78,305 results match your criteria Atmospheric Science Letters[Journal]

Atmospheric-pressure CVD growth of two-dimensional 2H- and 1T'-MoTe2 films with high-performance SERS activity.

Nanotechnology 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Chemistry and Biochemistry, North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina, 27707, UNITED STATES.

Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2) is a member of the transition-metal dichalcogenides family, which is an especially promising platform for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications, due to its excellent electronic properties. However, the synthesis of large-area highly crystalline 2D MoTe2 with controllable polymorphism is a huge challenge due to the small free energy difference (~40 meV per unit cell)) between semiconducting 2H-MoTe2 and semimetallic 1T'-MoTe2. Herein, we report an optimized route for the synthesis of 2H- and 1T'-MoTe2 films by atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Multi-layer graphene pirani pressure sensors.

Nanotechnology 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Microelectronics, Delft University of Technology, Feldmannweg 17, Delft, 2628CT, NETHERLANDS.

The operating principle of Pirani pressure sensors is based on the pressure dependence of a suspended strip's electrical conductivity, caused by the thermal conductance of the surrounding gas which changes the Joule heating of the strip. To realize such sensors, not only materials with high temperature dependent electrical conductivity are required, but also minimization of the suspended strip dimensions is essential to maximize the responsivity and minimize the power consumption. Due to this, nanomaterials are especially attractive for this application. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Controlling factors of seasonal and spatial variation of riverine CO partial pressure and its implication for riverine carbon flux.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 30;786:147332. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Institute of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China. Electronic address:

Global carbon cycle is closely related to the earth's energy budget, because CO plays an active role in the global climate change. The higher CO partial pressure (pCO) in inland water in comparison with atmosphere, causing a CO evasion from water to the air. However, the relationship between CO evasion, riverine carbon export, and hydrochemistry in watershed has remained largely unknown. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Can public-private partnerships (PPPs) improve the environmental performance of urban sewage treatment?

J Environ Manage 2021 May 7;291:112660. Epub 2021 May 7.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing, 210023, China; Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology (CICAEET), Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, PR China. Electronic address:

Insufficient sewage treatment facility is one important reason for wastewater entering and affecting aquatic ecosystems. The PPP mode, serving as one of the fastest-growing mechanisms for public service provision in recent decades, is considered to be an effective way to alleviate the pressure of funding shortages and to improve the efficiency of sewage treatment. However, the performance of PPPs has been questioned, especially the service quality given the inherent nature of the private sectors' pursuit of maximizing economic profit and the shortcoming of incomplete contracts. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Quantifying the high resolution seasonal emission of air pollutants from crop residue burning in India.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 24;286:117165. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, National Institute of Technology Rourkela, India.

Biomass burning, a recurring global phenomenon is also considered an environmental menace, making headlines every year in India with onset of autumn months. Agriculture is demographically the broadest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic fabric of India. Hence, disposal of crop residue is done mainly by burning leading to deterioration of air quality. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

How mobility restrictions policy and atmospheric conditions impacted air quality in the State of São Paulo during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Environ Res 2021 May 7:111255. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Av. Pres. Antônio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; Post Graduation Program on Environmental Engineering - Federal University of Espírito Santo, Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514, 29075-910, Vitória, Brazil. Electronic address:

Mobility restrictions are among actions to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic and have been pointed as reasons for improving air quality, especially in large cities. However, it is crucial to assess the impact of atmospheric conditions on air quality and air pollutant dispersion in the face of the potential variability of all sources. In this study, the impact of mobility restrictions on the air quality was analyzed for the most populous Brazilian State, São Paulo, severely impacted by COVID-19. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

New Particle Formation from the Vapor Phase: From Barrier-Controlled Nucleation to the Collisional Limit.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 May 10:4593-4599. Epub 2021 May 10.

William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, United States.

Studies of vapor phase nucleation have largely been restricted to one of two limiting cases-nucleation controlled by a substantial free energy barrier or the collisional limit where the barrier is negligible. For weakly bound systems, exploring the transition between these regimes has been an experimental challenge, and how nucleation evolves in this transition remains an open question. We overcome these limitations by combining complementary Laval expansion experiments, providing new particle formation data for carbon dioxide over a uniquely broad range of conditions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ancient horse genomes reveal the timing and extent of dispersals across the Bering Land Bridge.

Mol Ecol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Biomolecular Engineering, University Of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, United States.

The Bering Land Bridge (BLB) last connected Eurasia and North America during the Late Pleistocene. Although the BLB would have enabled transfers of terrestrial biota in both directions, it also acted as an ecological filter whose permeability varied considerably over time. Here we explore the possible impacts of this ecological corridor on genetic diversity within, and connectivity among, populations of a once wide-ranging group, the caballine horses (Equus spp. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comparison of the Hydraulic Fracturing Water Cycle in China and North America: A Critical Review.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

There is considerable debate about the sustainability of the hydraulic fracturing (HF) water cycle in North America. Recently, this debate has expanded to China, where HF activities continue to grow. Here, we provide a critical review of the HF water cycle in China, including water withdrawal practices and flowback and produced water (FPW) management and their environmental impacts, with a comprehensive comparison to the U. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Is Resource Change a Useful Predictor of Carrion Insect Succession on Pigs and Humans?

J Med Entomol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Science, Psychology and Sport, Federation University Australia, Mount Helen, VIC 3350,Australia.

Carrion is a dynamic and nutrient-rich resource that attracts numerous insect species that undergo succession due to the rapid change in the carrion resource. Despite this process being well-understood, few studies have examined resource change as a driver of carrion insect succession, and instead have focused on the effects of time per se, or on coarse, qualitative measures such as decay stage. Here we report on three field succession experiments using pig carcasses and human cadavers encompassing two winters and one summer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Acetate intercalated Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) through modified amide hydrolysis: a new route to synthesize novel mixed metal oxides (MMOs) for CO capture.

Dalton Trans 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Research Centre for Carbon Solutions (RCCS), School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK.

Layered double hydroxide (LDH) based mixed metal oxides (MMOs) are promising high temperature CO2 capture sorbents. In order to improve their CO2 capture capacity, it is crucial to bring in changes to their physicochemical properties such as morphology, particle size, surface area and activity by tuning the synthesis method. Here we report a modified amide hydrolysis method to synthesize LDHs with a mixed morphology and better CO2 capture properties. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A novel ATP dependent dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase in bacteria that releases dimethyl sulfide and acryloyl-CoA.

Elife 2021 May 10;10. Epub 2021 May 10.

College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.

Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is an abundant and ubiquitous organosulfur molecule in marine environments with important roles in global sulfur and nutrient cycling. Diverse DMSP lyases in some algae, bacteria and fungi cleave DMSP to yield gaseous dimethyl sulfide (DMS), an infochemical with important roles in atmospheric chemistry. Here we identified a novel ATP-dependent DMSP lyase, DddX. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Venus, an Astrobiology Target.

Astrobiology 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, New York, USA.

We present a case for the exploration of Venus as an astrobiology target-(1) investigations focused on the likelihood that liquid water existed on the surface in the past, leading to the potential for the origin and evolution of life, (2) investigations into the potential for habitable zones within Venus' present-day clouds and Venus-like exo atmospheres, (3) theoretical investigations into how active aerobiology may impact the radiative energy balance of Venus' clouds and Venus-like atmospheres, and (4) application of these investigative approaches toward better understanding the atmospheric dynamics and habitability of exoplanets. The proximity of Venus to Earth, guidance for exoplanet habitability investigations, and access to the potential cloud habitable layer and surface for prolonged extended measurements together make the planet a very attractive target for near term astrobiological exploration. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Molecular-Scale Mechanism of Sequential Reaction of Oxalic Acid with SO: Potential Participator in Atmospheric Aerosol Nucleation.

J Phys Chem A 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Key Laboratory of Cluster Science, Ministry of Education of China, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

Recent research has shown the almost barrierless cycloaddition reaction of the carboxylic acid with one SO to form products with group of -OSOH, which can form stable clusters with the nucleation precursors through hydrogen bonds (Mackenzie et al., 2015, 349, 58). Oxalic acid (OA), the simplest and prevalent dicarboxylic acid, was selected as an example to clarify the possibility to react with two SO sequentially and the nucleation potential of products. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Toxicity Assessment of Nano-ZnO Exposure on the Human Intestinal Microbiome, Metabolic Functions, and Resistome Using an In Vitro Colon Simulator.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP3), IRDR ICoE on Risk Interconnectivity and Governance on Weather/Climate Extremes Impact and Public Health, Fudan Tyndall Centre, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

Nano-ZnO, as a commonly used nanomaterial, has been found in drinking water, food, and medicine; therefore, it poses potential health risks via the digestion system. However, little is known about the toxicity of nano-ZnO on the human intestinal microbiome, which plays critical roles in human health. This study comprehensively investigated the impact of nano-ZnO on the human gut microbiome, metabolic functions, and resistome using an in vitro colon simulator. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

LABEC, the INFN ion beam laboratory of nuclear techniques for environment and cultural heritage.

Eur Phys J Plus 2021 30;136(4):472. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

INFN Division of Florence and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.

The LABEC laboratory, the INFN ion beam laboratory of nuclear techniques for environment and cultural heritage, located in the Scientific and Technological Campus of the University of Florence in Sesto Fiorentino, started its operational activities in 2004, after INFN decided in 2001 to provide our applied nuclear physics group with a large laboratory dedicated to applications of accelerator-related analytical techniques, based on a new 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. The new accelerator greatly improved the performance of existing Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) applications (for which we were using since the 1980s an old single-ended Van de Graaff accelerator) and in addition allowed to start a novel activity of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), in particular for C dating. Switching between IBA and AMS operation became very easy and fast, which allowed us high flexibility in programming the activities, mainly focused on studies of cultural heritage and atmospheric aerosol composition, but including also applications to biology, geology, material science and forensics, ion implantation, tests of radiation damage to components, detector performance tests and low-energy nuclear physics. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Lipid Droplets in Unicellular Photosynthetic Stramenopiles.

Front Plant Sci 2021 22;12:639276. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire et Végétale, INRAE, CNRS, CEA, IRIG, CEA Grenoble, Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France.

The Heterokonta or Stramenopile phylum comprises clades of unicellular photosynthetic species, which are promising for a broad range of biotechnological applications, based on their capacity to capture atmospheric CO via photosynthesis and produce biomolecules of interest. These molecules include triacylglycerol (TAG) loaded inside specific cytosolic bodies, called the lipid droplets (LDs). Understanding TAG production and LD biogenesis and function in photosynthetic stramenopiles is therefore essential, and is mostly based on the study of a few emerging models, such as the pennate diatom and eustigmatophytes, such as and species. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Projected Wine Grape Cultivar Shifts Due to Climate Change in New Zealand.

Front Plant Sci 2021 21;12:618039. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington, New Zealand.

Climate change has already been affecting the regional suitability of grapevines with significant advances in phenology being observed globally in the last few decades. This has significant implications for New Zealand, where the wine industry represents a major share of the horticultural industry revenue. We modeled key crop phenological stages to better understand temporal and spatial shifts in three important regions of New Zealand (Marlborough, Hawke's Bay, Central Otago) for three dominant cultivars (Merlot, Pinot noir, and Sauvignon blanc) and one potential new and later ripening cultivar (Grenache). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Elevated Atmospheric CO and Nitrogen Fertilization Affect the Abundance and Community Structure of Rice Root-Associated Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria.

Front Microbiol 2021 21;12:628108. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Ecology and Resource Use of the Mongolian Plateau and Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Grassland Ecology, School of Ecology and Environment, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, China.

Elevated atmospheric CO (eCO) results in plant growth and N limitation, yet how root-associated nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities respond to increasing atmospheric CO and nitrogen fertilization (eN) during the growth stages of rice is unclear. Using the gene as a molecular marker, we studied the combined effect of eCO and eN on the diazotrophic community and abundance at two growth stages in rice (tillering, TI and heading, HI). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) showed that eN had no obvious effect on abundance in rice roots under either ambient CO (aCO) or eCO treatment at the TI stage; in contrast, at the HI, copy numbers were increased under eCO and decreased under aCO. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Organic Electron Donors and Terminal Electron Acceptors Structure Anaerobic Microbial Communities and Interactions in a Permanently Stratified Sulfidic Lake.

Front Microbiol 2021 23;12:620424. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Biological Sciences, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA, United States.

The extent to which nutrients structure microbial communities in permanently stratified lakes is not well understood. This study characterized microbial communities from the anoxic layers of the meromictic and sulfidic Fayetteville Green Lake (FGL), NY, United States, and investigated the roles of organic electron donors and terminal electron acceptors in shaping microbial community structure and interactions. Bacterial communities from the permanently stratified layer below the chemocline (monimolimnion) and from enrichment cultures inoculated by lake sediments were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Short photoperiod attenuates CO fertilization effect on shoot biomass in .

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2021 Apr 16;27(4):825-834. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751 Australia.

The level of carbon dioxide (CO) in the air can affect several traits in plants. Elevated atmospheric CO (eCO) can enhance photosynthesis and increase plant productivity, including biomass, although there are inconsistencies regarding the effects of eCO on the plant growth response. The compounding effects of ambient environmental conditions such as light intensity, photoperiod, water availability, and soil nutrient composition can affect the extent to which eCO enhances plant productivity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Understanding Hailstone Temporal Variability and Contributing Factors over the U.S. Southern Great Plains.

J Clim 2020 May 1;33(10):3947-3966. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Earth Systems Science Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington.

Hailstones are a natural hazard that pose a significant threat to property and are responsible for significant economic losses each year in the United States. Detailed understanding of their characteristics is essential to mitigate their impact. Identifying the dynamic and physical factors contributing to hail formation and hailstone sizes is of great importance to weather and climate prediction and policymakers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Heavy ozone pollution episodes in urban Beijing during the early summertime from 2014 to 2017: Implications for control strategy.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 27;285:117162. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Qingdao, 266237, China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China.

Ground-level ozone (O) has become the principal air pollutant in Beijing during recent summers. In this context, an investigation of ambient concentrations and variation characteristics of O and its precursors in May and June from 2014 to 2017 in a typical urban area of Beijing was carried out, and the formation sensitivity and different causes of heavy O pollution (HOP, daily maximum 8-h O (MDA8h O)>124 ppbv) were analyzed. The results showed that the monthly assessment values of the O concentrations (the 90 percentile MDA8h O within one month) were highest in May or June from 2014 to 2017, and the values presented an overall increasing trend. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Quantitative estimation of meteorological impacts and the COVID-19 lockdown reductions on NO and PM over the Beijing area using Generalized Additive Models (GAM).

J Environ Manage 2021 May 4;291:112676. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Urban Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing, China.

Unprecedented travel restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic caused remarkable reductions in anthropogenic emissions, however, the Beijing area still experienced extreme haze pollution even under the strict COVID-19 controls. Generalized Additive Models (GAM) were developed with respect to inter-annual variations, seasonal cycles, holiday effects, diurnal profile, and the non-linear influences of meteorological factors to quantitatively differentiate the lockdown effects and meteorology impacts on concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO) and fine particulate matters (PM) at 34 sites in the Beijing area. The results revealed that lockdown measures caused large reductions while meteorology offset a large fraction of the decrease in surface concentrations. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Uncertainty of nitrogen budget in China.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 4;286:117216. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Agriculture and Food, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010, Australia.

The accuracy of the nitrogen (N) budget is of great importance for evidence-based decision-making to address both food security and environmental protection challenges. This study attempts to advance understanding of uncertainties in China's N budget using the Coupled Human And Natural Systems (CHANS) model and Monte Carlo simulation from 1980 to 2018. Results show that the spatial and temporal variations in agricultural and industrial activities and insufficient knowledge on N cycling parameterization are the two dominant causes of uncertainties in the N budget in China. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

An electrodeless atmospheric microwave plasma jet for efficient degradation of antibiotic norfloxacin.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 6;291:112729. Epub 2021 May 6.

College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064, China. Electronic address:

Plasma technology is increasingly being used for the degradation of residual antibiotics in aquatic environments. However, the electrodes in conventional plasma generators are subject to erosion, which can pollute the reaction system and shorten its lifetime. To overcome these drawbacks, we developed an electrodeless high-flow atmospheric microwave plasma jet (MPJ) for fast and efficient degradation of residual norfloxacin (NOR), a typical fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is frequently detected in the aquatic environment owing to its widespread use in the treatment of various infectious diseases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Possible impacts of molten salt reactors on the International Monitoring System.

J Environ Radioact 2021 May 5:106622. Epub 2021 May 5.

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd., Richland, WA, 99354, USA. Electronic address:

Molten salt reactors (MSRs) are gaining support as many countries look for ways to increase power generation and replace aging nuclear energy production facilities. MSRs have inherently safe designs, are scalable in size, can burn transuranic wastes from traditional solid fuel nuclear reactors, can store excess heat in thermal reservoirs for water desalination, and can be used to produce medical isotopes as part of the real-time liquid-fuel recycling process. The ability to remove Xe in real time from the fuel improves the power production in an MSR because Xe is the most significant neutron-absorbing isotope generated by nuclear fission. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Laser assisted sampling vs direct desorption flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow mass spectrometry of complex polymer samples: Forensic implications for pressure sensitive tape chemical analysis.

Talanta 2021 Aug 27;231:122333. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, 79409-1061, USA. Electronic address:

Flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) mass spectrometry (MS) is an easy-to-use, cost-effective, and potentially portable technique that allows direct desorption/ionization from samples with little-to-no sample preparation for real-time chemical analysis. However, it has limitations regarding analytes with low desorption efficiency, such as polymers. Here, laser assisted sampling (LAS) is developed and coupled to FAPA MS to allow access to a wider range of chemical information from polymer samples. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ambient fine particulate matter air pollution and the risk of hospitalization among COVID-19 positive individuals: Cohort study.

Environ Int 2021 Apr 9;154:106564. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Clinical Epidemiology Center, Research and Development Service, VA Saint Louis Health Care System, 501 N Grand Blvd, Suite 300, Saint Louis, MO 63103, United States; Veterans Research & Education Foundation of Saint Louis, 501 N Grand Blvd, Suite 300, Saint Louis, MO 63103, United States; Department of Medicine, Washington University in Saint Louis, 4921 Parkview Pl, Saint Louis, MO 63110, United States; Nephrology Section, Medicine Service, VA Saint Louis Health Care System, 915 N Grand Blvd, Saint Louis, MO 63106, United States; Institute for Public Health, Washington University in Saint Louis, 600 S Taylor Ave, Saint Louis, MO 63110, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Ecologic analyses suggest that living in areas with higher levels of ambient fine particulate matter air pollution (PM) is associated with higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. Studies accounting for individual-level health characteristics are lacking.

Methods: We leveraged the breadth and depth of the US Department of Veterans Affairs national healthcare databases and built a national cohort of 169,102 COVID-19 positive United States Veterans, enrolled between March 2, 2020 and January 31, 2021, and followed them through February 15, 2021. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Radionuclides and stable elements in vegetation in Australian arid environments: Concentration ratios and seasonal variation.

J Environ Radioact 2021 May 5;234:106627. Epub 2021 May 5.

Flinders University, College of Science and Engineering, Adelaide, SA, 5001, Australia; University of Melbourne, School of Geography, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Melbourne, VIC, 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

Data on the uptake of elements and radionuclides by flora from soils in arid environments are underrepresented in international databases, especially when comparing across seasons. This study improved the understanding on the uptake of natural uranium-series radionuclides, as well as more than 30 elements, in a range of Australian native flora species that are internationally representative of an arid/semi-arid zone (e.g. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF