Environ Int 2021 Apr 9;154:106564. Epub 2021 Apr 9.
Clinical Epidemiology Center, Research and Development Service, VA Saint Louis Health Care System, 501 N Grand Blvd, Suite 300, Saint Louis, MO 63103, United States; Veterans Research & Education Foundation of Saint Louis, 501 N Grand Blvd, Suite 300, Saint Louis, MO 63103, United States; Department of Medicine, Washington University in Saint Louis, 4921 Parkview Pl, Saint Louis, MO 63110, United States; Nephrology Section, Medicine Service, VA Saint Louis Health Care System, 915 N Grand Blvd, Saint Louis, MO 63106, United States; Institute for Public Health, Washington University in Saint Louis, 600 S Taylor Ave, Saint Louis, MO 63110, United States. Electronic address:
Background: Ecologic analyses suggest that living in areas with higher levels of ambient fine particulate matter air pollution (PM) is associated with higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. Studies accounting for individual-level health characteristics are lacking.
Methods: We leveraged the breadth and depth of the US Department of Veterans Affairs national healthcare databases and built a national cohort of 169,102 COVID-19 positive United States Veterans, enrolled between March 2, 2020 and January 31, 2021, and followed them through February 15, 2021. Read More