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    3412 results match your criteria Atypical Mycobacterial Diseases

    1 OF 69

    Late-onset postoperative Mycobacterium haemophilum endophthalmitis masquerading as inflammatory uveitis: a case report.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 02 7;18(1):70. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, 2 Wanglang Road, Bangkok Noi, Bangkok, 10700, Thailand.
    Background: Although atypical mycobacteria had been increasingly found in various ocular infections in the past decades, a slow-growing Mycobacterium haemophilum (M. haemophilum) was scarcely reported. Similar to tuberculous infection, the presentation can masquerade as low-grade granulomatous intraocular inflammation with partial response to corticosteroids. Read More

    Cutaneous Granulomatosis: a Comprehensive Review.
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2018 Feb;54(1):131-146
    Clinique de Dermatologie, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, Rue Gabrielle Perret-Gentil 4, CH-1211, Genève, Switzerland.
    Cutaneous granulomatosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases, characterized by a skin inflammatory reaction triggered by a wide variety of stimuli, including infections, foreign bodies, malignancy, metabolites, and chemicals. From a pathogenic point of view, they are divided into non-infectious and infectious granulomas. Pathophysiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Read More

    A fast-growing cold skin abscess revealing disseminated Mycobacterium intracellulare infection in an HIV-infected patient.
    Int J STD AIDS 2017 Jan 1:956462417748240. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    1 Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central, Lisboa, Portugal.
    A 66-year-old woman with HIV-1 infection recently commenced on antiretroviral therapy (CD4+ 25 cells/mmwas referred to the Dermatology Clinic the following month due to a well-demarcated nodule in the extensor surface of the left arm with evident fluctuation but only slight pain on palpation, with no increase in temperature. Surgical drainage was performed with aspiration of yellowish-green exudate, with no characteristic smell. In culture of cutaneous exudate, Mycobacterium intracellulare was isolated. Read More

    Lateral neck lumps: A systematic approach for the general paediatrician.
    J Paediatr Child Health 2017 Nov;53(11):1091-1095
    Department of Paediatric Surgery, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Lateral neck lumps are very common in children, and are largely benign in nature. The majority of lumps may be diagnosed on history and clinical examination alone, and further investigations are often not required. The most common pathologies in young children include reactive lymphadenopathy, lymphadenitis and atypical mycobacterial infections. Read More

    Dual-Specificity Phosphatase 12 Targets p38 MAP Kinase to Regulate Macrophage Response to Intracellular Bacterial Infection.
    Front Immunol 2017 9;8:1259. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, Singapore, Singapore.
    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are activated in innate immune cells such as macrophages upon the detection of microbial infection, critically regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1. As a result, activation of MAPKs is tightly regulated to ensure appropriate and adequate immune responses. Dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) are a family of proteins which specifically dephosphorylates threonine and tyrosine residues essential for MAPK activation to negatively regulate their activation. Read More

    Strange case of dimorphic skin rash in a patient with cirrhosis: atypical herpes simplex and sweet's syndrome.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Oct 20;2017. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Department of Gastroenterology, PVS Memorial Hospital, Cochin, Kerala, India.
    A middle-aged man with decompensated cirrhosis and a dimorphic multisite skin rash is diagnosed with rare atypical herpes simplex infection, manifesting Sweet's syndrome (SS) in the absence of other described associations. SS, an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, has three common forms-classical or idiopathic, malignancy associated and drug induced. Systemic autoimmune, connective tissue diseases and infections are also strong associations. Read More

    Leprosy Associated with Atypical Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Nicaragua and Honduras.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Oct;97(4):1103-1110
    University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    In Central America, few cases of leprosy have been reported, but the disease may be unrecognized. Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and histology. Preliminary field work in Nicaragua and Honduras found patients, including many children, with skin lesions clinically suggestive of atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis or indeterminate leprosy. Read More

    An unusual cutaneous infection caused by.
    JMM Case Rep 2017 Apr 12;4(4):e005088. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Department of Health Science, University of Eastern Piedmont, Novara, Italy.
    is a non-tubercular mycobacterium residing in fresh or salt water (in tropical or temperate areas); it is a fish and human pathogen, and in immunocompromised patients can cause severe cutaneous and subcutaneous infections.A 46-year-old white man who underwent immunosuppressive therapy was admitted to our department in May 2016 for skin lesions previously diagnosed as 'unusual erysipelas'. We rejected the hypothesis of erysipelas, due to the clinical features, and our diagnostic hypotheses were oriented towards sporotrichosis, atypical mycobacteriosis, cutaneous tuberculosis and cutaneous sarcoidosis. Read More

    Tuberculosis mortality and the male survival deficit in rural South Africa: An observational community cohort study.
    PLoS One 2017 10;12(10):e0185692. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Africa Health Research Institute, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.
    Background: Women live on average five years longer than men, and the sex difference in longevity is typically lower in populations with high mortality. South Africa-a high mortality population with a large sex disparity-is an exception, but the causes of death that contribute to this difference are not well understood.

    Methods: Using data from a demographic surveillance system in rural KwaZulu-Natal (2000-2014), we estimate differences between male and female adult life expectancy by HIV status. Read More

    Mycobacterium abscessus Complex Infections in Children: A Review.
    Curr Infect Dis Rep 2017 Oct 5;19(11):46. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and International Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, 420 Delaware Street SE, MMC # 250, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: Infections in children with Mycobacterium abscessus complex represent a particular challenge for clinicians. Increasing incidence of these infections worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. Published medical literature was reviewed, with emphasis on material published in the past 5 years. Read More

    [Atypical inflammation of the middle ear].
    Vestn Otorinolaringol 2017;82(4):9-15
    L.I. Sverzhevskiy Research Institute of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Moscow Health Department, Moscow, Russia, 117152.
    The objective of the present study was to characterize the patients presenting with atypical inflammation of the middle ear and consider the currently available methods for their examination. A total of 20 patients at the age from 16 to 66 years were admitted to the Department of Ear Microsurgery during the period from 2008 and 2016 for the treatment of atypical inflammation of the middle ear. Eleven of them (18 ears) were found to have tuberculous lesions (TL) of the middle ear while the remaining 9 patients (11 ears) suffered giant cell vasculitis (GCV). Read More

    Osteomyelitis due to multiple rare infections in a patient with idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia.
    Intractable Rare Dis Res 2017 Aug;6(3):206-210
    Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    A 26-year-old male patient presented with features suggestive of osteomyelitis involving the entire left femur, hip joint and knee joint. Culture from the debrided tissue grewand he was treated with sensitivity based antibiotics but the symptoms did not resolve. The synovial biopsy showed multinucleated giant cells and acid fast bacilli on Ziehl Neelsen stain. Read More

    Multifocal ulceronecrotic skin lesions-A stigmatizing case.
    IDCases 2017 11;10:61-62. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM), Montreal, Canada.
    is a rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria, ubiquitous in the environment and mostly involved in skin, soft tissue and bone infections. An atypical, severe and multifocal dermatological manifestation ofinfection in an immunocompetent patient is described here. The lesions completely resolved using a multidisciplinary approach. Read More

    Implantable cardiac defibrillator infections: the emerging importance of.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Sep 19;2017. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department t of Internal Medicine Critical Care, TTUHSC, Lubbock, Texas, USA.
    Infection is a clinically relevant complication associated with intracardiac devices. Atypical mycobacteria, particularlyhave been increasingly implicated in cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections. We present a case ofCIED infection in a patient with ischaemic cardiomyopathy occurring approximately 3 weeks after insertion. Read More

    Sporotrichoid-Like Spread of Cutaneousin an Immunocompromised Patient.
    Case Rep Dermatol Med 2017 23;2017:8219841. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    is a rapidly growing mycobacterium found in water and soil that can cause local cutaneous infections in immunocompetent hosts but more frequently affects immunocompromised patients. Typically, patients will present with painful subcutaneous nodules of the joints or soft tissues from traumatic inoculation. However, exhibiting a sporotrichoid-like pattern of these nodules is uncommon. Read More

    [Tuberculous abscess of the thoracic wall secondary to nodular tuberculosis: Atypical presentation in an older adult].
    Gac Med Mex 2017 May-Jun;153(3):401-405
    Hospital Ángeles Mocel, Ciudad de México, México.
    Tuberculosis (tb) of the chest wall is uncommon and it represents less than 5% of all cases of musculoskeletal tb and only 1-2% of tb. We present the case of an elderly woman with tb of the chest wall secondary to a nodal tb with an unusual presentation. The diagnosis of this entity is difficult because the disease often mimics other diseases such as pyogenic abscess, chest wall. Read More

    Atypical memory B cells in human chronic infectious diseases: An interim report.
    Cell Immunol 2017 Nov 11;321:18-25. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20852, USA. Electronic address:
    Immunological memory is a remarkable phenomenon in which survival of an initial infection by a pathogen leads to life-long protection from disease upon subsequent exposure to that same pathogen. For many infectious diseases, long-lived protective humoral immunity is induced after only a single infection in a process that depends on the generation of memory B cells (MBCs) and long-lived plasma cells. However, over the past decade it has become increasingly evident that many chronic human infectious diseases to which immunity is not readily established, including HIV-AIDS, malaria and TB, are associated with fundamental alterations in the composition and functionality of MBC compartments. Read More

    Tuberculous otitis media: a resurgence?
    J Laryngol Otol 2017 Sep 20;131(9):785-792. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Madras ENT Research Foundation,Chennai,Tamil Nadu,India.
    Objective: Tuberculosis is a global health problem that is especially prevalent in developing countries such as India. Recently, atypical presentation has become more common and a high index of suspicion is essential. This study analysed the various presenting symptoms and signs of tuberculous otitis media and the role of diagnostic tests, with the aim of formulating criteria for the diagnosis. Read More

    Addison's Disease Caused by Tuberculosis with Atypical Hyperpigmentation and Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis.
    Intern Med 2017 15;56(14):1843-1847. Epub 2017 Jul 15.
    Department of Medical Education and General Practice, Osaka City University, Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.
    We herein report a case of Addison's disease caused by tuberculosis characterized by atypical hyperpigmentation, noted as exacerbation of the pigmentation of freckles and the occurrence of new freckles, that was diagnosed in the presence of active pulmonary tuberculosis. The clinical condition of the patient was markedly ameliorated by the administration of hydrocortisone and anti-tuberculosis agents. When exacerbation of the pigmentation of the freckles and/or the occurrence of new freckles are noted, Addison's disease should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. Read More

    [[Video-assisted pulmonary resection application for pulmonary tuberculosis].]
    Klin Khir 2016 Aug(8):40-43
    Results of application of video-assisted (video-assisted thoracic surgery VATS) pulmonary resection for pulmonary tuberculosis in 63 patients in 2008 - 2016 yrs were analyzed. Typical lobectomy was done in 28 (44.4%) patients, pulmonectomy - in 1 (1. Read More

    Nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in childhood - update on diagnostic approaches and treatment.
    J Infect 2017 Jun;74 Suppl 1:S136-S142
    Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia; Academic Unit of Clinical & Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; NIHR Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK; Global Health Research Institute, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; Department of Paediatric Infectious Diseases & Immunology, Evelina London Children's Hospital, Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. Electronic address:
    Recent studies suggest that the incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in children may be increasing. Nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis, skin and soft tissue infection, and pulmonary disease each present unique challenges in relation to diagnosis and treatment. In this update, we critically review the recent literature on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic approaches and treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in children. Read More

    The impact of glycemic status on radiological manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis in diabetic patients.
    PLoS One 2017 19;12(6):e0179750. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Department of Chest Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Setting: Diabetes mellitus (DM) may increase risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and influence its radiological manifestations.

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of glycemic status on radiological findings of PTB in diabetic patients.

    Methods: Between January 2010 and December 2015, chest radiographs (CXRs) in consecutive 214 DM patients with culture-proved PTB and 123 available thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans were enrolled. Read More

    Original Mycobacterial Sin, a consequence of highly homologous antigens?
    Vet Microbiol 2017 May 27;203:286-293. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    Division of Immunology, Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1, 3584 CL, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa.
    The role of antigens shared between Mycobacteria in in-vivo cross-reactive immune responses in host animals, have been reported to be responsible for reduced BCG vaccination efficacy as well reduced specificity of routine immunological diagnostic tests. This presents with significant disease control challenges in humans and animals. The present review highlights the results of previous studies on the effect of pre-sensitization to environmental mycobacteria on either pathogenic mycobacteria and/or M. Read More

    The paradigm shift to end tuberculosis. Are we ready to assume the changes?
    Expert Rev Respir Med 2017 Jul 5;11(7):565-579. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    d Infectious diseases department, Tropical Medicine Unit, PROCIS (International Health Program of the Catalan Health Institute) , Vall d'Hebron University Hospital,Universistat Autònoma de Barcelona , Barcelona , Spain.
    Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is the number one infectious disease killer and exemplifies the most neglected of them. Drug-susceptible TB presents with high mortality especially in atypical forms, disproportionally affecting immunosuppressed and vulnerable populations. The drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) epidemic, a world crisis, is sustained and increased through person-to-person transmission in households and the community. Read More

    Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Tochigi prefecture, a local region of Japan.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 05 25;17(1):365. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Tochigi Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental Science, Utsunomiya, Tochigi, Japan.
    Background: Foreign-born patients with tuberculosis (TB) may introduce globally disseminated isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis into large cities in Japan. The risk of dissemination of these isolates into local regions, however, has not been determined. This study analyzed the molecular epidemiology of M. Read More

    Treatment of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease.
    Curr Treat Options Infect Dis 2016 Dec 11;8(4):275-296. Epub 2016 Oct 11.
    Department of Medicine and Academic Affairs, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado.
    Treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTM-LD) is challenging for several reasons including the relative resistance of NTM to currently available drugs and the difficulty in tolerating prolonged treatment with multiple drugs. Yet-to-be-done, large, multicenter, prospective randomized studies to establish the best regimens will also be arduous because multiple NTM species are known to cause human lung disease, differences in virulence and response to treatment between different species and strains within a species will make randomization more difficult, the need to distinguish relapse from a new infection, and the difficulty in adhering to the prescribed treatment due to intolerance, toxicity, and/or drug-drug interactions, often necessitating modification of therapeutic regimens. Furthermore, the out-of-state resident status of many patients seen at the relatively few centers that care for large number of NTM-LD patients pose logistical issues in monitoring response to treatment. Read More

    Development of a potent invigorator of immune responses endowed with both preventive and therapeutic properties.
    Biologics 2017 2;11:55-63. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    This article reviews briefly the making of an immunoprophylactic-cum-immunotherapeutic vaccine against leprosy. The vaccine is based on cultivable, heat-killed atypical mycobacteria, whose gene sequence is now known. It has been named. Read More

    Modulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific humoral immune responses is associated with Strongyloides stercoralis co-infection.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 May 1;11(5):e0005569. Epub 2017 May 1.
    National Institutes of Health-NIRT-International Center for Excellence in Research, Chennai, India.
    Background / Objectives: Helminth infections are known to influence T cell responses in latent tuberculosis (LTBI). Whether helminth infections also modulate B cell responses in helminth-tuberculosis co-infection is not known.

    Methods: We assessed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-antigen specific IgM and IgG levels, circulating levels of the B cell growth factors, BAFF and APRIL and the absolute numbers of the various B cell subsets in individuals with LTBI, LTBI with coincident Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss) infection (LTBI/Ss) and in those with Ss infection alone (Ss). Read More

    An Amidase_3 domain-containing N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase is required for mycobacterial cell division.
    Sci Rep 2017 Apr 25;7(1):1140. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    DST/NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical TB Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, 2001, South Africa.
    Mycobacteria possess a multi-layered cell wall that requires extensive remodelling during cell division. We investigated the role of an amidase_3 domain-containing N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase, a peptidoglycan remodelling enzyme implicated in cell division. We demonstrated that deletion of MSMEG_6281 (Ami1) in Mycobacterium smegmatis resulted in the formation of cellular chains, illustrative of cells that were unable to complete division. Read More

    Severe type 1 upgrading leprosy reaction in a renal transplant recipient: a paradoxical manifestation associated with deficiency of antigen-specific regulatory T-cells?
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 04 24;17(1):305. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Laboratory of Medical Investigation Unit 56, Division of Clinical Dermatology, Medical School, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: Due to its chronic subclinical course and large spectrum of manifestations, leprosy often represents a diagnostic challenge. Even with proper anti-mycobacteria treatment, leprosy follow up remains challenging: almost half of leprosy patients may develop reaction episodes. Leprosy is an infrequent complication of solid organ transplant recipients. Read More

    Tuberculosis-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with initial presentation of fever of unknown origin in a general hospital: An analysis of 8 clinical cases.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Apr;96(16):e6575
    Department of General Internal Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH), Chinese Academy of Medical Science (CAMS), and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing, China.
    The study aimed to investigate the clinical features and prognoses of patients with tuberculosis (TB) who had secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH).Patients first presenting with fever of unknown origin, who were ultimately diagnosed with TB-associated secondary HLH, were assessed retrospectively. We summarized and analyzed clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, diagnoses, treatments, and prognoses of patients using clinical data, outpatient follow-up, and telephone follow-up in combination with literature review. Read More

    Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection of the musculoskeletal system in immunocompetent hosts.
    Indian J Orthop 2017 Mar-Apr;51(2):205-212
    Department of Pathology, Hinduja Hospital and Medical Research Center, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
    Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) were considered saprophytic organisms for many years but now are recognized as human pathogens. Although humans are routinely exposed to NTM, the rate of clinical infection is low. Such infections usually occur in the elderly and in patients who are immunocompromised. Read More

    Tuberculous Posterior Sclero-Uveitis with Features of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Uveitis: An Unusual Case.
    Am J Case Rep 2017 Apr 8;18:367-374. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Department of Ophthalmology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.
    BACKGROUND Ocular tuberculosis (TB) is a clinical entity that presents with a wide range of clinical manifestations. It is regarded as an extremely challenging condition from the point of view of diagnostic approach and calls for early diagnosis and prompt treatment, as it can potentially lead to blindness. CASE REPORT This is a case report of a 32-year-old male from southern India who has been living and working in Greece over the last 10 years and presented with 2-week history of pain and progressive visual impairment of his left eye. Read More

    Atypical spinal tuberculosis involved noncontiguous multiple segments: Case series report with literature review.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Apr;96(14):e6559
    aDepartment of Orthopedics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University bDepartment of Orthopedics, Sichuan Orthopaedic Hospital, Chengdu, China.
    In its typical form, spinal tuberculosis (TB) presents as destroyed contiguous vertebral bodies with involvement of intervertebral discs and paravertebral or psoas abscesses. Atypical forms are uncommonly reported. Here, we describe 8 patients with noncontiguous multisegmental spinal TB with no intervertebral disc involvement. Read More

    Biofilm colonization in chronic treatment refractory infections presenting with discharging sinuses: A study in a tertiary care hospital of Eastern India.
    J Lab Physicians 2017 Apr-Jun;9(2):125-131
    Department of Microbiology, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Introduction: Treatment refractory chronic recurrent infections mean those chronic infections which recur by same causal agents with similar drug responsiveness after apparent relief following full course of recommended antimicrobial management.

    Materials And Methods: Fifty different samples were collected from patients with chronic surgical site infections, laparoscopic port site infections, anal fistula, mesh hernioplasty, chronic dacryocystitis, chronic osteomyelitis, and chronic burn wounds. Samples were processed for culture, identification, antibiotic sensitivity testing using standard microbiological techniques. Read More

    Atypical Mycobacterial Infections of the Upper Extremity: Becoming More Atypical?
    Hand (N Y) 2017 Mar 7;12(2):188-192. Epub 2016 Jul 7.
    University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, USA.
    Atypical mycobacterial infections are uncommon and characterized by a chronic, indolent course before diagnosis. Historically, these infections are associated with marine-related injury and/or immune dysfunction. Our institution has successfully diagnosed and treated an increasing number of these infections. Read More

    Atypical Hand Infections.
    Orthop Clin North Am 2017 Apr 1;48(2):229-240. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Department of Hand Surgery, The Hand Center of San Antonio, 21 Spurs Lane, #310, San Antonio, TX 78240, USA.
    Atypical infections of the hand are caused by organisms such as Mycobacterium, fungi, and viruses, and often do not respond to conventional management. They exist within a wide spectrum of presentations, ranging from cutaneous lesions to deep infections such as tenosynovitis and osteomyelitis. Having a high clinical suspicion for atypical hand infections is vital because diagnosis often requires special tests and/or cultures. Read More

    Port-site infections by nontuberculous mycobacterium: A retrospective clinico-microbiological study.
    Int J Mycobacteriol 2017 Jan-Mar;6(1):34-37
    Department of Microbiology, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Background: Port-site infection (PSI) is a prevailing, chronic, nagging, treatment refractory complication of laparoscopic surgery (LS). It neutralizes the advantages of minimally invasive surgery and increases morbidity, treatment cost of patient, leading to loss of confidence on operating surgeon. PSIs are preventable with appropriate preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative measures. Read More

    Pseudotumoral form of soft tissue tuberculosis of the hand: six cases.
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 21;25:178. Epub 2016 Nov 21.
    Orthopedic surgery and Trauma Department, Maamouri Hospital, Nabeul, Tunisia.
    Musculoskeletal involvement is not uncommon in extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, but the localization in the soft tissue of the hand is very rare. Diagnosis is much more difficult because of the atypical location and non-specific symptoms. We report 6 cases of pseudotumoral form of soft tissue tuberculosis of the hand treated in our department during the past 12 years. Read More

    Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: An Imaging Perspective.
    Can Assoc Radiol J 2017 May 7;68(2):161-170. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Department of Radiodiagnosis, PGIMER, Dr. RML Hospital, New Delhi-110001, India.
    The increasing prevalence of tuberculosis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals in recent years makes the disease a topic of universal concern. It has insidious onset and can affect virtually any organ system in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS). CNS tuberculosis (TB) is becoming more and more complex and atypical with onset of multidrug-resistant TB. Read More

    Miliary Tuberculosis.
    Microbiol Spectr 2017 Mar;5(2)
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati 517 507, India.
    Miliary tuberculosis (TB) results from a massive lymphohematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli and is characterized by tiny tubercles evident on gross pathology resembling millet seeds in size and appearance. The global HIV/AIDS pandemic and widespread use of immunosuppressive drugs and biologicals have altered the epidemiology of miliary TB. Considered to be predominantly a disease of infants and children in the pre-antibiotic era, miliary TB is increasingly being encountered in adults as well. Read More

    Expect the Unexpected: Mycobacterial Infection in Post Total Knee Arthroplasty Patients.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Jan 1;11(1):RD01-RD02. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    Associate Professor, Department of Orthopaedics, Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M. Hospital , Mumbai, Maharashtra, India .
    Orthopaedic Surgeons rarely encounter mycobacterial infections in Post Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) patients. We present series of two cases to create awareness among clinicians to expect the unexpected. Tuberculosis typical/ atypical is a hidden culprit in catch clinical situations when chronic infection is Suspected, but the lab investigations are negative in persistently symptomatic patients. Read More

    Screening in Maternity to Ascertain Tuberculosis Status (SMATS) study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 03 6;17(1):191. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    URC Swaziland, Mbabane, Swaziland.
    Background: Diagnosis of tuberculosis is difficult among pregnant women because the signs and symptoms of the disease, such as fatigue, shortness of breath, sweating, cough, and mild fever are similar to some manifestations of pregnancy. It is particularly challenging among HIV-infected women as symptoms are often masked or atypical. Currently, WHO recommends a standard four-symptom screening tool for pregnant and lactating women. Read More

    Tuberculosis After Kidney Transplant in the Samara Region of Russia: Possible Solutions to Diagnosis and Treatment.
    Exp Clin Transplant 2017 Feb;15(Suppl 1):68-70
    Samara State Medical University, Samara, Russian Federation.
    Infections are the most important of all fatal complications in the first year after kidney transplant. They often differ in the severity of their course and can manifest in atypical symptoms. Further, their complex presentation significantly impedes diagnosis and treatment selection. Read More

    Posttransplant Tuberculosis.
    Exp Clin Transplant 2017 Feb;15(Suppl 1):10-15
    Department of Nephrology, İstanbul School of Medicine, Millet Caddesi, Çapa, İstanbul, Turkey.
    Tuberculosis is a major problem in the posttransplantation period, because of its high incidence and prevalence, difficulty in diagnosis as well as high risk of morbidity and mortality. In solid-organ transplant recipients, the diagnosis of tuberculosis is complex because it is paucisymptomatic. Tuberculin skin testing results may be negative, and interferon-gamma release assays may be insufficiently sensitive. Read More

    Mycobacterial Arthritis and Synovitis in Painted Reed Frogs (Hyperolius marmoratus).
    J Comp Pathol 2017 Feb - Apr;156(2-3):275-280. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Several species of atypical mycobacteria have been isolated from wild and captive amphibians. In captive anurans, cutaneous and visceral mycobacteriosis are common and can result in significant mortality, particularly when animals are immunocompromised. Mycobacterial arthritis and synovitis are reported rarely in amphibians. Read More

    Molecular identification and distribution of non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from clinical specimens by PCR-sequencing method in West of Iran.
    Clin Respir J 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Shirudi Shahid Boulevard, Daneshgah Street, Kermanshah, 67148-69914, Iran.
    Background And Aims: Infections by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has rapidly increased in recent years, due to high infection rates related to the populations at risk like immunocompromised individuals, patients predisposed by prior pulmonary. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of NTM in clinical samples and genetic diversity using 16S rRNA and rpoB sequence analysis.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 45 diverse isolates collected from sputum in 2 years 2014-2015 using standard decontamination procedure. Read More

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