71,259 results match your criteria Atmospheric environment Oxford England : 1994[Journal]


Response of glacial lakes to glacier and climate changes in the western Nyainqentanglha range.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 22;735:139607. Epub 2020 May 22.

Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environmental Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

The western Nyainqentanglha (WNT) range, located in the transition zone between large-scale atmospheric circulations, has an abundance of glacial lakes and glaciers. In the warmer climate of recent decades, the glacial lakes and glaciers in the WNT range could have changed substantially. Here, glacial lake and glacier changes for the entire WNT range between 1976 and 2018 are examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139607DOI Listing

Associations between climatic parameters and the human salmonellosis in Yazd province, Iran.

Environ Res 2020 May 20;187:109706. Epub 2020 May 20.

Skin Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Salmonella is one of the most common causes of foodborne disease outbreaks in developing countries. Climatic factors such as temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity can directly increase the growth and spread of these pathogens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate long-term temporal trends and seasonal patterns of Salmonella infections as well as evaluating the effects of demographic and climatic factors on the infection incidence in Yazd province, Iran during 2012-2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109706DOI Listing

Stable Trimetallic NiFeCu Catalysts with High Carbon Resistance for Dry Reforming of Methane.

Chempluschem 2020 Jun;85(6):1120-1128

CAS Key Lab of Low-Carbon Conversion Science and Engineering Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201210, P. R. China.

Copper has been incorporated into Ni-Fe alloys to form a series of ternary NiFeCu alloy catalysts with molar ratio of Cu/Fe varying from 0 to 1.5, which were tested in dry reforming of methane (DRM) at 923 K and atmospheric pressure with a CH /CO ratio of 1. XRD, TPR-H and FE-TEM measurements confirm the formation of Ni-Fe-Cu alloys with particle size of 5. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cplu.202000217DOI Listing

The Effects of Temperature and Humidity on a Field Population of Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae).

J Econ Entomol 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Plant Protection, Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, P.R. China.

The production of Chinese chives is reduced throughout China due to a root-feeding dipteran pest Bradysia odoriphaga Yang et Zhang (Diptera: Sciaridae), therefore deciphering the conditions influencing its growth and development are important in developing ecological control strategies. A study was conducted from 2014 to 2017 to determine the relationship between the abundance of B. odoriphaga and temperature (atmospheric and soil), soil water content, and atmospheric humidity in a Chinese chive field in Beijing City, China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toaa116DOI Listing

Impact of environmental pollution and weather changes on the incidence of ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2020 Jun 2:2047487320928450. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Division of Cardiology, Santa Maria Goretti Hospital, Italy.

Background: Environmental pollution and weather changes unfavorably impact on cardiovascular disease. However, limited research has focused on ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the most severe yet distinctive form of acute coronary syndrome.

Methods And Results: We appraised the impact of environmental and weather changes on the incidence of STEMI, analysing the bivariate and multivariable association between several environmental and atmospheric parameters and the daily incidence of STEMI in two large Italian urban areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487320928450DOI Listing

An Emerging Frontier: Metal(loid) Soil Pollution Threat under Global Climate Change.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Instituto de Ingeniería Agraria y Suelos, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Alimentarias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

The impact of climate change (global warming) and associated extreme events on soil pollution and metal mobility in soils have received very little attention. Global warming leads to increased soil and atmospheric temperatures, more frequent and severe extreme events, and, consequently, soil erosion. Changes in soil characteristics and hydrology alter how metal(loid)s are transported around a terrestrial environment, diluted in water bodies, and mobilized in soil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.4790DOI Listing

One-pot imine synthesis from methylarenes and anilines under air over heterogeneous Cu oxide-modified CeO catalyst.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-07, Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579, Japan.

Cu oxide-modified CeO2 (CuOx-CeO2) with 2 wt% Cu loading amount was the most effective and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for selective one-pot imine synthesis from methylarenes and anilines via direct oxidation of the sp3 C-H bond in the methylarenes with atmospheric air (0.1 MPa) as an oxidant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc02969fDOI Listing

Controls on surface water carbonate chemistry along North American ocean margins.

Nat Commun 2020 Jun 1;11(1):2691. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

NOAA Ocean Acidification Program, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD, 20910, USA.

Syntheses of carbonate chemistry spatial patterns are important for predicting ocean acidification impacts, but are lacking in coastal oceans. Here, we show that along the North American Atlantic and Gulf coasts the meridional distributions of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and carbonate mineral saturation state (Ω) are controlled by partial equilibrium with the atmosphere resulting in relatively low DIC and high Ω in warm southern waters and the opposite in cold northern waters. However, pH and the partial pressure of CO (pCO) do not exhibit a simple spatial pattern and are controlled by local physical and net biological processes which impede equilibrium with the atmosphere. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16530-zDOI Listing

Co-evolution of primitive methane-cycling ecosystems and early Earth's atmosphere and climate.

Nat Commun 2020 Jun 1;11(1):2705. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Institut de Biologie de l'Ecole Normale Supérieure (IBENS), Université Paris Sciences et Lettres, CNRS, INSERM, 75005, Paris, France.

The history of the Earth has been marked by major ecological transitions, driven by metabolic innovation, that radically reshaped the composition of the oceans and atmosphere. The nature and magnitude of the earliest transitions, hundreds of million years before photosynthesis evolved, remain poorly understood. Using a novel ecosystem-planetary model, we find that pre-photosynthetic methane-cycling microbial ecosystems are much less productive than previously thought. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16374-7DOI Listing

Emission of Ultraviolet Radiation from 220 to 280 NM by a Cold Physical Plasma Generating Device.

Health Phys 2020 Jul;119(1):153-159

Plasma Oncology Laboratory, Department of Urology, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

The generation of cold physical plasma at atmospheric pressure (cold atmospheric plasma: CAP) generates different reactive molecular species as well as radiation in the ultraviolet (UV) range. The therapy of tumor diseases has proven to be a new promising area of application for CAP treatment. With regard to the routine use of CAP in cancer therapy, however, application safety must be ensured both for the patient and for the operator. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001276DOI Listing

Estimating US fossil fuel CO emissions from measurements of C in atmospheric CO.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Global Monitoring Laboratory, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO 80305.

We report national scale estimates of CO emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production in the United States based directly on atmospheric observations, using a dual-tracer inverse modeling framework and CO and [Formula: see text] measurements obtained primarily from the North American portion of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network. The derived US national total for 2010 is 1,653 ± 30 TgC yr with an uncertainty ([Formula: see text]) that takes into account random errors associated with atmospheric transport, atmospheric measurements, and specified prior CO and C fluxes. The atmosphere-derived estimate is significantly larger ([Formula: see text]) than US national emissions for 2010 from three global inventories widely used for CO accounting, even after adjustments for emissions that might be sensed by the atmospheric network, but which are not included in inventory totals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1919032117DOI Listing

Airborne bacteria confirm the pristine nature of the Southern Ocean boundary layer.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Research and Development, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, VIC 3008, Australia

Microorganisms are ubiquitous and highly diverse in the atmosphere. Despite the potential impacts of airborne bacteria found in the lower atmosphere over the Southern Ocean (SO) on the ecology of Antarctica and on marine cloud phase, no previous region-wide assessment of bioaerosols over the SO has been reported. We conducted bacterial profiling of boundary layer shipboard aerosol samples obtained during an Austral summer research voyage, spanning 42. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2000134117DOI Listing

The Great Oxidation Event preceded a Paleoproterozoic "snowball Earth".

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9AL, Scotland, United Kingdom.

The inability to resolve the exact temporal relationship between two pivotal events in Earth history, the Paleoproterozoic Great Oxidation Event (GOE) and the first "snowball Earth" global glaciation, has precluded assessing causality between changing atmospheric composition and ancient climate change. Here we present temporally resolved quadruple sulfur isotope measurements (δS, ∆S, and ∆S) from the Paleoproterozoic Seidorechka and Polisarka Sedimentary Formations on the Fennoscandian Shield, northwest Russia, that address this issue. Sulfides in the former preserve evidence of mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (S-MIF) falling within uncertainty of the Archean reference array with a ∆S/∆S slope of -1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2003090117DOI Listing

Atmospheric factors controlling stable isotope variations in modern precipitation of the tropical region of Bangladesh.

Isotopes Environ Health Stud 2020 Jun 1:1-18. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Isotope Hydrology Division, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Savar, Bangladesh.

The study investigates the factors that control the isotopic composition of tropical precipitation in Bangladesh. Daily and monthly rainfall samples were collected from three stations from 2013 to 2015: (1) northern and moderately high altitude: Sylhet, (2) middle part of the country (close to Tropic of Cancer): Savar, and (3) southern coastal region: Barisal. To escape from the post-evaporation effect, proper care was adopted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10256016.2020.1770245DOI Listing

Application of Atmospheric-Pressure-Plasma-Jet Modified Flexible Graphite Sheets in Reduced-Graphene-Oxide/Polyaniline Supercapacitors.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 May 28;12(6). Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan.

In this study, flexible and low-cost graphite sheets modified by atmospheric pressure plasma jet are applied to reduced-graphene-oxide/polyaniline supercapacitors. Surface treatment by atmospheric pressure plasma jet can make the hydrophobic surface of graphite into a hydrophilic surface and improve the adhesion of the screen-printed reduced-graphene-oxide/polyaniline on the graphite sheets. After the fabrication of reduced-graphene-oxide/polyaniline supercapacitors with polyvinyl alcohol/HSO gel electrolyte, pseudo-capacitance and electrical double capacitance can be clearly identified by the measurement of cyclic voltammetry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12061228DOI Listing

Fe doped SrWO4 with tunable band structure for photocatalytic nitrogen fixation.

Nanotechnology 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Xidian University, Xian, 710071, CHINA.

Doping with exotic elements has become a general effective method for the synthesis of efficient nitrogen fixation photocatalyst. Wide bandgap semiconductors, thermodynamically, could be potential photocatalysts for nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR). In this study, we report an active photocatalyst of Fe doped SrWO4 from a facile solvothermal method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ab9863DOI Listing

The impact of synoptic patterns on summertime ozone pollution in the North China Plain.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 19;735:139559. Epub 2020 May 19.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China.

Surface ozone pollution is a challenging environmental issue in most parts of China. In particular, the North China Plain (NCP) region suffers from the severest ozone pollution throughout the country. In addition to the emission of precursors, ozone concentration is closely related to meteorological conditions resulting from regional atmospheric circulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139559DOI Listing

A novel efficient broadband model to derive daily surface solar Ultraviolet radiation (0.280-0.400 μm).

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 19;735:139513. Epub 2020 May 19.

Hunan Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing of Ecological environment in Dongting Lake Area, School of Geography and Information Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China.

The climatic characteristics of solar Ultraviolet radiation (UV) are of vital important for the climate change and photochemical reactions. High-quality records of solar UV radiation are the premise for solar UV researches and applications, but solar UV radiation observations are sparse around the world. Among all wavelength of UV radiations, only UVA (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139513DOI Listing

Construction of a virtual PM observation network in China based on high-density surface meteorological observations using the Extreme Gradient Boosting model.

Environ Int 2020 May 29;141:105801. Epub 2020 May 29.

State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather (LASW) and Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry (LAC), Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, CMA, Beijing 100081, China.

With increasing public concerns on air pollution in China, there is a demand for long-term continuous PM datasets. However, it was not until the end of 2012 that China established a national PM observation network. Before that, satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) was frequently used as a primary predictor to estimate surface PM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105801DOI Listing

Increased ozone levels during the COVID-19 lockdown: Analysis for the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 28;737:139765. Epub 2020 May 28.

Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The first COVID-19 case in Brazil was confirmed on February 25, 2020. Partial lockdown measures came into force in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on March 23. While CO and NO levels showed significant reductions, PM levels were only reduced in the first partial lockdown week. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139765DOI Listing

Optimal temperature zone for the dispersal of COVID-19.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 16;736:139487. Epub 2020 May 16.

Collaborative Innovation Center for West Ecological Safety (CIWES), College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.

It is essential to know the environmental parameters within which the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can survive to understand its global dispersal pattern. We found that 60.0% of the confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in places where the air temperature ranged from 5 °C to 15 °C, with a peak in cases at 11. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139487DOI Listing

Water-insoluble Organics Dominate Brown Carbon in Wintertime Urban Aerosol of China: Chemical Characteristics and Optical Properties.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

The chromophores responsible for light absorption in atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) are not well characterized, which hinders our understanding of BrC chemistry, the links with optical properties, and accurate model representations of BrC to global climate and atmospheric oxidative capacity. In this study, light absorption properties and chromophore composition of three BrC fractions of different polarities were characterized for urban aerosol collected in Xi'an and Beijing in winter 2013-2014. These three BrC fractions show large differences in light absorption and chromophore composition, but the chromophores responsible for light absorption are similar in Xi'an and Beijing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c01149DOI Listing

Aromatic Photooxidation, A New Source of Atmospheric Acidity.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Formic acid (HCOOH), one of the most important and ubiquitous organic acids in the Earth's atmosphere, contributes substantially to atmospheric acidity and affects pH-dependent reactions in the aqueous phase. However, based on the current mechanistic understanding, even the most advanced chemical models significantly underestimate the HCOOH concentrations when compared to ambient observations at both ground-level and high altitude, thus underrating its atmospheric impact. Here we reveal new chemical pathways to HCOOH formation from reactions of both O3 and OH with ketene-enols, which are important and up-to-now undiscovered intermediates produced in the photo-oxidation of aromatics and furans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c00526DOI Listing

Experimental investigation on the effect of wavelength on aperture averaging in FSO communications.

Opt Lett 2020 Jun;45(11):3063-3066

Atmospheric turbulence is a major impairment in free-space optical (FSO) communication systems. Based on the fact that the size of receiver aperture is much larger than operation wavelength, aperture averaging extracts inherent receiver diversity gains and can be used as an effective fading mitigation technique. In this Letter, we consider the three most common wavelengths used in telecommunications, namely 1550, 1310, and 850 nm, and present a comparative performance evaluation of aperture averaging under the same emulated atmospheric conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.389808DOI Listing

Demonstration of using two aperture pairs combined with multiple-mode receivers and MIMO signal processing for enhanced tolerance to turbulence and misalignment in a 10  Gbit/s QPSK FSO link.

Opt Lett 2020 Jun;45(11):3042-3045

We utilize aperture diversity combined with multiple-mode receivers and multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) digital signal processing (DSP) to demonstrate enhanced tolerance to atmospheric turbulence and spatial misalignment in a 10 Gbit/s quadrature-phase-shift-keyed (QPSK) free-space optical (FSO) link. Turbulence and misalignment could cause power coupling from the fundamental Gaussian mode into higher-order modes. Therefore, we detect power from multiple modes and use MIMO DSP to enhance the recovery of the original data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.391120DOI Listing

An ambivalent atmosphere: Employment training programs and mental health recovery.

Health Place 2020 Mar 19;62:102266. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

This article critically examines the role of employment training programs in the personal recovery of adults living with mental illness in community settings. Using Cameron Duff's (2014) notion of 'assemblages of recovery,' we explore how, and to what extent, employment training programs provide the supportive resources linked to personal recovery. Using an ethnographic case study, we describe the ambivalent atmospheres associated with one program. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2019.102266DOI Listing

Bisphenol A (BPA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediment and bivalves from Hormozgan Province coastline in the Northern Persian Gulf: A focus on source apportionment.

Mar Pollut Bull 2020 Mar 17;152:110941. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Earth Sciences, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, 71454, Iran.

This study investigates Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Bisphenol-A (BPA) pollution in coastal sediments and bivalves of Hormozgan Province coastline. The results indicated that the BPA concentration in some bivalves reached up to 340.16 ng g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.110941DOI Listing

Effects of dissolved nickel and nickel-contaminated suspended sediment on the scleractinian coral, Acropora muricata.

Mar Pollut Bull 2020 Mar 17;152:110886. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

School of Earth, Atmospheric and Life Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.

Intensification of lateritic nickel mining in Southeast Asia and Melanesia potentially threatens coastal ecosystems from increased exposure to nickel and suspended sediment. This study investigated the response of Acropora muricata when exposed to either dissolved nickel, clean suspended sediment or nickel-contaminated suspended sediment for 7 days, followed by a 7-d recovery period. Significant bleaching and accumulation of nickel in coral tissue was observed only after exposure to high dissolved nickel concentrations and nickel-spiked suspended sediment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.110886DOI Listing

Environmental impacts of grey water discharge from ships in the Baltic Sea.

Mar Pollut Bull 2020 Mar 23;152:110891. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Hörselgången 4, 41756 Göteborg, Sweden.

Discharge of grey water from ships is today unregulated in most sea areas, including the Baltic Sea. Annually, an estimated 5.5 million m grey water is emitted to the Baltic Sea with largest contribution from RoPax (4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.110891DOI Listing

Tracking riverine nitrate sources under changing land use pattern and hydrologic regime.

Mar Pollut Bull 2020 Mar 25;152:110884. Epub 2020 Jan 25.

Department of Geology and Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, MD 20740, United States.

It remains challenging to identify nitrate sources in streams due to complications associated with anthropogenic inputs and in-stream biogeochemical processes. We used dual isotopic analysis of nitrate and a Bayesian isotope mixing model to explore the dynamics of nitrate sources and their associated transformations among three types of headwater watershed with different dominant land use types during four seasons in Jiulong River Watershed, a coastal China watershed. Nitrogen sources were the primary determinant of the δN-NO and seasonal differences in biogeochemical processes exhibited among watersheds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.110884DOI Listing

Aqueous-Phase Decomposition of Isoprene Hydroxy Hydroperoxide and Hydroxyl Radical Formation by Fenton-Like Reactions with Iron Ions.

J Phys Chem A 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Isoprene hydroxy hydroperoxides (ISOPOOH) formed by photooxidation of isoprene under low-NO conditions play an important role in the formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosols, yet multiphase processes of ISOPOOH are poorly understood. By applying electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we observe that ISOPOOH undergoes aqueous-phase decomposition upon interacting with Fe(II) ions to form OH and organic radicals at the room temperature. To reproduce the measured dependence of OH formation on the Fe concentrations by kinetic modeling, we postulate that Fe(II) ions react with ISOPOOH via Fenton-like reactions to form OH radicals with the rate constant of 7. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpca.0c02094DOI Listing

Phylum-level diversity of the microbiome of the extremophilic basidiomycete fungus Pisolithus arhizus (Scop.) Rauschert: An island of biodiversity in a thermal soil desert.

Microbiologyopen 2020 Jun 1:e1062. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

JQ Division, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, USA.

We used high-throughput DNA sequencing methods combined with bio-geochemical profiles to characterize the internal environment and community structure of the microbiome of the basidiomycete fungus Pisolithus arhizus (Scop.) Rauschert from soils within a geothermal feature of Yellowstone National Park. Pisolithus arhizus is unique in that it forms closed fruiting bodies that sequester visible sulfur within. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mbo3.1062DOI Listing

Impact of Electron Acceptor Availability on Methane-Influenced Microorganisms in an Enrichment Culture Obtained From a Stratified Lake.

Front Microbiol 2020 14;11:715. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Marine Microbiology and Biogeochemistry, NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Methanotrophs are of major importance in limiting methane emissions from lakes. They are known to preferably inhabit the oxycline of stratified water columns, often assumed due to an intolerance to atmospheric oxygen concentrations, but little is known on the response of methanotrophs to different oxygen concentrations as well as their preference for different electron acceptors. In this study, we enriched a methanotroph of the genus from the oxycline and the anoxic water column of a stratified lake, which was also present in the oxic water column in the winter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240106PMC

Trophic control changes with season and nutrient loading in lakes.

Ecol Lett 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, 95060, USA.

Experiments have revealed much about top-down and bottom-up control in ecosystems, but manipulative experiments are limited in spatial and temporal scale. To obtain a more nuanced understanding of trophic control over large scales, we explored long-term time-series data from 13 globally distributed lakes and used empirical dynamic modelling to quantify interaction strengths between zooplankton and phytoplankton over time within and across lakes. Across all lakes, top-down effects were associated with nutrients, switching from negative in mesotrophic lakes to positive in oligotrophic lakes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ele.13532DOI Listing

Feed-derived iodine overrides environmental contribution to cow milk.

J Dairy Sci 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Institute for Global Food Security, Queen's University Belfast, 19 Chlorine Gardens, Belfast, BT9 5DL, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Diets worldwide are deficient in iodine, leading to a range of undesirable health effects at the population level. Dairy products are a primary source of iodine in diets for those populations in which iodized salt is not systematically used or available. However, the flows of iodine through dairy agroecosystems are not well understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-17446DOI Listing

Enhanced LSPR performance of graphene nanoribbons-silver nanoparticles hybrid as a colorimetric sensor for sequential detection of dopamine and glutathione.

Anal Chim Acta 2020 Jul 27;1120:11-23. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

In the present study, a novel plasmonic sensing platform was proposed for sequential colorimetric detection of dopamine (DA) and glutathione (GSH) in human serum sample by taking advantage of plasmon hybridization in graphene nanoribbons/sliver nanoparticles (GNR/Ag NPs) hybrid. DA was detected based on etching strategy and morphology transition of label-free Ag NPs hybridized with GNR. As a result of the etching process, hexagonal Ag NPs were changed to smaller corner-truncated nanoparticles and a blue shift was observed in its plasmonic band, accompanied by the color change from green to red. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2020.04.060DOI Listing

ARTP mutation and adaptive laboratory evolution improve probiotic performance of Bacillus coagulans.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 May 30. Epub 2020 May 30.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, People's Republic of China.

Bacillus coagulans is a thermophilic, facultative anaerobic, spore-forming Gram-positive bacterium, which is used as a probiotic in animal feed and human dietary supplements. In the present study, a bile-resistant thermophilic B. coagulans WT-03 strain was isolated and genetically identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-020-10703-yDOI Listing

The impact of long dry periods on the aboveground biomass in a tropical forests: 20 years of monitoring.

Carbon Balance Manag 2020 May 30;15(1):12. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Forest Engineering, University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.

Background: Long-term studies of community and population dynamics indicate that abrupt disturbances often catalyse changes in vegetation and carbon stocks. These disturbances include the opening of clearings, rainfall seasonality, and drought, as well as fire and direct human disturbance. Such events may be super-imposed on longer-term trends in disturbance, such as those associated with climate change (heating, drying), as well as resources. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13021-020-00147-2DOI Listing

Hyphenation of packed column supercritical fluid chromatography with mass spectrometry: where are we and what are the remaining challenges?

Anal Bioanal Chem 2020 May 30. Epub 2020 May 30.

Life Sciences Mass Spectrometry, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest Ansermet, 1211, Geneva 4, Switzerland.

Over the last decades, packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC) using carbon dioxide (CO) as supercritical fluid has gained interest as a complementary separation technique to liquid chromatography (LC). Various commercial solutions for the hyphenation to atmospheric pressure ionization (API) including electrospray (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) have been described using split-flow or full-flow introduction approaches. This review discusses various aspects of the hyphenation using these two approaches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-020-02715-4DOI Listing

Environmental pressures on stomatal size may drive plant genome size evolution: evidence from a natural experiment with Cape geophytes.

Ann Bot 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská, Brno, Czech Republic.

Background And Aims: The idea that genome (size) evolution in eukaryotes could be driven by environmental factors is still vigorously debated. In extant plants, genome size correlates positively with stomatal size, leading to the idea that conditions enabling the existence of large stomata in fossil plants also supported growth of their genome size. We test this inductive assumption in drought-adapted, prostrate-leaved Cape (South Africa) geophytes where, compared with their upright-leaved geophytic ancestors, stomata develop in a favourably humid microclimate formed underneath their leaves. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa095DOI Listing

Multi-year atmospheric concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) at a background site in central Europe.

Environ Pollut 2020 May 24;265(Pt B):114851. Epub 2020 May 24.

Masaryk University, RECETOX Centre, Kamenice 5, 625 00, Brno, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

A total of 74 high volume air samples were collected at a background site in Czech Republic from 2012 to 2014 in which the concentrations of 20 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated. The total concentrations (gas + particle phase) ranged from 0.03 to 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114851DOI Listing

Fine particulate matter exposure and renal function: A population-based study among pregnant women in China.

Environ Int 2020 May 28;141:105805. Epub 2020 May 28.

School of Public Health, Key Lab of Public Health Safety of the Ministry of Education and NHC Key Laboratory of Health Technology Assessment, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Fine particulate matter (PM) is the most serious environmental threat worldwide. The nephrotoxicity of PM has been demonstrated in older adults, but no study has addressed the impacts of PM exposure on renal function in pregnant women, who are recognized to be vulnerable and susceptible to PM exposure.

Objective: To evaluate whether exposures to PM total mass and its chemical constituents were associated with reduced renal function among pregnant women in China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105805DOI Listing

Honey as an indicator of long-term environmental changes: MP-AES analysis coupled with C-based age determination of Hungarian honey samples.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 25;736:139686. Epub 2020 May 25.

Atomic Spectroscopy Partner Laboratory, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Debrecen, Egyetem Square 1, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary. Electronic address:

Several studies show that the elemental content of honey entirely depends on the botanical and geographical origin, but the information is incomplete regarding its time-dependent composition changes. Twenty-six acacia and three honey samples with unknown botanical origin were collected between 1958 and 2018 and analysed for elemental composition by Microwave Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (MP-AES). The elemental analysis was coupled with independent dating method by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) to confirm the calendar age of the honey samples and test the possibility of radiocarbon based dating of bee products, which has not been applied before. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139686DOI Listing

Kinetics and mechanism of syringic acid degradation initiated by hydroxyl radical and sulphate radical in the aqueous phase.

Chemosphere 2020 May 22;256:126997. Epub 2020 May 22.

School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment and Pollution Control, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

Syringic acid (Syr) is an abundant component in aerosol particles. Multiphase photo-oxidation in aerosol phase provides an important oxidation pathway for Syr in the atmosphere. In this work, we studied the multiphase degradation of Syr by measuring rate coefficients of its reactions with potential radical oxidants (OH and SO) in aqueous solutions and by theoretical calculations, and degradation mechanisms by identifying the (intermediate) products. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126997DOI Listing

Pollution characteristics and potential sources of nitrous acid (HONO) in early autumn 2018 of Beijing.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 11;735:139317. Epub 2020 May 11.

State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, CAS Research/Education Center for Excellence in Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China; Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, PR China.

Nitrous Acid (HONO) is an important precursor of hydroxyl radical (OH) and has significant impacts on the formation of Ozone (O) and Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA). The atmospheric concentrations of HONO were measured during early autumn in downtown, Beijing (China). This study investigated HONO pollution characteristics and potential sources during day and night. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139317DOI Listing

Ship emission of nitrous acid (HONO) and its impacts on the marine atmospheric oxidation chemistry.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 12;735:139355. Epub 2020 May 12.

Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important reservoir of the hydroxyl radical (OH) and thus plays a central role in tropospheric chemistry. Exhaust from engines has long been known as a major primary source of HONO, yet most previous studies focused on vehicle emissions on land. In comparison, ship emissions of HONO have been rarely characterized, and their impacts on the tropospheric oxidation chemistry have not been quantified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139355DOI Listing

Sources and formation of nucleation mode particles in remote tropical marine atmospheres over the South China Sea and the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 11;735:139302. Epub 2020 May 11.

Key Lab of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology (MoE)/Institute for Advanced Ocean Study, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China; Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

A fast mobility particle sizer operating at a one-second time resolution was used to measure aerosol particle number size distribution (5.6-560 nm) in marine conditions over the South China Sea (SCS) from 29 March to 2 May 2017 and in the tropic zone of the Northwest Pacific Ocean (NWPO) from 10 to 29 October 2018. The clean background number concentration of nucleation mode atmospheric particles (<30 nm) was approximately 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139302DOI Listing

Nitrate migration and transformations in groundwater quantified by dual nitrate isotopes and hydrochemistry in a karst World Heritage site.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Apr 25;735:138907. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

State Cultivation Base of Eco-agriculture for Southwest Mountainous Land, Field Scientific Observation & Research Base of Karst Eco-environments at Nanchuan in Chongqing, Ministry of Nature Resources of the People's Republic of China, School of Geographical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China; Crawford Hydrology Laboratory, Department of Geography and Geology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101, USA. Electronic address:

Karst aquifers are extremely vulnerable to pollution, including from nitrate. This research advances a systematic evaluation of water quality dynamics and processes in a relatively pristine karst flow system impacted by seasonal tourism, in particular migration and transformation of nitrate. Water samples from the Shuifang Spring basin (Jinfoshan Karst World Heritage Site, Chongqing, China) were collected for analysis of ion concentrations and dual nitrate isotopes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138907DOI Listing

Treatments of a phthalocyanine-based green ink for tattoo removal purposes: generation of toxic fragments and potentially harmful morphologies.

Arch Toxicol 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Chemical Science and Technologies, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133, Rome, Italy.

Since tattoos became overwhelmingly fashionable worldwide, the demand for removal has proportionally increased, Nd:YAG Q-switch laser being the most commonly used tool for the purpose. In this framework we investigated the composition and products of laser treatment of green tattoo ink, the Green Concentrate from Eternal. The ink characterization has been carried out by IR, UV-Vis, EDX spectroscopies, and SEM imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-020-02790-7DOI Listing

Distribution and budget of Cs in the China Seas.

Sci Rep 2020 May 29;10(1):8795. Epub 2020 May 29.

Institute of Marine Sciences, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Shantou University, Shantou, 515063, China.

Cesium-137 is one of the most abundant anthropogenic radionuclides released by atmospheric nuclear testing and nuclear accidents, and accordingly it may significantly impact the health of humans and marine environmental eco-systems. Documenting the distribution and inventory of Cs is thus a crucial task. In this study, we collected a large number of datasets with field observations of Cs in the China Seas, in order to provide an in-depth understanding of Cs budgets and distributions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65280-xDOI Listing