexually transmitted infections. Herein, this article reviews the literature on a selection of under-recognized viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic vulvar infections and infestations. Read More

    When the Great Masquerader Reveals Itself-Tuberculosis.
    Pediatr Ann 2017 Feb;46(2):e51-e55
    Pneumonia is a clinical diagnosis often treated empirically and successfully on an outpatient basis. When a patient fails to improve, the clinician is left to revisit the differential of pathogens and reconsider the host. Admission, imaging, and invasive and noninvasive testing are part of the toolkit for the severe or atypical case of pneumonia. Read More

    Coexistent Sarcoidosis and Tuberculosis: A Case Report.
    Respiration 2017 9;93(4):296-300. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Foggia, Foggia, Italy.
    Necrotizing granulomatous diseases of the lungs are usually dependent on a narrow range of differential diagnoses. Tuberculosis (TB) is responsible for the largest number of cases, while necrotizing sarcoidosis is generally considered a rare and easily distinguishable disease substantially based on histological features. However, this entity has become a viable diagnosis in the absence of mycobacteria isolation or when a remarkable clinical improvement cannot be achieved with the combination of anti-TB drugs at full dosage. Read More

    Household proximity to water and nontuberculous mycobacteria in children with cystic fibrosis.
    Pediatr Pulmonol 2017 Mar 30;52(3):324-330. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Pediatric Residency Program at Sacred Heart Hospital, University of Florida, Pensacola, Florida.
    Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have a particular affinity for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Recent studies suggest a possible relationship between acquiring NTM and the level of environmental water in a given area. We sought to determine if there is an association between household proximity to water and NTM in children with CF. Read More

    Investigation of a Medieval Pilgrim Burial Excavated from the Leprosarium of St Mary Magdalen Winchester, UK.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jan 26;11(1):e0005186. Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    Department of Microbial and Cellular Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, AX Building, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, United Kingdom.
    We have examined the remains of a Pilgrim burial from St Mary Magdalen, Winchester. The individual was a young adult male, aged around 18-25 years at the time of death. Radiocarbon dating showed the remains dated to the late 11th-early 12th centuries, a time when pilgrimages were at their height in Europe. Read More

    Prospective etiological investigation of community-acquired pulmonary infections in hospitalized people living with HIV.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jan;96(4):e5778
    aScientific Division, Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas, São Paulo, SP, Brazil bDepartment of Medicine Solna, Infectious Diseases Unit, Karolinska Institutet cDepartment of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden dEmilio Ribas Institute of Infectious Diseases eDepartment of Infectious Diseases, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    The study of the etiological agents of community-acquired pulmonary infections is important to guide empirical therapy, requires constant updating, and has a substantial impact on the prognosis of patients. The objective of this study is to determine prospectively the etiology of community-acquired pulmonary infections in hospitalized adults living with HIV. Patients were submitted to an extended microbiological investigation that included molecular methods. Read More

    Atypical Mycobacterial Infection after Abdominoplasty Overseas: A Case Report and Literature Review.
    Case Rep Infect Dis 2016 27;2016:3642567. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Yale New Haven Health System, Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT 06610, USA.
    Increasing number of medical tourists travel internationally for cosmetic procedures. Lipotourism is a form of medical tourism becoming popular among patients of developed countries due to the cost efficiency of cosmetic procedures when performed in developing nations. There is a paucity of data on quality, safety, and risks involved with these surgeries. Read More

    Steroid treatment in ocular tuberculosis: A double-edged sword?
    J Fr Ophtalmol 2017 Feb 18;40(2):126-132. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
    Service d'ophtalmologie, CHU de Pointe-à-Pitre-Abymes, route de Chauvel, 97159 Pointe-à-Pitre cedex, Guadeloupe.
    Introduction: We report the case of a Caribbean patient with an atypical presentation of bilateral tuberculous chorioretinopathy.

    Patient And Methods: A 57-year-old woman, with hypertension and non-insulin dependent diabetes, was referred to our center for a sudden loss of vision in the right eye to hand motions. Ophthalmic examination revealed only right papilledema. Read More

    Bacteria endocarditis consolidation with vertebra bone tuberculosis: a case report.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Jan 6;17(1):38. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    Department of Geriatrics, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Changle West Road #127, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, 710032, People's Republic of China.
    Background: The clinical features of bacteria endocarditis became atypical when consolidated with other conditions such as tuberculosis (TB). Especially, the symptoms of bacteria endocarditis (BE) which were hidden behind the TB fever often lead to misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis.

    Case Presentation: A 56-year-old male with thoracic vertebra bone TB history presented with low-grade fever, shortness of breath and cardiac souffle. Read More

    A Case of Surgical Site Infection Caused by Mycobacterium fortuitum, following Herniorrhaphy.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Nov 1;10(11):DD01-DD02. Epub 2016 Nov 1.
    Associate Professor, Department of General Surgery, Indira Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute , Puducherry, India .
    Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria (RGM) are opportunistic pathogens found in the environment. Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. chelonae and M. Read More

    Mycobacterium haemophilum: A report of cutaneous Infection in a Patient with end-stage renal disease.
    Int J Mycobacteriol 2016 Dec 9;5 Suppl 1:S236. Epub 2016 Nov 9.
    Pediatric Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Mycobacterium haemophilum is a slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) that can cause ulcerating cutaneous or subcutaneous nodular skin lesions in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Acid-fast staining cannot distinguish NTM from M. tuberculosis; culturing at two temperatures with iron-supplemented media and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are needed for optimal detection of M. Read More

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