3,831 results match your criteria Atypical Mycobacterial Diseases


[A case of tuberculous meningoencephalomyelitis].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2022 ;122(4):135-143

Regional Clinical Phthisiopulmonology Center, Tyumen, Russia.

Tuberculosis of the central nervous system has a large proportion among all extrapulmonary tuberculous lesions forms and is an urgent and socially significant problem, despite the development and availability of modern diagnostic methods (radiation diagnostics, cerebrospinal fluid PCR) and treatment. A high disability and mortality level in tuberculous meningoencephalomyelitis is often caused by an untimely clinical diagnosis, which may be associated with an atypical clinical picture of the disease, as well as insufficient information content of the results of instrumental and immunological examination. The authors present a case of tuberculous meningoencephalomyelitis in a female patient without concomitant HIV infection, in the absence of manifestations of visceral, including pulmonary, tuberculosis throughout the disease. Read More

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Transmission, distribution and drug resistance-conferring mutations of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Microb Genom 2022 Apr;8(4)

Family Medicine and Population Health (FAMPOP), Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), defined as resistance to at least isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), a fluoroquinolone (FQ) and a second-line injectable drug (SLID), is difficult to treat and poses a major threat to TB control. The transmission dynamics and distribution of XDR () strains have not been thoroughly investigated. Using whole genome sequencing data on 461 XDR- strains, we aimed to investigate the geographical distribution of XDR- strains in the Western Cape Province of South Africa over a 10 year period (2006-2017) and assess the association between sub-lineage, age, gender, geographical patient location and membership or size of XDR-TB clusters. Read More

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Unusual Presentations of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in HIV-Positive Patients: A Case Series.

Int J Surg Pathol 2022 Apr 24:10668969221095158. Epub 2022 Apr 24.

Respiratory unit, 62743Rashid hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Necrotizing and non-necrotizing epithelioid granulomatous chronic inflammation is the usual recognizable histopathologic presentation of mycobacterial infections. In immunosuppressed patients, atypical histomorphologic patterns may occur. Rare and diagnostically challenging manifestations of nontubercular mycobacterial infections in transplant and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected patients include mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumor and suppurative lesions. Read More

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Clinicoradiological Presentation of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus at a Tertiary Care Hospital.

J Assoc Physicians India 2022 Apr;70(4):11-12

BR Ambedkar Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore.

The relationship between TB and DM has been debated. Experts are concerned about the convergence of TB and diabetes epidemics, particularly in low- to middle-income countries like India and China, which have the world's highest TB burden and fastest rising diabetes prevalence. Diabetes mellitus may be related to the rise in TB cases in India. Read More

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Histoplasmosis masquerading as tuberculosis: A report of three cases in immunocompetent children.

Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2022 Apr-Jun;65(2):406-409

Department of Pediatric Surgery, IPGMER, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

The most common cause of granulomatous lymphadenitis in countries like ours is mycobactrium tuberculosis followed by atypical mycobacterial infection, fungal infections, parasitic infection, cat scratch disease, lymphogranuloma venereum (inguinal lymphadenopathy), and leprosy Here, we present three cases of lymphadenopathy due to histoplasmosis in immunocompetent children. Two of them presented with fever, lymphadenopathy, initially diagnosed as granulomatous lymphadenitis consistent with tuberculosis on FNAC and were put on antitubercular drugs. However, their condition gradually became worse. Read More

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[Screening and prevention of toxic optic neuropathies due to anti-mycobacterium therapies: proposal of recommendations].

J Fr Ophtalmol 2022 May 13;45(5):495-503. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Service d'ophtalmologie, CRMR Ophtara, hôpital universitaire Necker-Enfants-Malades, hôpitaux Paris Centre, AP-HP, Paris, France; Faculté de médecine, université de Paris, Paris, France; Centre Borelli, UMR 9010 CNRS-ENS Paris Saclay, SSA, Université de Paris, Gif sur Yvette, France.

While treatment of pulmonary infections by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is currently only rarely the cause of iatrogenic complications, treatment of atypical mycobacterial infections often requires prolonged treatment duration, which can lead to toxic optic neuropathies. This review summarizes the indications for such prolonged treatment and risk factors for toxic optic neuropathies when using ethambutol, isoniazid and/or linezolid and proposes customized screening recommendations. Read More

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Skin infection by Mycobacterium marinum - diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

An Bras Dermatol 2022 Apr 12. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Hospital Universitário Professor Polydoro Ernani de São Thiago, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.

The number of skin infections caused by atypical mycobacteria has increased in recent decades. They usually appear after contact with wounds and interruptions in the integrity of the skin. The present report describes a case of cutaneous infection by Mycobacterium marinum, in a young, immunocompetent patient, with a prolonged evolution, diagnosed through a skin lesion culture (from a spindle biopsy of the skin). Read More

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Simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and atypical mycobacteria by DNA-Microarray in Egypt.

Med Princ Pract 2022 Apr 12. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Background And Objectives: Immunocompromised patients are considered a high-risk group to develop mycobacterial infections with either pulmonary and/or extra-pulmonary diseases. Low-cost and low-density (LCD) DNA-microarray is considered an easy and efficient method to detect typical and atypical Mycobacterial species.

Materials And Methods: Thirty immunocompromised patients were recruited to provide their clinical specimens (sputum, serum, urine and lymph node aspirate). Read More

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Refractory Peritonitis and Small Bowel Ileus: A Case of Encapsulating Peritoneal Sclerosis Secondary to s Peritonitis.

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2022 7;9(3):003173. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Department of General Internal Medicine, Windsor Regional Hospital, Schulich School of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.

Introduction: Complications of peritoneal dialysis (PD) such as exit-site infections and PD peritonitis are common reasons for admission to General Internal Medicine wards. Culprit organisms range from typical skin flora to rarer complicated atypical organisms such as non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rarer complication of PD characterized by peritoneal inflammation, ileus and fibrosis with high morbidity, few management options, and poor prognosis. Read More

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Prosthetic Knee Joint Infection Caused by Mycobacterium kansasii.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev 2022 04 7;6(4). Epub 2022 Apr 7.

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at the Medical College of Wisconsin, Wauwatosa, WI (Mr. Dasari, Dr. Hadro, and Dr. Neilson), and the Department of Pathology at the Medical College of Wisconsin, Wauwatosa, WI (Dr. Singh).

Mycobacterium kansasii is a nontuberculous mycobacterium that is a rare cause of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). This case report presents a 58-year-old man who developed rapidly progressive arthritis after exposing his right knee to an unknown fluid at a microbial pharmaceutical company. Within a year, he underwent a right total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Read More

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Etiology and the challenge of diagnostic testing of community-acquired pneumonia in children and adolescents.

BMC Pediatr 2022 03 31;22(1):169. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Grupo Investigador de Problemas en Enfermedades Infecciosas (GRIPE), Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Medellín, Colombia.

Background: Pneumonia is the leading cause of mortality in pediatric population. The etiology of pneumonia in this population is variable and changes according to age and disease severity and where the study is conducted. Our aim was to determine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children aged 1 month to 17 years admitted to 13 Colombian hospitals. Read More

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Esophageal tuberculosis induced dysphagia: a case report.

BMC Gastroenterol 2022 Mar 22;22(1):131. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, 251 E Huron St, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Background: Patients can present for a wide variety of etiologies for dysphagia, and it is important to consider less common causes once common etiologies have been ruled out. Extrapulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) presentations are rare to see in the western populations due to relative lack of TB exposure and overall less immunocompromised populations, but should be considered for at-risk patients. Gastrointestinal (GI) TB is rare, and the GI tract is considered only the sixth most frequent site of extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). Read More

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A Rare Presentation of Hand TB Extending to the Space of Parona.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2022 Mar 17;10(3):e4156. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

CPESE, Hamad Medical Corporation.

Most cases of hand infections are caused by gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli. Atypical hand infections are rare and are caused by uncommon pathogens like (TB). Musculoskeletal tuberculosis accounts for 20% of TB cases, and only 2% of these cases involve the hand and foot. Read More

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[New and rediscovered treatments for tuberculosis].

Ugeskr Laeger 2022 03;184(10)

Afdeling for Infektionssygdomme, Hjertecentret, Københavns Universitetshospital - Rigshospitalet.

Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major challenge for global health, but in recent years there have been several important developments in treatment options. Shorter treatment regimens for latent TB, based on conventional drugs, offer better adherence and fewer side effects, while new and repurposed antibiotics have opened the door to more effective, shorter and less side effect-heavy treatments for drug susceptible TB and multidrug-resistant/extensively drug resistant TB as well as atypical mycobacterioses. This review investigates how these shorter and predominantly oral treatments, in the future, are expected to be used in combination with individualized precision medicine. Read More

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Pott's disease (tuberculous spondylitis).

Int J Mycobacteriol 2022 Jan-Mar;11(1):113-115

Department of Internal Medicine, Aveiro Hospital Center, Portugal.

Pott's disease is a vertebral infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Indolent nature and subacute course are associated with late diagnosis. A clinical case is presented whose diagnosis was delayed by atypical presentation with progressive worsening of symptoms. Read More

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Uncommon manifestations in tuberculosis: An expanding clinical spectrum from North India.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2022 Jan-Mar;11(1):30-37

Department of Pathology, Popular Multispecialty Hospital, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background: Despite being given the best by the health department to eradicate the disease, an alarming rise of tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health concern in India. Recently, highly variable clinical manifestations of TB have been reported. This study highlights the unusual presentations of TB with a comprehensive overview of epidemiology, demography and risk factors in the expended clinical spectrum of TB patients and their outcomes. Read More

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Atypical presentation of acquired tracheo-oesophageal fistula in an adolescent girl with pulmonary tuberculosis.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Feb 28;15(2). Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Pediatrics, Hamdard Institute of Medical Science and Research, Delhi, Delhi, India.

We report a case of an adolescent girl presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring mechanical ventilation. Initial presentation during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic was compatible with multisystem inflammatory response in children associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C). Subsequently a diagnosis of tuberculosis was made. Read More

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February 2022

A refractory tenosynovitis of the wrist: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2022 Feb 21;16(1):75. Epub 2022 Feb 21.

Rheumatology, University Hospital of Lausanne and Lausanne University, Avenue Pierre-Decker 4, 1005, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Mycobacterium malmoense is a species of slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria. It causes mostly pulmonary infections or lymphadenitis in children, but is increasingly encountered in isolated tenosynovitis in adults. Diagnosis is often delayed because of the rarity of the condition and the difficulty of culturing the bacteria. Read More

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February 2022

[Multinodular splenomegaly revealing multifocal, splenic and spinal tuberculosis: a case report].

Pan Afr Med J 2021 16;40:230. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Service de Gastroentérologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Mohammed VI Marrakech, Marrakech, Maroc.

Splenic tuberculosis and Pott´s disease are two rare entities, in particular in immunocompetent people. We here report the case of a 57-year-old immunocompetent woman presenting with atypical pain in the left hypochondriac region evolving over the last 3 months, associated with lower limb paraparesis with progressive onset. Laboratory data did not provide any specific information regarding diagnosis, except for positive response to the QuantiFERON Test. Read More

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February 2022

A systematic review and meta-analysis of Mycobacterial infections in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2022 Feb 1. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.

Objectives: Infections including Tuberculosis (TB) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies (IIM). We systematically reviewed the prevalence of Mycobacterial infections in patients with IIM.

Methods: We screened PUBMED, EMBASE and SCOPUS databases and conference abstracts (2015-20) for original articles using Covidence. Read More

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February 2022

Atypical Mycobacterium Abscessus Infection in Stable Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Cureus 2021 Dec 21;13(12):e20574. Epub 2021 Dec 21.

Hematology and Oncology, Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, USA.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is the most common blood cancer in adults. A major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with this cancer stems from opportunistic infections. Similar to many cancers, the inherent effects of battling a raging disease along with the many treatment options causing immunosuppression to lend to the likelihood of obtaining secondary infections. Read More

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December 2021

Clinicopathological Manifestations and Immune Phenotypes in Adult-Onset Immunodeficiency with Anti-interferon-γ Autoantibodies.

J Clin Immunol 2022 04 28;42(3):672-683. Epub 2022 Jan 28.

School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 33382, Taiwan.

Purpose: Anti-interferon (IFN)-γ autoantibodies (anti-IFN-γ Abs) is an emerging adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome. Immune dysfunction in this distinct disorder remains to be clarified.

Methods: We prospectively collected blood samples of 20 patients with anti-IFN-γ Abs and 40 healthy normal subjects. Read More

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Clinical Phenotypes of Cystic Fibrosis Carriers.

Annu Rev Med 2022 01;73:563-574

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA; email:

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by mutations in , the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. People with CF experience a wide variety of medical conditions that affect the pulmonary, endocrine, gastrointestinal, pancreatic, biliary, and reproductive systems. Traditionally, CF carriers, with one defective copy of , were not thought to be at risk for CF-associated diseases. Read More

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January 2022

Liver Bacterial Dysbiosis With Non-Tuberculosis Mycobacteria Occurs in SIV-Infected Macaques and Persists During Antiretroviral Therapy.

Front Immunol 2021 10;12:793842. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Seattle Children's Research Institute, Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle, WA, United States.

Liver disease is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals, even during successful viral suppression with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Similar to HIV infection, SIV infection of rhesus macaques is associated with gut microbiome dysbiosis and microbial translocation that can be detected systemically in the blood. As microbes leaving the intestines must first pass through the liver the portal vein, we evaluated the livers of both SIV-infected (SIV+) and SIV-infected cART treated (SIV+cART) rhesus macaques for evidence of microbial changes compared to uninfected macaques. Read More

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February 2022

Solitary tubercular renal cyst in a postpartum lady masquerading as an infected giant renal cyst with urosepsis.

Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2022 Jan-Mar;65(1):170-172

Department of Urology, Sri Narayani Hospital and Research Centre, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Renal tuberculosis presenting as renal cyst is rare. Diagnosing renal tuberculosis in pregnancy is usually delayed due to its atypical presentation. We present a 28-year-old postpartum lady who delivered a healthy baby one month back, with history of intermittent fever and chills. Read More

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February 2022

Atypical presentations of cutaneous tuberculosis: Series of 10 cases.

Indian J Tuberc 2022 Jan 10;69(1):113-119. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Pathology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, UP, 226003, India.

Cutaneous tuberculosis classically presents as Lupus vulgaris, scrofuloderma, tuberculosis verrucose cutis and tubercular abscess. Hypersensitivity reaction to the bacilli leads to Lichen scrofulosorum and papulonecrotic tuberculids. At the same time, it can have myriad of clinical presentations, many of which are still undescribed. Read More

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January 2022

Atypical mycobacterium infection following upper eyelid Müller's muscle-conjunctival resection - case report.

Orbit 2022 Jan 24:1-4. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Department of Ophthalmology, Hong Kong Eye Hospital, Hong Kong, China.

Periorbital non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) infections are uncommon. To the best of our knowledge, NTM infection as a complication following Müller's muscle-conjunctival resection (MMCR) surgery has not been reported before. We report a case of left upper lid infection following MMCR surgery. Read More

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January 2022

Induced sputum as an adequate clinical specimen for the etiological diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children and adolescents.

Int J Infect Dis 2022 Mar 19;116:348-354. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

Grupo Investigador de Problemas en Enfermedades Infecciosas (GRIPE), Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Medellín, Colombia; Sección enfermedades infecciosas, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Medellín, Colombia.

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the utility of induced sputum (IS) for the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in pediatric population.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included pediatric population aged between 1 month and 17 years who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of CAP in 13 hospitals in Colombia, in whom an IS sample was obtained. Gram staining, aerobic bacterial and mycobacterial culture tests, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for 6 atypical bacteria and 15 respiratory viruses were performed. Read More

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Multifocal Serpiginoid Choroiditis Due to Mycobacterium Mageritense following Laparoscopic Hysterectomy in an Immunocompetent Host.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2022 Jan 20:1-6. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Drishti Eye Institute, Drishti Eye Institute, Dehradun, India.

Purpose: To report nontubercular choroiditis, caused by isolated using MALDI-TOF MS, following laparoscopic hysterectomy in an immunocompetent patient.

Case Report: A 42-year-old female presented with gradual, painless diminution of vision in the right eye for six weeks. She had undergone laparoscopic hysterectomy two months back. Read More

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January 2022

Importance of asking a social history: atypical pulmonary infections and occupational hazards.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Jan 17;15(1). Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Family and Community Medicine, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in the environment, but NTM infection is limited to individuals with risk factors. We present a case of a 62-year-old man who presented with a 1 year history of cough and shortness of breath. History was notable for significant tobacco use and work as a sandblaster without the use of personal protective equipment. Read More

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January 2022