64,551 results match your criteria Atmospheric environment Oxford England : 1994[Journal]


Cold plasma poration and corrugation of pumpkin seed coats.

Bioelectrochemistry 2019 Apr 11;128:175-185. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA.

The treatment of seeds and plants by electrically generated cold atmospheric pressure plasma can accelerate seed germination and radicle growing rates. The plasma generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, UV photons, and high frequency electromagnetic fields can penetrate into seed coats and modify their surface properties. Atomic force microscope data shows that cold helium or argon plasma induces strong corrugation of pumpkin seed coats, produces pores and surface defects. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15675394193020
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioelechem.2019.04.012DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Below-cloud scavenging of size-segregated aerosols and its effect on rainwater acidity and nutrient deposition: A long-term (2009-2018) and real-time observation over eastern Himalaya.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 12;674:223-233. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

National Facility on Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, 16 A J C Bose Road, Darjeeling 734101, India; Center for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Block-EN, Sector-V, Kolkata 700091, India.

The major removal pathway of atmospheric aerosols is the below cloud scavenging. The present study is the first-ever in the world, where long-term (2009-2018) as well as real-time observations on the below-cloud scavenging of ultrafine (<0.4 μm), superfine (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.165DOI Listing

Spatial-temporal variations and source contributions to forest ozone exposure in China.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 9;674:189-199. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Electronic address:

As surface ozone (O) concentrations have significantly increased in many regions of China, it is concerned that O may cause negative impacts on forests in the country. To estimate the risks of O exposure to forest health, several frequently used O exposure indices (M7, M24, N100, SUM60, W126, and AOT40f) were calculated for the entire year of 2013 and the source contributions to exposure in April and August were quantified using a source-oriented version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Critical loads for natural ecosystems (12 ppm-h for SUM60) and for moderately sensitive plant species (23. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.106DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Size distribution and chemical composition of primary particles emitted during open biomass burning processes: Impacts on cloud condensation nuclei activation.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 28;674:179-188. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP(3)), Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China; Shanghai Institute of Eco-Chongming (SIEC), No. 3663 Northern Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062, China; Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China. Electronic address:

As a major source of fine particles, open biomass burning can affect climate and the hydrological cycle via the formation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and their deposition. This study investigated the effect of aerosol size and chemical composition (water-soluble compounds, elemental carbon, and organic carbon) on CCN activation during the complete combustion of six commonly used crop (rice, wheat, corn, soybean, and cotton) and leaf residues in a simulation chamber developed for this study. Geometric mean diameters (GMD) of emitted primary particles ranged from 68 to 130 nm and water-soluble compound (WSC) content ranged from 33 to 50%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.419DOI Listing

Five-year observation of aerosol optical properties and its radiative effects to planetary boundary layer during air pollution episodes in North China: Intercomparison of a plain site and a mountainous site in Beijing.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 31;674:140-158. Epub 2019 Mar 31.

State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather (LASW) and Institute of Atmospheric Composition, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, CMA, Beijing 100081, China.

The aerosol microphysical, optical and radiative properties of the whole column and upper planetary boundary layer (PBL) were investigated during 2013 to 2018 based on long-term sun-photometer observations at a surface site (~106 m a.s.l. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.418DOI Listing

Effects of catchment area and nutrient deposition regime on phytoplankton functionality in alpine lakes.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 11;674:114-127. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Aix Marseille Univ, Univ Avignon, CNRS, IRD, IMBE, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

High mountain lakes are a network of sentinels, sensitive to any events occurring within their waterbodies, their surrounding catchment and their airshed. In this paper, we investigate how catchments impact the taxonomic and functional composition of phytoplankton communities in high mountain lakes, and how this impact varies according to the atmospheric nutrient deposition regime. For two years, we sampled the post snow-melt and the late summer phytoplankton, with a set of biotic and abiotic parameters, in six French alpine lakes with differing catchments (size and vegetation cover) and contrasting nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deposition regimes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.117DOI Listing

Source term estimation using multiple xenon isotopes in atmospheric samples.

J Environ Radioact 2019 Apr 17;204:111-116. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA, 99354, USA. Electronic address:

Algorithms that estimate the location and magnitude of an atmospheric release using remotely sampled air concentrations typically involve a single chemical or radioactive isotope. A new Bayesian algorithm is presented that makes discrimination between possible types of releases (e.g. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0265931X193017
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2019.04.004DOI Listing
April 2019
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Distribution and Phylogeny of Erythrocytic Necrosis Virus (ENV) in Salmon Suggests Marine Origin.

Viruses 2019 Apr 18;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2207 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) affects over 20 species of marine and anadromous fishes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. However, the distribution and strain variation of its viral causative agent, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), has not been well characterized within Pacific salmon. Here, metatranscriptomic sequencing of Chinook salmon revealed that ENV infecting salmon was closely related to ENV from Pacific herring, with inferred amino-acid sequences from Chinook salmon being 99% identical to those reported for herring. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/11/4/358
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11040358DOI Listing
April 2019
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Continuous Phase Plate Structuring by Multi-Aperture Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Processing.

Micromachines (Basel) 2019 Apr 18;10(4). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China.

A multi-aperture atmospheric pressure plasma processing (APPP) method was proposed to structure the continuous phase plate (CPP). The APPP system was presented and removal investigation showed the removal function of APPP was of a high repeatability and robustness to the small disturbance of gas flows. A mathematical model for the multi-aperture structuring process was established and the simulation analysis indicated the advantages of the proposed method in terms of balancing the efficiency and accuracy of the process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi10040260DOI Listing

How closely do mercury trends in fish and other aquatic wildlife track those in the atmosphere? - Implications for evaluating the effectiveness of the Minamata Convention.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 9;674:58-70. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut, 1080 Shennecossett Road, Groton, CT 06340, USA.

The Minamata Convention to reduce anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emissions entered into force in 2017, and attention is now focused on how to best monitor its effectiveness at reducing Hg exposure to humans. A key question is how closely Hg concentrations in the human food chain, especially in fish and other aquatic wildlife, will track the changes in atmospheric Hg that are expected to occur following anthropogenic emission reductions. We investigated this question by evaluating several regional groups of case studies where Hg concentrations in aquatic biota have been monitored continuously or intermittently for several decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.101DOI Listing

Bouncier Particles at Night: Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol Chemistry and Sulfate Drive Diel Variations in the Aerosol Phase in a Mixed Forest.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Aerosol phase state is critical for quantifying aerosol effects on climate and air quality. However, significant challenges remain in our ability to predict and quantify phase state during its evolution in the atmosphere. Herein, we demonstrate that aerosol phase (liquid, semi-solid, solid) exhibits a diel cycle in a mixed forest environment, oscillating between a viscous, semi-solid phase state at night and liquid phase state with phase separation during the day. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b07319DOI Listing

Ultra-High Resolution Elemental/Isotopic Mass Spectrometry (m/Δm > 1,000,000): Coupling of the Liquid Sampling-Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge with an Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer for Applications in Biological Chemistry and Environmental Analysis.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634, USA.

Many fundamental questions of astrophysics, biochemistry, and geology rely on the ability to accurately and precisely measure the mass and abundance of isotopes. Taken a step further, the capacity to perform such measurements on intact molecules provides insights into processes in diverse biological systems. Described here is the coupling of a combined atomic and molecular (CAM) ionization source, the liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) microplasma, with a commercially available ThermoScientific Fusion Lumos mass spectrometer. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13361-019-02183-w
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13361-019-02183-wDOI Listing
April 2019
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Predicting the variable ocean carbon sink.

Sci Adv 2019 Apr 17;5(4):eaav6471. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstraße 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany.

Strong decadal variations in the oceanic uptake of carbon dioxide (CO) observed over the past three decades challenge our ability to predict the strength of the ocean carbon sink. By assimilating atmospheric and oceanic observational data products into an Earth system model-based decadal prediction system, we can reproduce the observed variations of the ocean carbon uptake globally. We find that variations of the ocean CO uptake are predictable up to 2 years in advance globally, albeit there is evidence for a higher predictive skill up to 5 years regionally. Read More

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http://advances.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/sciadv.aav
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aav6471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6469943PMC
April 2019
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Overview of Some Recent Advances in Improving Water and Energy Efficiencies in Food Processing Factories.

Front Nutr 2019 2;6:20. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States.

Rapid development of food factories in both developed and developing countries, owing to continued growth in the world population, plays a critical role in the food supply chain, including environmental issues such as pollution, emissions, energy and water consumption, and thus food system sustainability. The objective of this study was to briefly review various environmental aspects of food processing operations, including aquatic, atmospheric, and solid waste generation, and also to discuss several strategies that many companies are using to reduce these negative impacts as well as to improve water and energy efficiency. To obtain higher energy efficiencies in food processing factories, two key operations can play critical roles: non-thermal processing (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019.00020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454086PMC

Association and Proton Transfer Reactions With a Series of Organic Molecules.

Front Chem 2019 3;7:191. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Institute of Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

In this study, we present reactions of with a series of analytes (A): acetone (CHO), methyl vinyl ketone (CHO), methyl ethyl ketone (CHO), and eight monoterpene isomers (CH) using a Selective Reagent Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (SRI-ToF-MS). We studied the ion-molecule reactions at collision energies of 55 and 80 meV. The ketones, having a substantially lower proton affinity than NH, produce only cluster ions (A) in detectable amounts at 55 meV. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fchem.2019.00191
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2019.00191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457267PMC
April 2019
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Atmospheric Aerosol Assisted Pulsed Plasma Polymerization: An Environmentally Friendly Technique for Tunable Catechol-Bearing Thin Films.

Front Chem 2019 2;7:183. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Materials Research and Technology, Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, Belvaux, Luxembourg.

In this work, an atmospheric aerosol assisted pulsed plasma process is reported as an environmentally friendly technique for the preparation of tunable catechol-bearing thin films under solvent and catalyst free conditions. The approach relies on the direct injection of dopamine acrylamide dissolved in 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate as comonomer into the plasma zone. By adjusting the pulsing of the electrical discharge, the reactive plasma process can be alternatively switch ON (t) and OFF (t) during different periods of time, thus allowing a facile and fine tuning of the catechol density, morphology and deposition rate of the coating. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2019.00183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454202PMC

Pyrolytic formation and photoactivity of reactive oxygen species in a SiO /carbon nanocomposite from kraft lignin.

F1000Res 2018 28;7:1574. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department of Chemistry, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, 641046, India.

SiO and carbon produced by kraft lignin pyrolyzed at 600°C can generate stable reactive oxygen species (ROS) by reaction with atmospheric oxygen. In this study, we systematically investigate the photochemistry of peroxyl radicals in carbon-supported silica (PCS) and assess its effects on the methylene blue (MB) photodegradation. Characterization revealed that the higher ROS generation ability of SiO /carbon under UV light irradiation was attributed to its abundant photoactive surface-oxygenated functional groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.16080.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6464069PMC
September 2018

A Review on Non-thermal Atmospheric Plasma for Food Preservation: Mode of Action, Determinants of Effectiveness, and Applications.

Front Microbiol 2019 2;10:622. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Food Hygiene and Technology, Universidad de León, León, Spain.

Non-thermal Atmospheric Plasma (NTAP) is a cutting-edge technology which has gained much attention during the last decade in the food-processing sector as a promising technology for food preservation and maintenance of food safety, with minimal impact on the quality attributes of foods, thanks to its effectiveness in microbial inactivation, including of pathogens, spoilage fungi and bacterial spores, simple design, ease of use, cost-effective operation, short treatment times, lack of toxic effects, and significant reduction of water consumption. This review article provides a general overview of the principles of operation and applications of NTAP in the agri-food sector. In particular, the numerous studies carried out in the last decade aimed at deciphering the influence of different environmental factors and processing parameters on the microbial inactivation attained are discussed. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00622
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454144PMC
April 2019
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Catalog of 2017 Thunderstorm Ground Enhancement (TGE) events observed on Aragats.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 18;9(1):6253. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Alikhanyan National Lab (Yerevan Physics Institute), Alikhanyan Brothers 2, Yerevan, 0036, Armenia.

The natural electron accelerator in the clouds above Aragats high-altitude research station in Armenia operates continuously in 2017 providing more than 100 Thunderstorm Ground enhancements (TGEs). Most important discovery based on analysis of 2017 data is observation and detailed description of the long-lasting TGEs. We present TGE catalog for 2 broad classes according to presence or absence of the high-energy particles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42786-7DOI Listing

Application of pulsed-vacuum on the salt impregnation process of pirarucu fillet.

Food Res Int 2019 Jun 9;120:407-414. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

Postgraduate Program in Food Science and Technology, Technology Institute, Federal University of Pará (UFPA), Belém 66075-110, PA, Brazil; Faculty of Food Engineering, Technology Institute, Federal University of Pará (UFPA), Belém 66075-110, PA, Brazil. Electronic address:

The influence of the pulsed-vacuum impregnation (PVI) and periodic pulsed-vacuum impregnation (PPVI), and the temperature, on the salting process of pirarucu fillet was studied. For this, the dorsal region of the fish in the slab-shaped (60 mm × 20 mm × 5 mm) and sodium chloride solution (30 g/100 g NaCl) were used. The process was conducted at different temperatures (10 °C - 40 °C) and the following pulsed-vacuum conditions: initial vacuum pulse (5 min at 10 kPa) and alternating periods of vacuum pulse (5 min at 10 kPa) and atmospheric pressure (101 kPa) for 5 min, 10 min and 15 min intermittently. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09639969193016
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.03.016DOI Listing
June 2019
1 Read

Evaluation of Cronobacter sakazakii inactivation and physicochemical property changes of non-fat dry milk powder by cold atmospheric plasma.

Food Chem 2019 Aug 1;290:270-276. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Center for Biorefining and Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, United States; Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, United States. Electronic address:

Cronobacter sakazakii can cause life-threatening infections in neonates. Exposure to contaminated powdered food, especially milk powder, is a major route for C. sakazakii infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.03.149DOI Listing

Estimating policy-relevant health effects of ambient heat exposures using spatially contiguous reanalysis data.

Environ Health 2019 Apr 18;18(1):35. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Universities Space Research Association, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA.

Background: Regional National Weather Service (NWS) heat advisory criteria in New York State (NYS) were based on frequency of heat events estimated by sparse monitoring data. These may not accurately reflect temperatures at which specific health risks occur in large geographic regions. The objectives of the study were to use spatially resolved temperature data to characterize health risks related to summertime heat exposure and estimate the temperatures at which excessive risk of heat-related adverse health occurs in NYS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-019-0467-5DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Direct Mass Spectrometry Analysis Using In-Capillary Dicationic Ionic Liquid-Based in situ Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction and Sonic-Spray Ionization.

Anal Chem 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

The current study reports on a direct mass spectrometry (MS) analysis method using in-capillary dicationic ionic liquid (DIL)-based in situ dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and sonic-spray ionization (SSI). The developed method merged extraction, enrichment, ionization, and detection of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in environmental water into a single step. A microliter-scale ternary fluidic system was designed and integrated into a disposable pulled capillary, in which an imidazolium-based germinal DIL reagent activated an in situ metathesis reaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.9b00597DOI Listing

The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX): A test-bed for developing urban greenhouse gas emission measurements.

Elementa (Wash D C) 2017 ;5

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, US.

The objective of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) is to develop, evaluate and improve methods for measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cities. INFLUX's scientific objectives are to quantify CO and CH emission rates at 1 km resolution with a 10% or better accuracy and precision, to determine whole-city emissions with similar skill, and to achieve high (weekly or finer) temporal resolution at both spatial resolutions. The experiment employs atmospheric GHG measurements from both towers and aircraft, atmospheric transport observations and models, and activity-based inventory products to quantify urban GHG emissions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/elementa.188DOI Listing
January 2017

Airborne Observations of Reactive Inorganic Chlorine and Bromine Species in the Exhaust of Coal-Fired Power Plants.

J Geophys Res Atmos 2018 ;123(19):11225-11237

Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

We present airborne observations of gaseous reactive halogen species (HCl, Cl, ClNO, Br,BrNO, and BrCl), sulfur dioxide (SO), and nonrefractory fine particulate chloride (pCl) and sulfate(pSO) in power plant exhaust. Measurements were conducted during the Wintertime INvestigation of Transport, Emissions, and Reactivity campaign in February-March of 2015 aboard the NCAR-NSF C-130 aircraft. Fifty air mass encounters were identified in which SO levels were elevated ~5 ppb above ambient background levels and in proximity to operational power plants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2018JD029284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6463521PMC
January 2018

Regional Similarities and NO-related Increases in Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol in Summertime Southeastern U.S.

J Geophys Res Atmos 2018 ;123(18):10620-10636

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

During the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) measurements of submicron mass were collected at Look Rock (LRK), Tennessee, and Centreville (CTR), Alabama. Carbon monoxide and submicron sulfate and organic mass concentrations were 15-60% higher at CTR than at LRK but their time series had moderate correlations (r~0.5). Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1029/2018JD028491
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6463306PMC
January 2018
1 Read

Evaluation and environmental correction of ambient CO measurements from a low-cost NDIR sensor.

Atmos Meas Tech 2017 ;10

Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

Non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) sensors are a low-cost way to observe carbon dioxide concentrations in air, but their specified accuracy and precision are not sufficient for some scientific applications. An initial evaluation of six SenseAir K30 carbon dioxide NDIR sensors in a lab setting showed that without any calibration or correction, the sensors have an individual root mean square error (RMSE) between ~5 and 21 parts per million (ppm) compared to a research-grade greenhouse gas analyzer using cavity enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy. Through further evaluation, after correcting for environmental variables with coefficients determined through a multivariate linear regression analysis, the calculated difference between the each of six individual K30 NDIR sensors and the higher-precision instrument had an RMSE of between 1. Read More

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https://www.atmos-meas-tech.net/10/2383/2017/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-2383-2017DOI Listing
January 2017
1 Read

Spatial distribution of errors associated with multistatic meteor radar.

Authors:
W K Hocking

Earth Planets Space 2018 5;70(1):93. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St. North, London, ON N6A 3K7 Canada.

With the recent increase in numbers of small and versatile low-power meteor radars, the opportunity exists to benefit from simultaneous application of multiple systems spaced by only a few hundred km and less. Transmissions from one site can be recorded at adjacent receiving sites using various degrees of forward scatter, potentially allowing atmospheric conditions in the mesopause regions between stations to be diagnosed. This can allow a better spatial overview of the atmospheric conditions at any time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40623-018-0860-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438610PMC

Accuracy assessment of NLCD 2011 impervious cover data for the Chesapeake Bay region, USA.

ISPRS J Photogramm Remote Sens 2018 ;146:151-160

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Chesapeake Bay Program Office, 410 Severn Ave., Annapolis, MD 21043, United States.

The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) contains three eras (2001, 2006, 2011) of percentage urban impervious cover (%IC) at the native pixel size (30 m-×-30 m) of the Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite. These data are potentially valuable to environmental managers and stakeholders because of the utility of %IC as an indicator of watershed and aquatic condition, but lack an accuracy assessment because of the absence of suitable reference data. Recently developed 1 m land cover data for the Chesapeake Bay region makes it possible to assess NLCD %IC accuracy for a 262,000 km region based on a census rather than a sample of reference data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2018.09.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6463313PMC
January 2018

The role of atmospheric internal variability on the prediction skill of interannual North Pacific sea-surface temperatures.

Theor Appl Climatol 2018 6;133(1):113-121. Epub 2017 Jun 6.

1Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Earth Sciences, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA USA.

The sensitivity of the sea-surface temperature (SST) prediction skill to the atmospheric internal variability (weather noise) in the North Pacific (20-60N;120E-80W) on decadal timescales is examined using state-of-the-art Climate Forecasting System model version 2 (CFS) and a variation of CFS in an Interactive Ensemble approach (CFSIE), wherein six copies of atmospheric components with different perturbed initial states of CFS are coupled with the same ocean model by exchanging heat, momentum and fresh water fluxes dynamically at the air-sea interface throughout the model integrations. The CFSIE experiments are designed to reduce weather noise and using a few ten-year long forecasts this study shows that reduction in weather noise leads to lower SST forecast skill. To understand the pathways that cause the reduced SST prediction skill, two twenty-year long forecasts produced with CFS and CFSIE for 1980-2000 are analyzed for the ocean subsurface characteristics that influence SST due to the reduction in weather noise in the North Pacific. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00704-017-2169-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00704-017-2169-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6435173PMC
June 2017
1 Read

Decoupling Solar Variability and Instrument Trends Using the Multiple Same-Irradiance-Level (MuSIL) Analysis Technique.

Sol Phys 2018 23;293(5):76. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 3665 Discovery Drive, CO 80303 Boulder, USA.

The solar spectral irradiance (SSI) dataset is a key record for studying and understanding the energetics and radiation balance in Earth's environment. Understanding the long-term variations of the SSI over timescales of the 11-year solar activity cycle and longer is critical for many Sun-Earth research topics. Satellite measurements of the SSI have been made since the 1970s, most of them in the ultraviolet, but recently also in the visible and near-infrared. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11207-018-1294-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438597PMC

Wind-Tunnel Simulation of Weakly and Moderately Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers.

Boundary Layer Meteorol 2018 21;168(1):29-57. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

EnFlo Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH UK.

The simulation of horizontally homogeneous boundary layers that have characteristics of weakly and moderately stable atmospheric flow is investigated, where the well-established wind engineering practice of using 'flow generators' to provide a deep boundary layer is employed. Primary attention is given to the flow above the surface layer, in the absence of an overlying inversion, as assessed from first- and second-order moments of velocity and temperature. A uniform inlet temperature profile ahead of a deep layer, allowing initially neutral flow, results in the upper part of the boundary layer remaining neutral. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10546-018-0337-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438612PMC
February 2018

The Impact of Three-Dimensional Effects on the Simulation of Turbulence Kinetic Energy in a Major Alpine Valley.

Boundary Layer Meteorol 2018 23;168(1):1-27. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

3Meteorology and Air Quality Section, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The correct simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is crucial for reliable weather forecasts in truly complex terrain. However, common assumptions for model parametrizations are only valid for horizontally homogeneous and flat terrain. Here, we evaluate the turbulence parametrization of the numerical weather prediction model COSMO with a horizontal grid spacing of for the Inn Valley, Austria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10546-018-0341-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438614PMC
February 2018

Exposure assessment of cyclists to UFP and PM on urban routes in Xi'an, China.

Environ Pollut 2019 Apr 7;250:241-250. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

School of Automobile, Chang'an University, Chang'an Road, Xi'an, 710064, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

With the promotion of bicycle sharing, cycling as an active transportation mode is a matter of public interest. However, cyclists' recurrent exposure to traffic-related air pollution is associated with the potential health risks. Quantification of the health risks associated with daily exposure of commuting cyclists to atmospheric pollutants is vital, but barely reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.03.129DOI Listing
April 2019
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Elevated atmospheric CO might increase the health risk of long-term ingestion of leafy vegetables cultivated in residual DDT polluted soil.

Chemosphere 2019 Apr 6;227:289-298. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Institute of Environmental Microbiology, College of Resources and Environment, Fujian Agriculture & Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China. Electronic address:

Residual dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in the environment and a continuously increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO) concentration are two issues that have received a lot of attention. This study was conducted using a pot experiment to investigate the interactive effects of elevated CO and DDT on the uptake of DDT, the physiological responses and the resulting health risks in three vegetables. These vegetables included Brassica juncea var. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.04.024DOI Listing

Wettability of rock/CO/brine and rock/oil/CO-enriched-brine systems:Critical parametric analysis and future outlook.

Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2019 Apr 1;268:91-113. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University (ECU), Joondalup, WA, Australia.

CO geo-sequestration is a promising technology to permanently store CO in geological formations to control the atmospheric carbon footprint. In addition, CO is frequently utilized in enhanced oil recovery operations to accelerate oil production. Both, CO geo-storage and EOR, are significantly influenced by the wettability of the associated rock/CO/brine systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2019.03.009DOI Listing

Background levels of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dlPCBs), polychlorinated, polybrominated and mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs & PXDD/Fs) in sera of pregnant women in Accra, Ghana.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 9;673:631-642. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA. Electronic address:

Human exposure data on dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) in Ghana are limited. Based on health risks associated with dioxins and DLCs, the impact of maternal body burdens on foetal exposure is significant. This is the first study that assesses polychlorinated, polybrominated and mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs and PXDD/Fs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dlPCBs) in sera of primiparous Ghanaians. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.060DOI Listing

The effects of in-vitro pH decrease on the gametogenesis of the red tree coral, Primnoa pacifica.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0203976. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Services, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Juneau, Alaska, United States of America.

Primnoa pacifica is the most ecologically important coral species in the North Pacific Ocean and provides important habitat for commercially important fish and invertebrates. Ocean acidification (OA) is more rapidly increasing in high-latitude seas because anthropogenic CO2 uptake is greater in these regions. This is due to the solubility of CO2 in cold water and the reduced buffering capacity and low alkalinity of colder waters. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0203976PLOS
April 2019
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Air pollution survey across the western Mediterranean Sea: overview on oxygenated volatile hydrocarbons (OVOCs) and other gaseous pollutants.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research (CNR.IIA), Monterotondo, RM, Italy.

Despite the Mediterranean Sea basin is among the most sensitive areas over the world for climate change and air quality issues, it still remains less studied than the oceanic regions. The domain investigated by the research ship Minerva Uno cruise in Summer 2015 was the Tyrrhenian Sea. An overview on the marine boundary layer (MBL) concentration levels of carbonyl compounds, ozone (O), and sulfur dioxide (SO) is reported. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11356-019-04916-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04916-6DOI Listing
April 2019
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The cloud-free global energy balance and inferred cloud radiative effects: an assessment based on direct observations and climate models.

Clim Dyn 2019 21;52(7):4787-4812. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

NOAA ESRL GMD/CIRES, Boulder, CO 80305 USA.

In recent studies we quantified the global mean Earth energy balance based on direct observations from surface and space. Here we infer complementary reference estimates for its components specifically under cloud-free conditions. While the clear-sky fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA) are accurately known from satellite measurements, the corresponding fluxes at the Earth's surface are not equally well established, as they cannot be directly measured from space. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00382-018-4413-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6439146PMC

[Effect of different plasma treated zirconia on the adhensive behaviour of human gingival fibroblasts].

Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2019 Apr;51(2):315-320

Department of Prosthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing 100081, China.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of different cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment on the surface chemical and physical properties of zirconia and adhensive behaviour of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) cultured on zirconia disks.

Methods: The zirconia disks were divided into four groups and treated using helium, argon and mixture of argon and oxygen cold atmospheric plasma for 90 s or left untreated. The surface morphology, wettability and chemical elements were analyzed right after treatment. Read More

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April 2019
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Publisher Correction: Martian dust storm impact on atmospheric HO and D/H observed by ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter.

Nature 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Space Research Institute (IKI), Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow, Russia.

The surname of author Cathy Quantin-Nataf was misspelled 'Quantin-Nata' , authors Ehouarn Millour and Roland Young were missing from the ACS Science Team list, and minor changes have been made to the author and affiliation lists; see accompanying Amendment. These errors have been corrected online. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1163-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1163-xDOI Listing
April 2019
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Solubility measurement, Hansen solubility parameters and solution thermodynamics of gemfibrozil in different pharmaceutically used solvents.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2019 Apr 17:1-27. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

b Department of Pharmaceutics , College of Pharmacy, King Saud University , P.O. Box: 2457 , Riyadh 11451 , Saudi Arabia.

Gemfibrozil (GEM) is cholesterol-lowering agent which is being proposed as poorly water soluble drug (PWSD). Temperature based solubility values of GEM are not yet available in literature or any pharmacopoeia/monograph. Hence, the present studies were carried out to determine the solubility of PWSD GEM (as mole fraction) in various pharmaceutically used solvents such as "water (HO), methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), isopropanol (IPA), 1-butanol (1-BuOH), 2-butanol (2-BuOH), ethylene glycol (EG), propylene glycol (PG), polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400), ethyl acetate (EA), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and Transcutol® (THP)" at the temperatures ranging from "T = 298. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03639045.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03639045.2019.1594884DOI Listing
April 2019
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Increased Sporulation of Clostridium perfringens in a Medium Prepared with the Prereduced Anaerobically Sterilized Technique or with Carbon Dioxide or Carbonate.

Authors:
S E Craven

J Food Prot 1988 Sep;51(9):700-706

Richard B. Russell Agricultural Research Center, USDA-ARS, P.O. Box 5677, Athens, Georgia 30613.

Sporulation of ten strains of Clostridium perfringens was determined in Duncan-Strong sporulation medium prepared and stored in the presence of atmospheric oxygen (DS) or prepared as a prereduced anaerobically sterilized medium (DSPR). Numbers of heat-resistant spores were higher in DSPR compared to DS for 4 strains in fresh media and for 7 strains in stored media. For strains 8679 and 8799, spore numbers were as much as 5 logs greater in DSPR than in DS with a concomitant higher culture pH and fewer vegetative cell numbers. Read More

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http://jfoodprotection.org/doi/abs/10.4315/0362-028X-51.9.70
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-51.9.700DOI Listing
September 1988
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Quantitation of vitamin K1 in serum using online SPE-LC-MS/MS and the challenges of working with vitamin K.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2019 Apr 7;1117:41-48. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Immunology, Lillebaelt Hospital, Vejle, Denmark.

Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) is one of the vitamin Ks. Several studies have previously investigated the role of vitamin K1 status in respect to disease, but without consistent results. Since vitamin K deficiency has been associated with different disease states it is important to develop a biochemical analysis with sufficient sensitivity and a low limit of quantitation (LOQ). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15700232183176
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2019.04.010DOI Listing
April 2019
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Atomic-scale insights into zeolite-based catalysis in NO decomposition.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 1;673:266-271. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

Nitrous oxide (NO) has been the most serious ozone-depleting species throughout the 21st century. Zeolite-based catalysis is a highly promising method for NO removal in large-scale industrial applications. However, the exchanged transition metal species in zeolites greatly influence the performance of catalysts. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00489697193149
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.481DOI Listing
April 2019
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Aerial Concentrations of Pathogens Causing Early Blight and Brown Spot within Susceptible Potato Fields.

Phytopathology 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

University of Wisconsin, Plant Pathology , 1630 Linden Drive , Room 689 , Madison, Wisconsin, United States , 53706 ;

Early blight caused by and brown spot caused by are two common foliar diseases of potato, with early blight typically predominating in incidence and severity. Renewed interest in these two diseases has arisen due to notable difference in fungicide resistance profiles of the pathogens and inconsistent outcomes of disease management strategies. The pathogens share similar disease cycles, but they differ in shape and size of conidia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-10-18-0381-RDOI Listing