54,595 results match your criteria Attention perception & psychophysics[Journal]


Rethinking Space: A Review of Perception, Attention, and Memory in Scene Processing.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Psychology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada; email:

Scene processing is fundamentally influenced and constrained by spatial layout and spatial associations with objects. However, semantic information has played a vital role in propelling our understanding of real-world scene perception forward. In this article, we review recent advances in assessing how spatial layout and spatial relations influence scene processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-vision-121219-081745DOI Listing

The Use of Eye Tracking to Discern the Threshold at Which Metopic Orbitofrontal Deformity Attracts Attention.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2020 Jun 3:1055665620926014. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Plastic Surgery, UT Southwestern, Dallas, TX, USA.

Introduction And Objectives: Surgical treatment for trigonocephaly aims to eliminate a stigmatizing deformity, yet the severity that captures unwanted attention is unknown. Surgeons intervene at different points of severity, eliciting controversy. This study used eye tracking to investigate when deformity is perceived. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1055665620926014DOI Listing

Visual working memory enhances target discrimination accuracy with single-item displays.

Authors:
Yi Pan Xue Zhang

Atten Percept Psychophys 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Psychology, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 311121, China.

The maintenance of information in visual working memory has been shown to bias the concurrent processing in favor of matching visual input. The present study aimed to examine whether this bias can act at an early stage of processing to enhance target feature perception in single-item displays. Participants were sequentially presented with two distinct colored stimuli as memory samples and a retro-cue indicating which of the two samples should be maintained for subsequent memory test. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13414-020-02041-yDOI Listing

How to support dental students in reading radiographs: effects of a gaze-based compare-and-contrast intervention.

Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Prosthodontics, Centre for Dentistry, Oral Medicine, and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Tübingen, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

In dental medicine, interpreting radiographs (i.e., orthopantomograms, OPTs) is an error-prone process, even in experts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10459-020-09975-wDOI Listing

Spatial specificity in attentional modulation of prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in rats.

Exp Brain Res 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences and Beijing Key Laboratory of Behavior and Mental Health, Speech and Hearing Research Center, Key Laboratory on Machine Perception (Ministry of Education), Peking University, Beijing, 100080, China.

Prepulse inhibition (PPI), the suppression of the startle reflex when the startling stimulus is shortly preceded by a weaker non-startling sensory stimulus (prepulse), can be enhanced by selective attention to the prepulse with a marked prepulse-feature specificity. To determine if the attentional modulation of PPI in rats can also be perceptual location specific, this study investigated whether fear-conditioning of a prepulse perceived at a location can enhance PPI only when the conditioned prepulse is perceived at that conditioned location. A continuous narrowband noise (NBN) was delivered by each of the two spatially separated loudspeakers in the frontal azimuth with a silent gap embedded in each NBN. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-020-05818-7DOI Listing

Functional Decoupling of Language and Self-Reference Networks in Patients with Persistent Auditory Verbal Hallucinations.

Neuropsychobiology 2020 Jun 2:1-7. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Center for Psychosocial Medicine, Department of General Psychiatry, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany,

Background: Accumulating neuroimaging evidence suggests that abnormal intrinsic neural activity could underlie auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the functional interplay between distinct intrinsic neural networks and their association with AVH.

Methods: We investigated functional network connectivity (FNC) of distinct resting-state networks as well as the relationship between FNC strength and AVH symptom severity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507630DOI Listing

From the DSP Perspective: Exploring the Use of Practices That Align With Trauma-Informed Care in Organizations Serving People With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

Authors:
John M Keesler

Intellect Dev Disabil 2020 Jun;58(3):208-220

John M. Keesler, Indiana University Bloomington.

Trauma-informed care (TIC) is a systemwide approach that emphasizes organizational practices based upon principles of safety, choice, collaboration, empowerment, and trustworthiness. It is intended to influence an entire organization, with implications for clients and the workforce. The present study explored the extent to which IDD organizations utilize practices that align with TIC with their DSP workforce. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/1934-9556-58.3.208DOI Listing

Contextual cueing in preview search.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, 75 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

Frequently finding a target in the same location within a familiar context reduces search time, relative to search for objects appearing in novel contexts. This learned association between a context and a target location requires several blocks of training and has long-term effects. Short-term selection history also influences search, where previewing a subset of a search context shortly before the appearance of the target and remaining distractors speeds search. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13414-020-02052-9DOI Listing

The neural basis of hazard perception differences between novice and experienced drivers - An fMRI study.

EXCLI J 2020 4;19:547-566. Epub 2020 May 4.

Section of Neurosciences, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran.

The neural mechanisms underlying hazard perception are poorly understood as to how experience leads to better driving skills. In this study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine experience-related changes in brain activation during hazard perception task between novice and aged drivers. Additionally, region of interest (ROI) and seed-to-voxel analyses were conducted to examine experience-related functional connectivity changes during visual attention and saliency networks between novice (n=15, age 22. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17179/excli2020-1098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7257253PMC

The Influence of Sleep Quality, Vigilance, and Sleepiness on Driving-Related Cognitive Abilities: A Comparison between Young and Older Adults.

Brain Sci 2020 May 28;10(6). Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Psychology, "Sapienza" University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy.

: Driving performance is strongly vulnerable to drowsiness and vigilance fluctuations. Excessive sleepiness may alter concentration, alertness, and reaction times. As people age, sleep undergoes some changes, becoming fragmented and less deep. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060327DOI Listing

Does Number Perception Cause Automatic Shifts of Spatial Attention? A Study of the Att-SNARC Effect in Numbers and Chinese Months.

Front Psychol 2020 12;11:680. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence, Tilburg University, Tilburg, Netherlands.

The Attentional Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes (Att-SNARC) effect has shown that number perception induces shifts in spatial attention (Fischer et al., 2003; Dodd et al., 2008). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00680DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235174PMC

Oral Health Status of Chinese Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Front Psychiatry 2020 5;11:398. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Orthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Tongji University, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Tooth Restoration and Regeneration, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: To assess and compare the oral health status of children with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in China.

Methods: This study recruited 144 children with ASD and 228 unrelated children with typical development (TD) aged 3-16 years from China. Data were collected using parent-reported questionnaires. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00398DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232536PMC

Time for a Systems Biological Approach to Cognitive Aging?-A Critical Review.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 12;12:114. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Psychology and Counselling, School of Psychology and Public Health, College of Science, Health and Engineering, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

The underlying premise of current theories of cognitive decline with age tend to be primarily cognitive or biological explanations, with relatively few theories adequately integrating both aspects. Though literature has also emphasized the importance of several factors that contribute to cognitive aging including: (a) decline in sensory abilities; (b) the effect of motor speed on paper-pencil measures of cognitive speed; (c) the impact of level of education and physical activity; and (d) molecular biological changes that occur with age, these factors have seldom been implicated into any single theoretical model of cognitive aging. Indeed, such an integrated bio-cognitive model of aging has the potential to provide a more comprehensive understanding of attention, perception, learning, and memory across the lifespan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.00114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236912PMC

Modulation of Brain Activity by Selective Attention to Audiovisual Dialogues.

Front Neurosci 2020 12;14:436. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

In real-life noisy situations, we can selectively attend to conversations in the presence of irrelevant voices, but neurocognitive mechanisms in such natural listening situations remain largely unexplored. Previous research has shown distributed activity in the mid superior temporal gyrus (STG) and sulcus (STS) while listening to speech and human voices, in the posterior STS and fusiform gyrus when combining auditory, visual and linguistic information, as well as in left-hemisphere temporal and frontal cortical areas during comprehension. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated how selective attention modulates neural responses to naturalistic audiovisual dialogues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235384PMC

Absence of Rhythm Benefit on Speech in Noise Recognition in Children Diagnosed With Auditory Processing Disorder.

Front Neurosci 2020 5;14:418. Epub 2020 May 5.

Faculty of Brain Sciences, UCL Ear Institute, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Auditory processing disorder (APD) is a specific deficit in the processing of auditory information along the central auditory nervous system. It is characterized mainly by deficits in speech in noise recognition. APD children may also present with deficits in processing of auditory rhythm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232546PMC

Making sense of the perceptual capacities in autistic and non-autistic adults.

Autism 2020 May 31:1362361320922640. Epub 2020 May 31.

University of London, UK.

Lay Abstract: Perceptual capacity refers to the amount of information that we can pay attention to at any one time. Research has shown that autistic people have a higher perceptual capacity, which means they can take in more information than non-autistic people can. This can be useful in certain situations, for instance, hearing approaching cars or noticing small details. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362361320922640DOI Listing

How much color do we see in the blink of an eye?

Cognition 2020 May 27;200:104268. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Psychology and Program in Neuroscience, Amherst College, United States of America.

Visual experience is painted in color. A change in hue or saturation can dramatically alter our understanding of a scene and how we feel about it. Subjectively, color does not feel like an optional dimension to be extracted only when necessary, but an automatically represented property of our entire visual field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104268DOI Listing

Perceived similarity ratings predict generalization success after traditional category learning and a new paired-associate learning task.

Psychon Bull Rev 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Psychology, University of Oregon, 1227, Eugene, OR, 97403, USA.

The current study investigated category learning across two experiments using face-blend stimuli that formed face families controlled for within- and between-category similarity. Experiment 1 was a traditional feedback-based category-learning task, with three family names serving as category labels. In Experiment 2, the shared family name was encountered in the context of a face-full name paired-associate learning task, with a unique first name for each face. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13423-020-01754-3DOI Listing

"How can I do more?" Cultural awareness training for hospital-based healthcare providers working with high Aboriginal caseload.

BMC Med Educ 2020 May 29;20(1):173. Epub 2020 May 29.

Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, PO Box 41096, Casuarina, Northern Territory, 0811, Australia.

Background: Aboriginal cultural awareness training aims to build a culturally responsive workforce, however research has found the training has limited impact on the health professional's ability to provide culturally safe care. This study examined cultural awareness training feedback from healthcare professionals working with high Aboriginal patient caseloads in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. The aim of the research was to assess the perception of training and the potential for expansion to better meet workforce needs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-020-02086-5DOI Listing

Effect of a Marathon on Skin Temperature Response After a Cold-Stress Test and Its Relationship With Perceptive, Performance, and Oxidative-Stress Biomarkers.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2020 May 29:1-9. Epub 2020 May 29.

Context: Although skin-temperature assessment has received much attention in recent years as a possible internal-load measurement, scientific evidence is scarce.

Purpose: To analyze baseline skin temperature and its rewarming through means of a cold-stress test before and after performing a marathon and to study the association between skin temperature and internal/external-load measurements.

Methods: A total of 16 runners were measured 48 and 24 h before and 24 and 48 h after completing a marathon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0963DOI Listing

The relationship between clinical dishonesty and perceived clinical stress among nursing students in southeast of Iran.

BMC Nurs 2020 14;19:39. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Nursing and midwifery, Sirjan school of Medical Sciences, Sirjan, Iran.

Background: Clinical dishonesty is a complex problem that threatens the health and safety of patients. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between clinical dishonesty and perceived clinical stress in nursing students.

Method: This cross-sectional correlational study was conducted on 395 nursing students from 4 nursing colleges. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12912-020-00434-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227112PMC

Ensemble perception without attention depends upon attentional control settings.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St Louis, WA, USA.

People are able to rapidly extract summary statistical information about common patterns, or ensembles, that may exist in a scene, such as repeated textures or colors. Here we examined the extent to which such an ensemble perception can occur in the absence of focal visual attention using a method that has some advantages over methods previously used to study the issue. In particular, we assessed the extent to which ensembles can be processed without attention by measuring the indirect effect of a to-be-ignored ensemble on judgments of an attended ensemble. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13414-020-02067-2DOI Listing

Altering the rhythm of target and background talkers differentially affects speech understanding.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.

Three experiments investigated listeners' ability to use speech rhythm to attend selectively to a single target talker presented in multi-talker babble (Experiments 1 and 2) and in speech-shaped noise (Experiment 3). Participants listened to spoken sentences of the form "Ready [Call sign] go to [Color] [Number] now" and reported the Color and Number spoken by a target talker (cued by the Call sign "Baron"). Experiment 1 altered the natural rhythm of the target talker and background talkers for two-talker and six-talker backgrounds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13414-020-02064-5DOI Listing

Event-Based Eccentric Motion Detection Exploiting Time Difference Encoding.

Front Neurosci 2020 8;14:451. Epub 2020 May 8.

Event Driven Perception for Robotics, Italian Institute of Technology, iCub Facility, Genoa, Italy.

Attentional selectivity tends to follow events considered as interesting stimuli. Indeed, the motion of visual stimuli present in the environment attract our attention and allow us to react and interact with our surroundings. Extracting relevant motion information from the environment presents a challenge with regards to the high information content of the visual input. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227134PMC

Other people's gaze encoded as implied motion in the human brain.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544.

Keeping track of other people's gaze is an essential task in social cognition and key for successfully reading other people's intentions and beliefs (theory of mind). Recent behavioral evidence suggests that we construct an implicit model of other people's gaze, which may incorporate physically incoherent attributes such as a construct of force-carrying beams that emanate from the eyes. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivoxel pattern analysis to test the prediction that the brain encodes gaze as implied motion streaming from an agent toward a gazed-upon object. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2003110117DOI Listing

Cognitive States Matter: Design Guidelines for Driving Situation Awareness in Smart Vehicles.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 May 24;20(10). Epub 2020 May 24.

Graduate School of Knowledge Service Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291, Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Korea.

Situation awareness (SA) is crucial for safe driving. It is all about perception, comprehension of current situations and projection of the future status. It is demanding for drivers to constantly maintain SA by checking for potential hazards while performing the primary driving tasks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20102978DOI Listing

BOLD activation during cue induced craving in adolescent inhalant users.

Asian J Psychiatr 2020 Apr 21;52:102097. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre (NDDTC) All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Inhalants are legally available substances, most of them inexpensive, which are often abused by adolescents. Craving causes their continued use and repeated relapses. There is a need to understand the cue-induced craving and the associated neural mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102097DOI Listing

Extracting drug-drug interactions from texts with BioBERT and multiple entity-aware attentions.

J Biomed Inform 2020 May 23:103451. Epub 2020 May 23.

School of Computer Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian, China. Electronic address:

Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) extraction is one of the important tasks in the field of biomedical relation extraction, which plays an important role in the field of pharmacovigilance. Previous neural network based models have achieved good performance in DDIs extraction. However, most of the previous models did not make good use of the information of drug entity names, which can help to judge the relation between drugs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2020.103451DOI Listing

Psilocybin acutely alters the functional connectivity of the claustrum with brain networks that support perception, memory, and attention.

Neuroimage 2020 May 23:116980. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.

Psychedelic drugs, including the serotonin 2a (5-HT) receptor partial agonist psilocybin, are receiving renewed attention for their possible efficacy in treating a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. Psilocybin induces widespread dysregulation of cortical activity, but circuit-level mechanisms underlying this effect are unclear. The claustrum is a subcortical nucleus that highly expresses 5-HT receptors and provides glutamatergic inputs to arguably all areas of the cerebral cortex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.116980DOI Listing

Patient Perceptions on a Non-Blinded Randomized Trial of Radiotherapy Technologies: A Novel Survey Study Exploring Therapeutic Misconception.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan. Electronic address:

Purpose: Therapeutic misconception is the tendency for a clinical trial participant to overlook the scientific objective and instead believe that an experimental intervention is intended for personal therapeutic benefit. We sought to evaluate this tendency in the setting of a clinical trial of a new radiotherapy technology.

Methods: Patients with breast cancer enrolled on a randomized clinical trial evaluating intensity modulated radiotherapy with deep inspiration breath hold (IMRT-DIBH) versus 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) completed surveys at baseline, after randomization, and upon completion of radiotherapy to evaluate expectations, satisfaction, and experiences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.05.021DOI Listing

Beyond visual fixations and gaze behaviour. Using pupillometry to examine the mechanisms in the planning and motor performance of a golf putt.

Hum Mov Sci 2020 Jun 29;71:102622. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Sport and Physical Activity, Edge Hill University, Ormskirk L39 4QP, UK. Electronic address:

The present study assessed the potential value of using pupillometry to explore skill level differences in the allocation of attention during planning and performance of a golf putt across three putting conditions of varying complexity. Although numerous studies have reported on skill level differences in performers' visual search behaviours, performance accuracy and quiet eye duration (QE) across a range of performance settings, few have provided an objective measure of the allocation of attention during task performance. Fourteen participants were assigned to two groups [low handicap (LHG) and high handicap (HHG)] completing ten putts in three conditions; right to left (RL), left to right (LR) and straight (ST) from 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2020.102622DOI Listing

Bio-semantic relation extraction with attention-based external knowledge reinforcement.

BMC Bioinformatics 2020 May 24;21(1):213. Epub 2020 May 24.

School of Computer Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, Shaanxi, China.

Background: Semantic resources such as knowledge bases contains high-quality-structured knowledge and therefore require significant effort from domain experts. Using the resources to reinforce the information retrieval from the unstructured text may further exploit the potentials of such unstructured text resources and their curated knowledge.

Results: The paper proposes a novel method that uses a deep neural network model adopting the prior knowledge to improve performance in the automated extraction of biological semantic relations from the scientific literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-020-3540-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245897PMC

Illness perceptions and quality of life in families with child with atopic dermatitis.

Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.

Objective: To assess the Quality of Life (QoL) of children with Atopic Dermatitis (AD) and their families and the impact of the mothers' illness perceptions on the family QoL.

Materials And Methods: Seventy-five children with AD (54 infants and 21 children) and their mothers participated in the study. The following questionnaires were administrated: 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aller.2020.03.003DOI Listing

Provider Advice and Patient Perceptions on Weight Across Five Health Systems.

Am J Prev Med 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Introduction: To improve the management of overweight and obesity in the primary care setting, an analysis of patient perceptions of weight status and predictors of weight loss attempts for those with overweight and obesity is needed.

Methods: Primary care patients (n=949) across 5 health systems in the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2020.03.013DOI Listing

Weight Reduction Behaviors Among European Adolescents-Changes From 2001/2002 to 2017/2018.

J Adolesc Health 2020 Jun;66(6S):S70-S80

Department of Public Health and Pediatrics, University of Torino, Torino, Italy.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in the prevalence of weight reduction behaviors (WRBs) among European adolescents from 26 countries between 2001/2002 and 2017/2018. The impact of the perception of body weight on WLB was also analyzed, with particular attention being paid to overestimation.

Methods: The data of 639,194 European adolescents aged 11, 13, and 15 years who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.03.008DOI Listing

Pitch, Timbre and Intensity Interdependently Modulate Neural Responses to Salient Sounds.

Neuroscience 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Laboratory for Computational Audio Perception, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

As we listen to everyday sounds, auditory perception is heavily shaped by interactions between acoustic attributes such as pitch, timbre and intensity; though it is not clear how such interactions affect judgments of acoustic salience in dynamic soundscapes. Salience perception is believed to rely on an internal brain model that tracks the evolution of acoustic characteristics of a scene and flags events that do not fit this model as salient. The current study explores how the interdependency between attributes of dynamic scenes affects the neural representation of this internal model and shapes encoding of salient events. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.05.018DOI Listing

Eye Movements in Response to Pain-Related Feelings in the Presence of Low and High Cognitive Loads.

Behav Sci (Basel) 2020 May 20;10(5). Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Health Science and Technology Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg East, Denmark.

The affective dimension of pain contributes to pain perception. Cognitive load may influence pain-related feelings. Eye tracking has proven useful for detecting cognitive load effects objectively by using relevant eye movement characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bs10050092DOI Listing

How to Influence Rural Tourism Intention by Risk Knowledge during COVID-19 Containment in China: Mediating Role of Risk Perception and Attitude.

Authors:
Hui Zhu Fumin Deng

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 05 18;17(10). Epub 2020 May 18.

Business School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.

With both cost and safety taken into account in the context of the life-threatening COVID-19 pandemic globally, rural tourism is expected to be the top choice for Chinese residents for relaxation and enhancing parent-child relationships. In this paper, a structural equation (SEM) model was proposed to compare risk knowledge, risk perception, risk aversion attitudes and behavioral intentions towards rural tourism. According to the empirical results, there was a large proportion of tourists showing preference for rural tourism recently. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103514DOI Listing

The Psychological Causes of Panic Buying Following a Health Crisis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 05 18;17(10). Epub 2020 May 18.

Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Attributed to the recent COVID-19 pandemic, panic buying is now a frequent occurrence in many countries, leading to stockouts and supply chain disruptions. Consequently, it has received much attention from academics and the retail industry. The aim of this study is to review, identify, and synthesise the psychological causes of panic buying, which is a relatively new and unexplored area in consumer behaviour research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103513DOI Listing

Intuitive biology, moral reasoning, and engineering life: Essentialist thinking and moral purity concerns shape risk assessments of synthetic biology technologies.

Authors:
Lauren Swiney

Cognition 2020 May 19;201:104264. Epub 2020 May 19.

Warwick Integrative Synthetic Biology Centre, University of Warwick, Warwick, UK. Electronic address:

The field of synthetic biology heralds a new era in our relationship with nature, as organisms are engineered to meet human goals. But little attention has been paid to potential cognitive constraints on reasoning about such technologies. Across four studies with American adults (N = 649), the present research investigates the proposal that essentialist reasoning and moral purity concerns conspire to shape risk assessments of engineered organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104264DOI Listing

The Role of Resident-Run Clinics for Aesthetic Surgery Training in the Context of Competency-based Plastic Surgery Education.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2020 Apr 27;8(4):e2766. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada.

Resident-run clinics (RRCs) have been suggested as a clinical teaching tool to improve resident exposure in aesthetic plastic surgery education. In exchange for reduced cost aesthetic services, RRCs offer trainees the opportunity to assess, plan, execute, and follow surgical procedures in an independent yet supervised manner. With the transition into a competency-based medical education model involving a switch away from a time-based into a milestones-based model, the role of RRCs, within the context of the evolving plastic surgery curriculum has yet to be determined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GOX.0000000000002766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7209860PMC

A Fundamental Cognitive Taxonomy for Cognition Aids.

Hum Factors 2020 May 21:18720820920099. Epub 2020 May 21.

KBR, Houston, TX, USA.

Objective: This study aimed to organize the literature on cognitive aids to allow comparison of findings across studies and link the applied work of aid development to psychological constructs and theories of cognition.

Background: Numerous taxonomies have been developed, all of which label cognitive aids via their surface characteristics. This complicates integration of the literature, as a type of aid, such as a checklist, can provide many different forms of support (cf. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018720820920099DOI Listing

Associations Between Subjective Tinnitus and Cognitive Performance: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.

Trends Hear 2020 Jan-Dec;24:2331216520918416

NIHR Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre.

Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of a corresponding external sound source, and bothersome tinnitus has been linked to poorer cognitive performance. This review comprehensively quantifies the association between tinnitus and different domains of cognitive performance. The review protocol was preregistered and published in a peer-reviewed journal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2331216520918416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243410PMC

Development and assessment of an instrument measuring environmental health perception and behavior toward reproductive health of female adolescents.

Authors:
Hyun Kyoung Kim

Jpn J Nurs Sci 2020 May 21:e12347. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Nursing, Kongju National University, Kongju, South Korea.

Aim: This study is aimed to develop and test the measurement of environmental health perceptions and behavior concerning female adolescents' reproductive health.

Methods: The scales constructed through literature review, in -depth interview, and factor analysis based on the protection motivation theory. The sample comprised 384 female adolescents for exploratory factor analysis, aged 18-22 years, and recruited in September-November 2019 in South Korea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jjns.12347DOI Listing

Attractiveness and neural processing of infant faces: effects of a facial abnormality but not dopamine.

Physiol Behav 2020 May 17;222:112937. Epub 2020 May 17.

Institute of Education and Child Studies, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9555, 2300 RB Leiden, the Netherlands.. Electronic address:

Adults' caregiving responses toward infants may have important origins in the perception and processing of infant cues as well as the motivation to attend to these cues. Moreover, some biological processes, such as dopaminergic neurotransmission, may be crucially involved. Although infant stimuli are generally experienced as cute and rewarding, infants with a visible disability may be regarded much less favorably than others, perhaps dependent on differences in perception, motivation, and neural processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.112937DOI Listing

Habituation as a neural algorithm for online odor discrimination.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Jun 19;117(22):12402-12410. Epub 2020 May 19.

Simons Center for Quantitative Biology, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724;

Habituation is a form of simple memory that suppresses neural activity in response to repeated, neutral stimuli. This process is critical in helping organisms guide attention toward the most salient and novel features in the environment. Here, we follow known circuit mechanisms in the fruit fly olfactory system to derive a simple algorithm for habituation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1915252117DOI Listing

Decoding olfactory stimuli in EEG data using nonlinear features: A pilot study.

J Neurosci Methods 2020 May 16;341:108780. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: While decoding visual and auditory stimuli using recorded EEG signals has enjoyed significant attention in the past decades, decoding olfactory sensory input from EEG data remains a novelty. Recent interest in the brain's mechanisms of processing olfactory stimuli partly stems from the association of the olfactory system and its deficit with neurodegenerative diseases.

New Methods: An olfactory stimulus decoder using features that represent nonlinear behavior content in the recorded EEG data has been introduced for classifying 4 olfactory stimuli in 5 healthy male subjects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2020.108780DOI Listing

Is Preoperative Quantitative Sensory Testing Related to Persistent Postsurgical Pain? A Systematic Literature Review.

Anesth Analg 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

From the Department of Anesthesiology, Pain and Palliative Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Persistent postsurgical pain (PPSP) is a common complication of surgery that significantly affects quality of life. A better understanding of which patients are likely to develop PPSP would help to identify when perioperative and postoperative pain management may require specific attention. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) of a patient'fs preoperative pain perception is associated with acute postoperative pain, and acute postoperative pain is a risk factor for PPSP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000004871DOI Listing

The Medial Temporal Lobe Is Critical for Spatial Relational Perception.

J Cogn Neurosci 2020 May 19:1-16. Epub 2020 May 19.

Columbia University.

The medial temporal lobe (MTL) is traditionally considered to be a system that is specialized for long-term memory. Recent work has challenged this notion by demonstrating that this region can contribute to many domains of cognition beyond long-term memory, including perception and attention. One potential reason why the MTL (and hippocampus specifically) contributes broadly to cognition is that it contains relational representations-representations of multidimensional features of experience and their unique relationship to one another-that are useful in many different cognitive domains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_01583DOI Listing