54,848 results match your criteria Attention Perception & Psychophysics[Journal]


Characterizing developmental prosopagnosia beyond face perception: Impaired recollection but intact familiarity recognition.

Cortex 2020 May 18;130:64-77. Epub 2020 May 18.

Boston Attention and Learning Laboratory, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Converging lines of research suggests that many developmental prosopagnosics (DPs) have impairments beyond face perception, but currently no framework exists to characterize these impaired mechanisms. One potential extra-perceptual deficit is that DPs encode/retrieve faces in a distinct manner from controls that does not sufficiently support individuation. To test this possibility, 30 DPs and 30 matched controls performed an old/new face recognition task while providing confidence ratings, to which a model-based ROC analysis was applied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2020.04.016DOI Listing

Analysis of the Man-Made Causes of Shiraz Flash Flood: Iran, 2019.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2020 Jul 8:1-4. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Flood is the most common natural hazard in Iran, which annually affects the environment and human lives. On March 25, 2019 in Shiraz-Iran, following a heavy rainfall, the occurrence of a flash flood caused an extensive number of deaths, injuries, and vehicle demolitions in a short time. Evidence suggests that man-made causes of the incident, including unsustainable urban development and lack of early warning services, have played a more influential role compared with its natural causes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X20000795DOI Listing

Modulation of Kv3.1/Kv3.2 promotes gamma oscillations by rescuing Aβ-induced desynchronization of fast-spiking interneuron firing in an AD mouse model in vitro.

J Physiol 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Neuronal Oscillations Laboratory.

Key Points: Gamma oscillations (30-80 Hz) are important for cognitive functions and depend on the synchronized activity of fast-spiking interneurons (FSN), which is crucial for network stability. Gamma oscillations are degraded in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients exhibiting cognitive impairment, with the degree of cognitive decline correlating with the severity of gamma disruption in response to neurotoxic amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ). Small molecule compounds EX15 and RE01 modulate Kv3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP279718DOI Listing

Does aesthetic judgment on face attractiveness affect neural correlates of empathy for pain? A fNIRS study.

Exp Brain Res 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Psychology, Research Unit in Affective and Social Neuroscience, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Largo Gemelli, 1, 20123, Milan, Italy.

Empathy for pain is at the basis of altruistic behaviors and is known to be modulated by variables such as group membership, pleasantness or unpleasantness of situations and social relationships. Also, face attractiveness and aesthetic judgment might play a role when observing a person in painful conditions, by increasing individuals' empathic responsiveness. Indeed, physical attractiveness can modify both the perception of the face itself and its reception in a social context. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-020-05867-yDOI Listing

Survival and selection biases in early animal evolution and a source of systematic overestimation in molecular clocks.

Interface Focus 2020 Aug 12;10(4):20190110. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Statistics, School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.

Important evolutionary events such as the Cambrian Explosion have inspired many attempts at explanation: why do they happen when they do? What shapes them, and why do they eventually come to an end? However, much less attention has been paid to the idea of a 'null hypothesis'-that certain features of such diversifications arise simply through their statistical structure. Such statistical features also appear to influence our perception of the timing of these events. Here, we show in particular that study of unusually large clades leads to systematic overestimates of clade ages from some types of molecular clocks, and that the size of this effect may be enough to account for the puzzling mismatches seen between these molecular clocks and the fossil record. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2019.0110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333906PMC

Courage in Competition: Adaptation of the Sports Courage Scale for American English and Validation of the Factor Structure with Student-Athletes at Clemson University.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Jul 4;17(13). Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Exercise and Sports Science Programme, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia.

While courage is widely attributed to athletic pursuits, it has received little scientific attention from both researchers and applied practitioners. A reliable measurement is required to examine courage in sports and competitive activities. Therefore, this research aimed to adapt the original Turkish Sports Courage Scale-31 into American English (SCS-AE). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134834DOI Listing

Detecting the Pedestrian Shed and Walking Route Environment of Urban Parks with Open-Source Data: A Case Study in Nanjing, China.

Authors:
Zhenqi Zhou Zhen Xu

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Jul 4;17(13). Epub 2020 Jul 4.

College of Landscape Architecture, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.

The propensity for visiting urban parks is affected by the park's attractiveness and travel convenience, where walking provides the most basic and fair access. Walking routes from residences to parks, in terms of duration and perception, have received insufficient attention in the literature, particularly in the urban form context in China. Using the case study of Xuanwu Lake Park in Nanjing, we acquire walking routes from residences to the park through open-source data scraping in order to depict the pedestrian shed and pedestrian environment reasonably along these routes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134826DOI Listing

Biotremology in arthropods.

Learn Behav 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Effective communication is essential in animal life to allow fundamental behavioral processes and survival. Communicating by surface-borne vibrations is likely the most ancient mode of getting and exchanging information in both invertebrates and vertebrates. In this review, we concentrate on the use of vibrational communication in arthropods as a form of intraspecific and interspecific signaling, with a focus on the newest discoveries from our research group in terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea), a taxon never investigated before in this context. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13420-020-00428-3DOI Listing

Analyzing E-Bikers' Risky Riding Behaviors, Safety Attitudes, Risk Perception, and Riding Confidence with the Structural Equation Model.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Jul 2;17(13). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

School of Architecture and Transportation, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Jinji Road 1#, Guilin 541004, China.

To identify and quantify the factors that influence the risky riding behaviors of electric bike riders, we designed an e-bike rider behavior questionnaire (ERBQ) and obtained 573 valid samples through tracking surveys and random surveys. An exploratory factor analysis was then conducted to extract four scales: riding confidence, safety attitude, risk perception, and risky riding behavior. Based on the exploratory factor analysis, a structural equation model (SEM) of electric bike riding behaviors was constructed to explore the intrinsic causal relationships among the variables that affect the risky e-bike riding behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134763DOI Listing

Road Profile Estimation Using a 3D Sensor and Intelligent Vehicle.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Jun 30;20(13). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China.

Autonomous vehicles can achieve accurate localization and real-time road information perception using sensors such as global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs), light detection and ranging (LiDAR), and inertial measurement units (IMUs). With road information, vehicles can navigate autonomously to a given position without traffic accidents. However, most of the research on autonomous vehicles has paid little attention to road profile information, which is a significant reference for vehicles driving on uneven terrain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20133676DOI Listing

Vincent van Gogh and his illness. A reflection on a posthumous diagnostic exercise.

Authors:
Piet Voskuil

Epilepsy Behav 2020 Jul 3;111:107258. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Epilepsy center Dr. Hans Bergerkliniek, Breda, Netherlands. Electronic address:

Many attempts have been undertaken in the past to perform a proper diagnosis of the illness of Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890). Van Gogh Museum Amsterdam organized a meeting of experts on this issue in 2016. Publication of a final conclusion in a medical journal is still in progress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107258DOI Listing

The impact of BDNF Val66Met on cognitive skills in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

Neurosci Lett 2020 Jul 3:135235. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia. Electronic address:

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma-induced disorder characterized with impaired cognitive function. BDNF modulates cognition and is involved in neuroprotection and neurocognitive processing. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was found to influence cognitive functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135235DOI Listing

Emotion perception in habitual players of action video games.

Emotion 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Geneva, Campus Biotech.

Action video game players (AVGPs) display superior performance in various aspects of cognition, especially in perception and top-down attention. The existing literature has examined these performance almost exclusively with stimuli and tasks devoid of any emotional content. Thus, whether the superior performance documented in the cognitive domain extend to the emotional domain remains unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000740DOI Listing

Psychological interventions to foster resilience in healthcare professionals.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 Jul 5;7:CD012527. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Leibniz Institute for Resilience Research (LIR), Mainz, Germany.

Background: Resilience can be defined as the maintenance or quick recovery of mental health during or after periods of stressor exposure, which may result from a potentially traumatising event, challenging life circumstances, a critical life transition phase, or physical illness. Healthcare professionals, such as nurses, physicians, psychologists and social workers, are exposed to various work-related stressors (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012527.pub2DOI Listing

Over-the-counter bleaching agents can help with tooth whitening maintenance.

J Esthet Restor Dent 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Ribeirão Preto School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: This study evaluated the influence of over-the-counter agents on the maintenance of color and microhardness of the enamel after home bleaching protocol.

Materials And Methods: Specimens of bovine teeth (6 × 6 × 2 mm) were prepared, and color (Easyshade, VITA) and microhardness (HMV-2, Shimadzu) readings were performed. All the specimens were bleached using 22% carbamide peroxide (22%CP), except for the control group, and then separated into seven groups (n = 10) according to the interaction of toothpaste (whitening, conventional, and whitening with peroxide) and mouth rinse (whitening and conventional). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jerd.12617DOI Listing

Residents Think in the "Now" and Supervisors Think Ahead in the Operating Room. A Survey Study About Task Perception of Residents and Supervising Surgeons.

J Surg Educ 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Center for Research and Innovation in Medical Education, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Objective: Progressive autonomous task performance is the cornerstone of teaching residents in the operating room, where they are entrusted with autonomy when they meet their supervisors' preferences. To optimize the teaching, supervisors need to be aware of how residents experience parts of the procedure. This study provides insight into how supervisors and residents perceive different tasks of a single surgical procedure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2020.06.010DOI Listing

Action-induced changes in the perceived temporal features of visual events.

Vision Res 2020 Jul 2;175:1-13. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Cognitive Science Program, Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:

Perceived duration can be subject to deviations around the time of a voluntary action. Whether the mechanisms underlying action-induced visual duration effects are effector-specific or require a more generalized action-linked multimodal calibration with the transient visual system, however, is a question yet to be answered. Here, we investigate this using dynamic visual stimuli presented as contingent upon the execution of an arbitrarily associated voluntary manual response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2020.05.008DOI Listing

Social media's role in the perception of radiologists and artificial intelligence.

Clin Imaging 2020 Jun 15;68:158-160. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Houston Radiological Associates, 8850 Long Point Road, Houston, TX 77080, United States of America. Electronic address:

Social media are impacting all industries and changing the way daily interactions take place. This has been notable in health care as it allows a mechanism to connect patients directly to physicians, advocacy groups, and health care information. Recently, the development of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in radiology has drawn media attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.06.003DOI Listing

Challenges and opportunities for top-down modulation research in cognitive psychology.

Acta Psychol (Amst) 2020 Jul 2;209:103118. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Wales Institute for Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales LL57 2AS, United Kingdom.

Studying social modulation of cognitive processes holds much promise for illuminating how, where, when and why social factors influence how we perceive and act in the world, as well as providing insight into the underlying cognitive mechanisms. This is no small objective; it reflects an ambitious programme of research. At present, based on the modal theoretical and methodological approach, we suggest that several challenges exist to achieving such lofty aims. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2020.103118DOI Listing

The space for memory in posterior parietal cortex: Re-analyses of bottom-up attention data.

Neuropsychologia 2020 Jul 2:107551. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 100 St. George Street, Toronto, Canada; Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest, 3560, Bathurst Street, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

The ventral (VPC) and dorsal sectors of the posterior parietal cortex are long known to mediate bottom-up and top-down attention to the external space. Because these regions also are implicated in retrieval of episodic memories, we proposed they also mediate attention to the internal (memory) space. One objection to this Attention to Memory hypothesis is that parietal regions involved in directing attention to percepts and memory are spatially adjacent but not overlapping, suggesting that different neural mechanisms are involved in each. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2020.107551DOI Listing

Aversive perception in a threat context: Separate and independent neural activation.

Biol Psychol 2020 Jul 1:107926. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

Unpleasant, compared to neutral, scenes reliably prompt enhanced functional brain activity in the amygdala and inferotemporal cortex. Considering data from psychophysiological studies in which defensive reactivity is further enhanced when viewing unpleasant scenes under threat of shock (compared to safety), the current study investigates functional activation in the amygdala-inferotemporal circuit when unpleasant (or neutral) scenes are viewed under threat of shock or safety. In this paradigm, a cue signaling threat or safety was presented in conjunction with either an unpleasant or neutral picture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2020.107926DOI Listing
July 2020
3.403 Impact Factor

Brain correlates of motor complexity during observed and executed actions.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 3;10(1):10965. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Neurophotonics Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA.

Recently, cortical areas with motor properties have attracted attention widely to their involvement in both action generation and perception. Inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL), presumably consisting of motor-related areas, are of particular interest, given that they respond to motor behaviors both when they are performed and observed. Converging neuroimaging evidence has shown the functional roles of IFG, PMv and IPL in action understanding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67327-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335074PMC

Examining the influence of different types of dynamic change in a visual search task.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Psychology, University of Nebraska - Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA.

It has been repeatedly demonstrated that when performing a visual search task, items can pop out of a display such that they are identified rapidly, independent of the number of distractors present. It has been less clear whether this type of pop-out is limited to static displays (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13414-020-02078-zDOI Listing

Cognitive function of older adults engaging in physical activity.

BMC Geriatr 2020 Jul 2;20(1):229. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

School of Health Sciences, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW, 2751, Australia.

Background: Physical activity can be classified as open-skilled or closed-skilled. Open-skilled physical activity, such as tennis, require participants to perform within a dynamic setting and respond to unpredictable and frequent environmental changes throughout the activity. Closed-skilled types of physical activity, such as swimming, are predictable and self-directed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-020-01620-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333382PMC

Bistable perception: neural bases and usefulness in psychological research.

Int J Psychol Res (Medellin) 2018 Jul-Dec;11(2):63-76

Facultad de Psicología - Universidad de San Buenaventura de Medellín, Colombia. Universidad de San Buenaventura Universidad de San Buenaventura de Medellín Colombia.

Bistable images have the possibility of being perceived in two different ways. Due to their physical characteristics, these visual stimuli allow two different perceptions, associated with top-down and bottom-up modulating processes. Based on an extensive literature review, the present article aims to gather the conceptual models and the foundations of perceptual bistability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21500/20112084.3375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7110285PMC

[Cluster analysis in the definition of profiles of elderly people with dependency in Palma de Mallorca: relationship between health, social support and dependency.]

Rev Esp Salud Publica 2020 Jul 2;94. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Grupo de Investigación y Formación Educativa y Social (GIFES). Laboratorio de Investigación sobre Familia y Modalidades de Convivencia (LIFAC). Departamento de Pedagogía y Didácticas Específicas. Universitat de les Illes Balears (UIB). Palma de Mallorca. España.

Objective: In Spain, the resources of the System for Autonomy and Attention to Dependency (SAAD) for the elderly are directed to intervene on dependency situations. They focus attention exclusively on physical and cognitive effects while the evidence and the main national and international entities indicate the need to establish measures to promote autonomy and prevent dependence.

Methods: Descriptive observational study, conducted on a sample of n=279 people benefiting from the Economic Benefit for Care in the Family Environment (PECEF) in Palma de Mallorca: n=178 people between 55 and 85 years (<75, n=69. Read More

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Phonetic categorization and discrimination of voice onset time under divided attention.

J Acoust Soc Am 2020 Jun;147(6):EL484

Department of Psychology, University of York, York, United

Event durations are perceived to be shorter under divided attention. "Time shrinkage" is thought to be due to rapid attentional switches between tasks, leading to a loss of input samples, and hence, an under-estimation of duration. However, few studies have considered whether this phenomenon applies to durations relevant to time-based phonetic categorization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/10.0001374DOI Listing

An Exploration of the Unintended Consequences of Performance-Based Financing in 6 Primary Healthcare Facilities in Burkina Faso.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

IRD (French Institute for Research on Sustainable Development), CEPED, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Background: Performance-based financing (PBF) is promoted to improve the quality and quantity of healthcare services in low-income countries. Despite the complexity of the intervention, little attention has been given to studying its unintended consequences. Our objective is to increase evidence on the unintended consequences of PBF in Burkina Faso. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijhpm.2020.83DOI Listing

Consumers' Perceptions of Chemical Household Products and the Associated Risks.

Food Chem Toxicol 2020 Jun 28:111511. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Consumer Behavior, Institute for Environmental Decisions, ETH Zurich, Universitaetstrasse 22, 8092, Zurich, Switzerland.

Accidents with chemical household products are prevalent worldwide and often involve young children. Previous research has shown that consumers use both analytical factors (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2020.111511DOI Listing

[What effects do media-mediated images of old age have on older people?-Results of a reception study].

Z Gerontol Geriatr 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Zentrum für Allgemeinmedizin und Geriatrie, Universitätsmedizin Mainz, Am Pulverturm 13, 55131, Mainz, Deutschland.

Background: The importance of media-mediated images of old age and ageing has been discussed for a long time. Nevertheless, there is sparse empirical evidence on the effects media (re)presentations of old age can actually have on recipients. This study explored the question of how (prototypical) media representations of age affect attitudes towards old age (foreign image of age) and personal aging (self-image of age). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00391-020-01745-yDOI Listing

Construction of functional brain connectivity networks from fMRI data with driving and modulatory inputs: an extended conditional Granger causality approach.

AIMS Neurosci 2020 10;7(2):66-88. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Dipartimento di Matematica e Applicazioni "Renato Caccioppoli", Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Italy.

We propose a numerical-based approach extending the conditional MVAR Granger causality (MVGC) analysis for the construction of directed connectivity networks in the presence of both exogenous/stimuli and modulatory inputs. The performance of the proposed scheme is validated using both synthetic stochastic data considering also the influence of haemodynamics latencies and a benchmark fMRI dataset related to the role of attention in the perception of visual motion. The particular fMRI dataset has been used in many studies to evaluate alternative model hypotheses using the Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/Neuroscience.2020005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7321769PMC

A 90 min Daytime Nap Opportunity Is Better Than 40 min for Cognitive and Physical Performance.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Jun 28;17(13). Epub 2020 Jun 28.

"Physical Activity, Sport and Health" Research Unit, UR18JS01, National Sport Observatory, Tunis 1003, Tunisia.

This study examined the effects of different nap durations on attention and physical performance as well as mood states, sleepiness, perceived exertion (RPE), recovery (PRS), and muscle soreness (DOMS) in trained men. Fourteen amateur team sport players (age: 20.3 ± 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134650DOI Listing

The Influence of Depression and School Life on the Quality of Life of Korean Child and Adolescent Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder:A Comparison of the Perspectives of the Patients and Their Caregivers.

Soa Chongsonyon Chongsin Uihak 2019 Jan;30(1):2-8

Department of Psychiatry, University of Inha College of Medicine, Inha Medical Center, Incheon, Korea.

Objectives: This study aimed to compare the quality of life reported by patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to the patients' quality of life as reported by their caregivers. In addition, it aimed to examine how emotional problems, including depression and anxiety, and the severity of the symptoms affect the quality of life reported by the patients and their caregivers.

Methods: The patients' quality of life and their degree of depression and anxiety were measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5765/jkacap.180027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289493PMC
January 2019

Endogenous Acetylcholine and Its Modulation of Cortical Microcircuits to Enhance Cognition.

Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Acetylcholine regulates the cerebral cortex to sharpen sensory perception and enhance attentional focus. The cellular and circuit mechanisms of this cholinergic modulation are under active investigation in sensory and prefrontal cortex, but the universality of these mechanisms across the cerebral cortex is not clear. Anatomical maps suggest that the sensory and prefrontal cortices receive distinct cholinergic projections and have subtle differences in the expression of cholinergic receptors and the metabolic enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/7854_2020_138DOI Listing

Sensory hypersensitivity in Tourette syndrome: A review.

Brain Dev 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Child Neurology, Vanderbilt Children's Hospital, United States.

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by tics, but most patients also experience bothersome sensory phenomena, in the form of premonitory urges and/or sensory hypersensitivity. Whereas premonitory urges are temporally paired with tics, sensory hypersensitivity is a constant, heightened awareness of external and/or internal stimuli. The intensity of sensory hypersensitivity does not strongly correlate with the severity of tics or premonitory urges, suggesting it is a dissociable clinical phenomenon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2020.06.003DOI Listing

The Fear of Cancer from the Standpoint of Oneself, the Opposite Sex and the Fear of Side Effects of Cancer Treatment.

Cancer Res Treat 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Purpose: It is important to understand the differences between men and women when it comes to attitudes and risk perception toward disease. This study aimed to explore the fear of cancer from the standpoint of themselves and the opposite sex by cancer type.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional survey with a representative sample was conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4143/crt.2020.285DOI Listing

Potential Causes of Increased Vocalisation in Elderly Cats with Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome as Assessed by Their Owners.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 24;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH25 9RG, UK.

The objectives of this study were to explore owner perception of the causes of increased vocalisation in cats diagnosed with cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS) and consider what impact this vocalisation may have on the cat's household. Owners of cats diagnosed with CDS that presented with increased vocalisation were invited to complete an online survey. The survey consisted of 28 questions including the cat's signalment, its medical history, and questions pertaining to the owner's perception of what motivated their cat´s increased vocalisation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10061092DOI Listing

Sharpened self-other distinction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 Jun 16;27:102317. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience, Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, 58185 Linköping, Sweden; Department of Psychiatry, Linköping University, 58185 Linköping, Sweden.

Introduction: Differentiation between self-produced tactile stimuli and touch by others is necessary for social interactions and for a coherent concept of "self". In attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD), tactile hypersensitivity and social cognition problems are part of the symptomatology, but pathophysiological mechanisms are largely unknown. Differentiation of self- and non-self- generated sensations might be key to understand and develop novel strategies for managing hypersensitivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327378PMC

Meditation and the Wandering Mind: A Theoretical Framework of Underlying Neurocognitive Mechanisms.

Perspect Psychol Sci 2020 Jun 29:1745691620917340. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, Université Paul Sabatier.

During the practice of meditation, the tendency of the mind to wander away from the object of focus is ubiquitous. The occurrence of mind wandering in the context of meditation provides individuals a unique and intimate opportunity to closely examine the nature of the wandering mind by cultivating an awareness of ongoing thought patterns, while simultaneously aiming to cultivate equanimity (evenness of temper or disposition) and compassion toward the content of thoughts, interpretations, and bodily sensations. In this article we provide a theoretical framework that highlights the neurocognitive mechanisms by which contemplative practices influence the neural and phenomenological processes underlying spontaneous thought. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691620917340DOI Listing

Emotional affection on a sustained attention task: The importance the aging process and depression.

PLoS One 2020 29;15(6):e0234405. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Education and Health, Camilo José Cela University, Madrid, Spain.

Chronic pain is a complex experience that has now become a major public health issue. This has prompted many researchers to study attention, understanding it to be a crucial factor that allows altering the experience of pain, while attributing considerable importance to sustained attention. Accordingly, the main studies in this field stress the importance of emotion regulation processes and emotions on the perception of painful stimuli and attentional processes themselves. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234405PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323986PMC

Increases in loneliness during medical school are associated with increases in individuals' likelihood of mislabeling emotions as negative.

Emotion 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Psychology, University of Chicago.

Expressions of emotion represent an important and unique source of information about the states of others. Being able to effectively understand expressions of emotions to make inferences about others' internal mental states and use these inferences to guide decision-making and behavior is critical to navigating social relationships. Loneliness, the perception that one lacks social connection, has important functional consequences for how individuals attend to signals of emotions in others. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000773DOI Listing

Impairments to Thermoregulation in the Elderly During Heat Exposure Events.

Gerontol Geriatr Med 2020 Jan-Dec;6:2333721420932432. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Plymouth Marjon University, UK.

Heat waves represent a public health risk to elderly people, and typically result in an increased rate of hospital admissions and deaths. Studies of thermoregulation in this cohort have generally focused on single elements such as sweating capacity. Sweating capacity and skin blood flow reduce with age, reducing ability to dissipate heat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2333721420932432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297481PMC

Making Sense of Mismatch Negativity.

Front Psychiatry 2020 11;11:468. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

School of Psychology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.

Evoked potentials provide valuable insight into brain processes that are integral to our ability to interact effectively and efficiently in the world. The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the evoked potential has proven highly informative on the ways in which sensitivity to regularity contributes to perception and cognition. This review offers a compendium of research on MMN with a view to scaffolding an appreciation for its use as a tool to explore the way regularities contribute to predictions about the sensory environment over many timescales. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300203PMC

Treatment of psoriasis - unburdened by fear during SARS-CoV2 menace.

J Dermatolog Treat 2020 Jul 3:1-4. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Physiology, "Iuliu Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

In a matter of mere months, humanity was unexpectedly struck by the appearance of SARS-CoV-2, shifting our perception as medical practitioners regarding our day-to-day activity. One especially disconcerting change was patient addressability to medical facilities, as well as access to proper healthcare in various fields. As these changes occurred rapidly, dermatologists too had to adapt by means of teledermatology, giving us back the ability to reach, treat, and comfort our patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09546634.2020.1788704DOI Listing

Affect-biased attention and predictive processing.

Cognition 2020 Jun 24;203:104370. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

University of British Columbia, Department of Psychology, Canada; University of British Columbia, Centre for Brain Health, Canada.

In this paper we argue that predictive processing (PP) theory cannot account for the phenomenon of affect-biased attention - prioritized attention to stimuli that are affectively salient because of their associations with reward or punishment. Specifically, the PP hypothesis that selective attention can be analyzed in terms of the optimization of precision expectations cannot accommodate affect-biased attention; affectively salient stimuli can capture our attention even when precision expectations are low. We review the prospects of three recent attempts to accommodate affect with tools internal to PP theory: Miller and Clark's (2018) embodied inference; Seth's (2013) interoceptive inference; and Joffily and Coricelli's (2013) rate of change of free energy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104370DOI Listing

Depression restricts visual capture and promotes the perception of negative information.

Biol Psychol 2020 Jun 24;154:107923. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

University of Lille, CNRS, CHU Lille, UMR 9193 - SCALab - Sciences Cognitives et Sciences Affectives, F-59000, Lille, France.

Emotional deficits in major depressive disorder lead to changes in the distribution of attention in the visual field. We investigate the impact of unpleasant and neutral pictures, presented in central (0°) and peripheral vision (12°; 24°), in 15 depression patients (DP) and 15 matched healthy controls (HC). Heart rate, skin conductance responses (SCRs) and electroencephalogram (EEG) were recorded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2020.107923DOI Listing

Human Figure Drawings in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Possible Window on the Inner or the Outer World.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 23;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 23.

IRCCS Stella Maris Foundation, 56126 Pisa, Italy.

Background: Tests based on human figure drawings (HFD) have captured the attention of clinicians and psychologists for a long time. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of HFD of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) relative to typically developing (TD) controls.

Methods: All children were asked to draw three human figures (man, woman, self-portrait) and were evaluated with a neuropsychological battery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060398DOI Listing

Shyness and perceived monitoring by peers affect children's performance in a divided attention task.

J Exp Child Psychol 2020 Jun 22;198:104882. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada.

To engage effectively in a dynamic social world, children must be prepared to process incoming information quickly and efficiently. For some, the perception that one may be evaluated by peers may directly affect how they attend to and engage with the world around them. The current study examined how children's performance on a hierarchical figures task varies under perceived social and nonsocial conditions as a function of temperamental shyness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2020.104882DOI Listing

The precautious nature of prestige: When leaders are hypervigilant to subtle signs of social disapproval.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Psychology, Florida State University.

Some group leaders exhibit hypervigilance to signs of social disapproval and that vigilance manifests at basic levels of social information processing such as visual attention and face perception. The current research tests hypotheses about when, why, and in whom such vigilance occurs. Across 2 pilot studies and 5 experiments (N = 1,667) we find that, when their social relationships are at stake, prestige-oriented leaders (but not dominance-oriented leaders) overperceive signs of social discontent and disapproval. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000284DOI Listing

Health-Related Quality of Life in Sarcoidosis.

Authors:
Ogugua Ndili Obi

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina.

Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) describes an individual's perception of the impact of health, disease, and treatment on their quality of life (QoL). It is a reflection of how the manifestation of an illness and its treatment is personally experienced. Assessing HRQoL is particularly important in sarcoidosis because the attributable disease mortality is relatively low, and one of the major reasons for initiating treatment is to improve quality of life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1710080DOI Listing