51,969 results match your criteria Attention Perception & Psychophysics[Journal]


Health-related Quality of Life and Wound Care Practices Among Patients With Chronic Wounds in a Southwestern Nigerian Community.

Wounds 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals' Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

Introduction: Chronic wounds (CWs) are a common problem around the world. Although known to affect quality of life, patients' perception may vary among cultures.

Objective: The purpose of this article is to determine the effects of CWs on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and identify wound care practices among a select population in southwestern Nigeria. Read More

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March 2019
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[Auditory processing disorder: Our experience with questionnaires].

Laryngorhinootologie 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

MHH Klinik und Poliklinik für Phoniatrie und Pädaudiologie.

Background: Impairments of sound discrimination, speech comprehension in background noise, memory, etc. can be assessed within the diagnosis of an auditory processing and perception disorder (AVWS) in a structured manner using the questionnaire (DGPP-AVWS-FB) provided by the German Society for Phoniatrics and Pedaudiology. The aim is to report on experiences with the use of this questionnaire in a pedaudiology practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0881-2937DOI Listing

Case of right hemispatial neglect and transcortical sensory aphasia following left occipitotemporoparietal glioblastoma resection.

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2019 Apr 15:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

a Department of Psychiatry , University of Illinois College of Medicine , Chicago , Illinois , USA.

The neurobehavioral syndrome of hemispatial neglect, which can result from insults such as stroke, brain tumor, or head injury, has most frequently been described as occurring for the left-side of hemispace following lesions to the right hemisphere. While right hemispatial neglect/inattention may occur following left hemisphere lesions as well, it has received limited attention in the scientific literature. The present case describes an inpatient neuropsychological evaluation with a 67-year-old, African American man presenting with right hemispatial neglect following resection of a large glioblastoma in the left occipitotemporoparietal region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23279095.2019.1590357DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Lameness in Beef Cattle: UK Farmers' Perceptions, Knowledge, Barriers, and Approaches to Treatment and Control.

Front Vet Sci 2019 29;6:94. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Livestock Health and Welfare, Institute of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Neston, United Kingdom.

Lameness in the beef industry has received little attention in the UK, despite the fact that it is a well-recognised problem in the dairy industry. The aims of this study were to (i) compare UK beef farmers' estimates of lameness prevalence to that of researchers, (ii) explore beef farmers' attitudes towards lameness, and (iii) help identify farmer reported barriers to lameness control and treatment. Beef farmers (11 finishing units and 10 suckler farms) were recruited from England and Wales. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449762PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice about first aid among male school teachers and administrators in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

J Family Med Prim Care 2019 Feb;8(2):684-688

College of Medicine-AlMaarefa University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Children are more exposed to harm and have a higher risk. Teachers are facing many circumstances of students in schools, and this needs medical attention and perception of what to do.

Aim: To assess the levels of knowledge of teachers and school instructors that live in the city of Riyadh related to basic first-aid practices and some variables which influenced these levels of information. Read More

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http://www.jfmpc.com/text.asp?2019/8/2/684/253000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_316_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436304PMC
February 2019
1 Read

A Computational Model of Immanent Accent Salience in Tonal Music.

Front Psychol 2019 29;10:317. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Centre for Systematic Musicology, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Accents are local musical events that attract the attention of the listener, and can be either immanent (evident from the score) or performed (added by the performer). Immanent accents involve temporal grouping (phrasing), meter, melody, and harmony; performed accents involve changes in timing, dynamics, articulation, and timbre. In the past, grouping, metrical and melodic accents were investigated in the context of expressive music performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449458PMC

Vaped, Not Stirred: Vaporized Alcohol Knowledge, Use, and Susceptibility.

Subst Use Misuse 2019 Apr 13:1-6. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

a Department of Psychological Sciences , College of Social and Behavioral Sciences - NAU , Flagstaff , Arizona , USA.

Background: Vaporized alcohol is an alternative method of ingesting alcohol that has received significant attention in the press. However, research on vaporized alcohol to date is limited.

Objectives: The current study sought to assess vaporized alcohol knowledge, use, and future susceptibility in diverse sample of young adults in the Southwest United States. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2019.1592194DOI Listing

Adaptation to different communicative contexts: an eye tracking study of autistic adults.

J Neurodev Disord 2019 Apr 13;11(1). Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Background: Learning through social observation (i.e., watching other people interact) lays the foundation for later social skills and social cognition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11689-019-9265-1DOI Listing

Feature-based guidance of attention during post-saccadic selection.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, The University of Iowa, 11 Seashore Hall E, Iowa City, IA, 52242-1407, USA.

Current models of trans-saccadic perception propose that, after a saccade, the saccade target object must be localized among objects near the landing position. However, the nature of the attentional mechanisms supporting this process is currently under debate. In the present study, we tested whether surface properties of the saccade target object automatically bias post-saccadic selection using a variant of the visual search task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13414-019-01719-2DOI Listing

Linguistic, perceptual, and cognitive factors underlying musicians' benefits in noise-degraded speech perception.

Hear Res 2019 Mar 29;377:189-195. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

School of Communication Sciences & Disorders, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA; Institute for Intelligent Systems, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA; University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Memphis, TN, USA. Electronic address:

Previous studies have reported better speech-in-noise (SIN) recognition in musicians relative to nonmusicians while others have failed to observe this "musician SIN advantage." Here, we aimed to clarify equivocal findings and determine the most relevant perceptual and cognitive factors that do and do not account for musicians' benefits in SIN processing. We measured behavioral performance in musicians and nonmusicians on a battery of SIN recognition, auditory backward masking (a marker of attention), fluid intelligence (IQ), and working memory tasks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heares.2019.03.021DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Feature-specific prediction errors for visual mismatch.

Neuroimage 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Translational Neuromodeling Unit (TNU), Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University of Zurich & ETH Zurich, Wilfriedstrasse 6, 8032, Zurich, Switzerland.

Predictive coding (PC) theory posits that our brain employs a predictive model of the environment to infer the causes of its sensory inputs. A fundamental but untested prediction of this theory is that the same stimulus should elicit distinct precision weighted prediction errors (pwPEs) when different (feature-specific) predictions are violated, even in the absence of attention. Here, we tested this hypothesis using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a multi-feature roving visual mismatch paradigm where rare changes in either color (red, green), or emotional expression (happy, fearful) of faces elicited pwPE responses in human participants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.04.020DOI Listing

[Guideline: Auditory Processing and Perception Disorders: Differential Diagnosis : S1 guideline of the German Society of Phoniatrics and Pediatric Audiology].

HNO 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Sektion für Phoniatrie und Pädaudiologie, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23562, Lübeck, Deutschland.

As a prerequisite for diagnosing auditory processing disorders (APD), differential diagnostic considerations are essential, especially with regard to language comprehension disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, specific cognitive impairments (e. g., in memory or multi-modal perception performance), specific learning disorders affecting reading and/or spelling, and autistic-type diseases. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00106-019-0645-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00106-019-0645-3DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

The role of gender in the perception of autism symptom severity and future behavioral development.

Mol Autism 2019 29;10:16. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

1ACTE at LaDisco and ULB Neuroscience Institute, Université libre de Bruxelles, CP 175, 50 avenue F.D. Roosevelt, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.

Background: Increasing attention is being paid to the higher prevalence of boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and to the implications of this ratio discrepancy on our understanding of autism in girls. One recent avenue of research has focused on caregiver's concern, suggesting that autism might present differently in boys and girls. One unexplored factor related to concerns on child development is whether socio-cultural factors such as gender-related expectations influence the evaluation of symptom severity and predictions about future behavioral development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13229-019-0266-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6439965PMC

What maternal morbidities are and what they mean for women: A thematic analysis of twenty years of qualitative research in low and lower-middle income countries.

PLoS One 2019 11;14(4):e0214199. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Background: With an estimated 27 million annual incidents of maternal morbidity globally, how they are manifested or experienced is diverse and shaped by societal, cultural and personal influences. Using qualitative research to examine a woman's perception of her pregnancy, its complications, and potential long-term impact on her life can inform public health approaches and complement and inform biomedical classifications of maternal morbidities, historically considered a neglected dimension of safe motherhood. As part of the WHO's Maternal Morbidity Working Group's efforts to define and measure maternal morbidity, we carried out a thematic analysis of the qualitative literature published between 1998 and 2017 on how women experience maternal morbidity in low and lower-middle income countries. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214199PLOS
April 2019
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Patterns of cognitive strategy use common in children with reduced social competence derived from parent perceptions.

Aust Occup Ther J 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Discipline of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, North South Wales, Australia.

Introduction: Occupational therapists are increasingly being referred children who experience reduced social competence. Ineffective use of cognitive strategies during social interactions is known to contribute to reduced social competence in children who have difficulty learning. Little is known about the nature of social cognitive strategy use or how it may be observed in children during performance of school occupations. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1440-1630.12
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1440-1630.12574DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Burnout Among Healthcare Providers in a Comprehensive Cancer Center in Saudi Arabia.

Cureus 2019 Jan 30;11(1):e3987. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Oncology, King Fahad Medical City Comprehensive Cancer Center, Riyadh, SAU.

Background Overwork has grave consequences for staff health, either physically or psychologically. Burnout has an impact on health care turnover, patient safety, patient satisfaction, and patient perception towards health professionals. This study aims to assess the prevalence of burnout, psychosocial distress, occupational predictors, perceived causes, and suggested strategies for preventing or reducing its impact of burnout on oncology healthcare workers. Read More

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https://www.cureus.com/articles/17390-burnout-among-healthca
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.3987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443512PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Patient safety culture at a surgical center: the nursing perception.

Rev Gaucha Enferm 2019 8;40(spe):e20180198. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Universidade Federal do Piauí (UFPI). Programa de Pós-graduação em Enfermagem, Departamento de Enfermagem. Teresina, PI, Brasil.

Objective: To analyze the safety culture of the patient from the perception of the nursing team of a surgical center.

Method: This is a cross-sectional and analytical study with 92 professionals from the nursing of a surgical center of a hospital in Teresina-PI, the data were collected from January to June of 2016, through the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire. In the analysis and interpretation of the data the guidelines of the AHRQ were followed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1983-1447.2019.20180198DOI Listing

Secondary Traumatic Stress: Relationship With Symptoms, Exhaustion, and Emotions Among Cemetery Workers.

Front Psychol 2019 22;10:633. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Carlo A. Ricciardi Department of Business, Law, Economics and Consumer Behaviour, Università IULM, Milan, Italy.

Cemeteries workers are deserving of attention because they are exposed to various psychosocial risks: these workers are subject to painful contacts and daily exposed to a work content linked to death experiences and the emotions associated with them. Secondary trauma develops from this continuous contact with others' suffering; operators working with this type of traumatic content and dynamic could suffer from emotional disorders (Figley, 1995). Therefore, the secondary traumatic stress (STS) is seen as an occupational risk factor (Bride et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00633DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438950PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Auditory Selective Attention Hindered by Visual Stimulus in Prelingually Deaf Children With Cochlear Implants.

Otol Neurotol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Otolaryngology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital.

Objective: To compare the influence of visual distractors on the performance of auditory selective attention between prelingually deaf children with a CI (cochlear implant) and children with normal-hearing.

Design: Twenty-two patients who had a cochlear implant device (10 males and 12 females, aged 6.64 ± 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAO.0000000000002169DOI Listing

A Smart Context-Aware Hazard Attention System to Help People with Peripheral Vision Loss.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Apr 5;19(7). Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Computer Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK.

Peripheral vision loss results in the inability to detect objects in the peripheral visual field which affects the ability to evaluate and avoid potential hazards. A different number of assistive navigation systems have been developed to help people with vision impairments using wearable and portable devices. Most of these systems are designed to search for obstacles and provide safe navigation paths for visually impaired people without any prioritisation of the degree of danger for each hazard. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19071630DOI Listing

Prevalence of self-reported dental pain and associated factors among eight- to ten-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren.

PLoS One 2019 8;14(4):e0214990. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Aim: To assess the prevalence of self-reported dental pain and its association with sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral/psychosocial indicators among 8- to 10-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren.

Design: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,589 eight- to ten-year-old children randomly selected from public schools of Florianopolis, Brazil. Self-reports of dental pain were collected through a single question as follows: "In the last month, how many times have you had pain in your teeth?" Caries experience was determined by the DMFT/dmft index and its clinical consequences by the PUFA/pufa index. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214990PLOS

Securing the future: Threat to self-image spurs financial saving intentions.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Management and Marketing, Faculty of Business, Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

This research examines when and why a threat to self-image influences saving intentions. Data from a set of seven studies, comprising a large-scale survey and 6 experiments, show that when individuals experience a self-image threat, they generate negative expectations about their future. Consequently, these individuals show a greater propensity to save money compared with nonthreatened individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspa0000159DOI Listing

Effects of attentional behaviours on infant visual preferences and object choice.

Cogn Process 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Psychology, Graduate School of Letters, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan.

Many developmental studies have examined the effects of joint attention. However, it has been difficult to compare effects of initiating joint attention and responding to joint attention in infants. Here, we compared the effects of initiating joint attention and responding joint attention on object information processing, object preference, and facial preferences in infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10339-019-00918-xDOI Listing

Visual form perception is fundamental for both reading comprehension and arithmetic computation.

Cognition 2019 Apr 3;189:141-154. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China; Advanced Innovation Center for Future Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China; Siegler Center for Innovative Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China. Electronic address:

Visual perception has been found to be a critical factor for reading comprehension and arithmetic computation in separate lines of research with different measures of visual form perception. The current study of 1099 Chinese elementary school students investigated whether the same visual form perception (assessed by a geometric figure matching task) underlies both reading comprehension and arithmetic computation. The results showed that visual form perception had close relations with both reading comprehension and arithmetic computation, even after controlling for age, gender, and cognitive factors such as processing speed, attention, working memory, visuo-spatial processing, and general intelligence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.014DOI Listing
April 2019
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The gap effect reduces both manual and saccadic inhibition of return (IOR).

Exp Brain Res 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Institute of Psychology, Jesuit University Ignatianum in Krakow, Kopernika 26, 31-501, Krakow, Poland.

Inhibition of return (IOR) is the effect of slower responses to validly than invalidly cued targets. The discovery of IOR raised controversy as to whether it has two "flavors", i.e. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00221-019-05537-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05537-8DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Eye movements explain decodability during perception and cued attention in MEG.

Neuroimage 2019 Apr 3;195:444-453. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Donders Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Eye movements are an integral part of human perception, but can induce artifacts in many magneto-encephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) studies. For this reason, investigators try to minimize eye movements and remove these artifacts from their data using different techniques. When these artifacts are not purely random, but consistent regarding certain stimuli or conditions, the possibility arises that eye movements are actually inducing effects in the MEG signal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.03.069DOI Listing

Responses to Semantically Neutral Words in Varying Emotional Intonations.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2019 Mar;62(3):733-744

Language Research Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Cleveland State University, OH.

Purpose Recent research on perception of emotionally charged material has found both an "emotionality effect" in which participants respond differently to emotionally charged stimuli relative to neutral stimuli in some cognitive-linguistic tasks and a "negativity bias" in which participants respond differently to negatively charged stimuli relative to neutral and positively charged stimuli. The current study investigated young adult listeners' bias when responding to neutral-meaning words in 2 tasks that varied attention to emotional intonation. Method Half the participants completed a word identification task in which they were instructed to type a word they had heard presented binaurally through Sony stereo MDR-ZX100 headphones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2018_JSLHR-H-17-0428DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Understanding the antepartum depressive symptoms and its risk factors among the pregnant women visiting public health facilities of Nepal.

PLoS One 2019 4;14(4):e0214992. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.

Introduction: Antepartum depression is a contributing factor for adverse maternal and perinatal outcome. The study aimed to assess the antepartum depressive symptoms in selected public health facilities of Nepal.

Methodology: This is a mixed-method cross-sectional study that included 143 pregnant women attending the antenatal checkup in four public health facilities of Kathmandu. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214992PLOS
April 2019
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Implementation of Intentional Touch for Geriatric Patients with Chronic Pain: A Qualitative Pilot Study.

Complement Med Res 2019 Apr 3:1-10. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Intentional Touch (InTouch) refers to a soft physical touch with the aim to ease complaints and enhance well-being. Central questions were perception of InTouch by nurses and patients and possible effects on pain perception.

Patients And Methods: InTouch was developed by stakeholder involvement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000496063DOI Listing

Parental Defensiveness about Multifactorial Genomic and Environmental Causes of Children's Obesity Risk.

Child Obes 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

1 Social and Behavioral Research Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, MD.

Background: Future integration of genomics into weight management may target children with overweight given prospects for prevention. Meanwhile, parents learn about weight-related genomics primarily through the media, and little is known about parental reactions to complex genomic and environmental causes underlying children's obesity risk.

Methods: Three hundred twenty-four parents with overweight who have a child 3-13 years of age were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/chi.2018.0315DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Association of Vision Loss With Hospital Use and Costs Among Older Adults.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor.

Importance: Patients with vision loss who are hospitalized for common illnesses are often not identified as requiring special attention. This perception, however, may affect the outcomes, resource use, and costs for these individuals.

Objective: To assess whether the mean hospitalization lengths of stay, readmission rates, and costs of hospitalization differed between individuals with vision loss and those without when they are hospitalized for similar medical conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2019.0446DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Effect of spatial attention on spatiotopic visual motion perception.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4)

Department of Psychology, Japan Women's University, Kanagawa, Japan.

We almost never experience visual instability, despite retinal image instability induced by eye movements. How the stability of visual perception is maintained through spatiotopic representation remains a matter of debate. The discrepancies observed in the findings of existing neuroscience studies regarding spatiotopic representation partly originate from differences in regard to how attention is deployed to stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.4DOI Listing

To Each Stress Its Own Screen: A Cross-Sectional Survey of the Patterns of Stress and Various Screen Uses in Relation to Self-Admitted Screen Addiction.

J Med Internet Res 2019 Apr 2;21(4):e11485. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

PERFORM Centre, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: The relationship between stress and screen addiction is often studied by exploring a single aspect of screen-related behavior in terms of maladaptive dependency or the risks associated with the content. Generally, little attention is given to the pattern of using different screens for different types of stressors, and variations arising from the subjective perception of stress and screen addiction are often neglected. Given that both addiction and stress are complex and multidimensional factors, we performed a multivariate analysis of the link between individual's subjective perceptions of screen addiction, various types of stress, and the pattern of screen usage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/11485DOI Listing

Attention to Monocular Images Bias Binocular Rivalry.

Front Syst Neurosci 2019 18;13:12. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Psychology, Universidad de La Coruña, La Coruña, Spain.

When monocular images cannot be fused, perception alternates between the two (or more) possible images. This phenomenon, binocular rivalry (BR), is driven by the physical properties of the stimuli (size, contrast, spatial frequency, etc.) but it can also be modulated by attention to features of one of the rival stimuli (Chong et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2019.00012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6432858PMC

Echolocating bats inspect and discriminate landmark features to guide navigation.

J Exp Biol 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

3400 N Charles St., Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21218, USA

Landmark-guided navigation is a common behavioral strategy for way-finding, yet prior studies have not examined how animals collect sensory information to discriminate landmark features. We investigated this question in animals that rely on active sensing to guide navigation. Four echolocating bats () were trained to use an acoustic landmark to find and navigate through a net opening for a food reward. Read More

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http://jeb.biologists.org/lookup/doi/10.1242/jeb.191965
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.191965DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

[The staging model (or evolutionary stages) applied to bipolar disorder].

Authors:
J Scott C Henry

Encephale 2018 Dec;44(6S):S30-S33

Institut pasteur, unité perception et mémoire, F-75015 Paris, France - Université Paris-Est, UMR S955, UPEC, F-94000 Créteil, France - AP-HP, Hôpital Henri-Mondor, Albert-Chenevier, pôle de psychiatrie, F-94000 Créteil, France.

In psychiatry, clinical staging raises awareness of the need to understand disease trajectories and heterotypic continuity; it draws attention to individuals at risk of developing disorders, such as those with a family history or subsyndromal presentations; and it actively promotes greater attention to prevention strategies and interventions for individuals at ultra-high risk of developing a severe mental disorder. Staging paradigms have been increasingly applied in early intervention in psychoses, but there are issues in broadening the scope of clinical staging to the more prevalent affective disorders. For example, it is potentially more complex to devise a model that considers the varying clinical presentations of the late prodromal stage of bipolar disorder and where to locate depressive episodes that precede the first manic episode and how to describe subthreshold manic syndromes, especially hypomania. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00137006193007
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0013-7006(19)30076-4DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

An overview of outcome measures used in neuropsychological rehabilitation research on adults with acquired brain injury.

Neuropsychol Rehabil 2019 Apr 2:1-26. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

a Department of Neuropsychology & Psychopharmacology, Faculty of Psychology & Neuroscience , Maastricht University , Maastricht , Netherlands.

Outcome measurement is the cornerstone of evidence-based health care including neuropsychological rehabilitation. A complicating factor for outcome measurement in neuropsychological rehabilitation is the enormous number of measures available and the lack of a standard set of outcome measures. As a first step towards such a set, we reviewed intervention evaluation studies of the last 20 years to get an overview of instruments used for measuring outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09602011.2019.1589533DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Towards Decoding Selective Attention from Single-Trial EEG Data in Cochlear Implant Users.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Previous results showed that it is possible to decode an attended speech source from EEG data via the reconstruction of the speech envelope in normal hearing (NH) listeners. However, so far it is unknown how the performance of such a decoder is affected by the decrease in spectral resolution and the electrical artifacts introduced by a cochlear implant (CI) in users of these prostheses. NH-listeners and bilateral CI-users participated in the present study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2019.2907638DOI Listing

Attention scales according to inferred real-world object size.

Nat Hum Behav 2019 Jan 7;3(1):40-47. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Psychology, The George Washington University, Washington DC, USA.

Natural scenes consist of objects of varying shapes and sizes. The impact of object size on visual perception has been well-demonstrated, from classic mental imagery experiments, to recent studies of object representations reporting topographic organization of object size in the occipito-temporal cortex. While the role of real-world physical size in perception is clear, the effect of inferred size on attentional selection is ill-defined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41562-018-0485-2DOI Listing
January 2019

Probing cortical excitability using rapid frequency tagging.

Neuroimage 2019 Mar 28;195:59-66. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Centre for Human Brain Health, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, UK.

Frequency tagging has been widely used to study the role of visual selective attention. Presenting a visual stimulus flickering at a specific frequency generates so-called steady-state visually evoked responses. However, frequency tagging is mostly done at lower frequencies (<30 Hz). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.03.056DOI Listing

Visual expectations change subjective experience without changing performance.

Conscious Cogn 2019 Mar 28;71:59-69. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Psychology Department, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

It is widely believed that visual expectations can change the subjective experiences of humans. We investigated how visual expectations in a recognition task affected objective performance and subjective perception. Using a 2-alternative-forced-choice task based on digit recognition of briefly presented and visually masked digits, we found over two experiments that expectations changed the quality of the experiences without changing the performance capabilities associated with the quality of experience. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2019.03.007DOI Listing

Learning mechanisms in cue reweighting.

Cognition 2019 Mar 28;189:76-88. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Linguistics, University of Oregon, United States.

Feedback has been shown to be effective in shifting attention across perceptual cues to a phonological contrast in speech perception (Francis, Baldwin & Nusbaum, 2000). However, the learning mechanisms behind this process remain obscure. We compare the predictions of supervised error-driven learning (Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) and reinforcement learning (Sutton & Barto, 1998) using computational simulations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.011DOI Listing

Visual network alterations in brain functional connectivity in chronic low back pain: A resting state functional connectivity and machine learning study.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 Mar 14;22:101775. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Chronic low back pain (cLBP) is associated with widespread functional and structural changes in the brain. This study aims to investigate the resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes of visual networks in cLBP patients and the feasibility of distinguishing cLBP patients from healthy controls using machine learning methods. cLBP (n = 90) and control individuals (n = 74) were enrolled and underwent resting-state BOLD fMRI scans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101775DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444301PMC

Changes of the postcentral cortex in irritable bowel syndrome patients.

Brain Imaging Behav 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, QLD, Brisbane, 4072, Australia.

The postcentral cortex (poCC) is commonly found to respond to visceral stimulation, but researchers usually pay less attention to this role of the poCC in the patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders, because it is a primary receptor for general bodily feeling of touch, such as temperature and pain. The current study focuses on the changes around the poCC in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients based on the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, aiming to investigate whether the poCC-centric brain metrics may be directly related to visceral perception. In the study, we calculated the regional homogeneity, seed-based correlation (SBC) and nodal centralities of the poCC to explore the changes in the regional activity and information flow around the poCC in IBS patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-019-00087-7DOI Listing
March 2019
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Auditory attention in individuals with tinnitus.

Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), Departamento de Fonoaudiologia, Programa Associado de Pós-graduaçao em Fonoaudiologia, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil; Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas em Audição, Equilíbrio e Zumbido (GEPAEZ), João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. Electronic address:

Introduction: Tinnitus is characterized by the presence of a sound in the absence of external sound stimulus. In individuals with normal audiometry, it may be associated with auditory attention difficulty, especially in those who report high tinnitus annoyance.

Objective: To investigate auditory attention ability in individuals with tinnitus complaint. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjorl.2019.01.011DOI Listing

Data-Driven Point Cloud Objects Completion.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Mar 28;19(7). Epub 2019 Mar 28.

School of Information Science and Technology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China.

With the development of the laser scanning technique, it is easier to obtain 3D large-scale scene rapidly. However, many scanned objects may suffer serious incompletion caused by the scanning angles or occlusion, which has severely impacted their future usage for the 3D perception and modeling, while traditional point cloud completion methods often fails to provide satisfactory results due to the large missing parts. In this paper, by utilising 2D single-view images to infer 3D structures, we propose a data-driven Point Cloud Completion Network ( P C C N e t ), which is an image-guided deep-learning-based object completion framework. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19071514DOI Listing

Investigating the role of exogenous cueing on selection history formation.

Psychon Bull Rev 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Program, Trinity College, 300 Summit St, Hartford, CT, 06106, USA.

An abundance of recent empirical data suggest that repeatedly allocating visual attention to task-relevant and/or reward-predicting features in the visual world engenders an attentional bias for these frequently attended stimuli, even when they become task irrelevant and no longer predict reward. In short, attentional selection in the past hinders voluntary control of attention in the present. But do such enduring attentional biases rely on a history of voluntary, goal-directed attentional selection, or can they be generated through involuntary, effortless attentional allocation? An abrupt visual onset triggers such a reflexive allocation of covert spatial attention to its location in the visual field, automatically modulating numerous aspects of visual perception. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13423-019-01591-zDOI Listing

A decade of aid coordination in post-conflict Burundi's health sector.

Global Health 2019 03 29;15(1):25. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: The launch of Global Health Initiatives in early 2000' coincided with the end of the war in Burundi. The first large amount of funding the country received was ear-marked for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and immunization programs. Thereafter, when at global level aid effectiveness increasingly gained attention, coordination mechanisms started to be implemented at national level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12992-019-0464-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440142PMC

Commentary: 'Ready or not here I come': developmental immaturity as a driver of impairment and referral in young-for-school-grade ADHD children. A reformulation inspired by Whitely et al. (2019).

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2019 Apr;60(4):392-394

Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, UK.

The search for objective biological tests, sufficiently reliable, and predictive enough to be diagnostic of psychiatric disorders, continues apace - yet their discovery remains a distant dream. It seems increasingly unlikely that current diagnostic structures and concepts map biologically in a straight forward way - with heterogeneity within, and sharing across, existing diagnostic boundaries being the biological rule rather than the exception. Indeed, it now appears that the science of biological psychiatry is more likely to redraw those boundaries than it is to confirm and mark them (Sonuga-Barke, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2016, 57, 1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13039DOI Listing
April 2019
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Ensemble coding of memory strength in recognition tests.

Mem Cognit 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, PCD 4118G, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL, 33620-7200, USA.

Recent work by Benjamin and colleagues (Psychological Review, 116 (1), 84-115, 2009; Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39(5), 1601-1608, 2013) suggests that recognition memory decisions are corrupted by random variability in decision criteria. This conclusion, which explains several anomalies in the recognition literature, was based on fits of the Noisy Decision Theory of Signal Detection (NDT) to a novel task: ensemble recognition. In the ensemble task, participants make Old/New decisions to ensembles of items rather than single items. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13421-019-00912-wDOI Listing