78,277 results match your criteria Atmospheric Measurement Techniques[Journal]

Ambient fine particulate matter air pollution and the risk of hospitalization among COVID-19 positive individuals: Cohort study.

Environ Int 2021 Apr 9;154:106564. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Clinical Epidemiology Center, Research and Development Service, VA Saint Louis Health Care System, 501 N Grand Blvd, Suite 300, Saint Louis, MO 63103, United States; Veterans Research & Education Foundation of Saint Louis, 501 N Grand Blvd, Suite 300, Saint Louis, MO 63103, United States; Department of Medicine, Washington University in Saint Louis, 4921 Parkview Pl, Saint Louis, MO 63110, United States; Nephrology Section, Medicine Service, VA Saint Louis Health Care System, 915 N Grand Blvd, Saint Louis, MO 63106, United States; Institute for Public Health, Washington University in Saint Louis, 600 S Taylor Ave, Saint Louis, MO 63110, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Ecologic analyses suggest that living in areas with higher levels of ambient fine particulate matter air pollution (PM) is associated with higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. Studies accounting for individual-level health characteristics are lacking.

Methods: We leveraged the breadth and depth of the US Department of Veterans Affairs national healthcare databases and built a national cohort of 169,102 COVID-19 positive United States Veterans, enrolled between March 2, 2020 and January 31, 2021, and followed them through February 15, 2021. Read More

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Radionuclides and stable elements in vegetation in Australian arid environments: Concentration ratios and seasonal variation.

J Environ Radioact 2021 May 5;234:106627. Epub 2021 May 5.

Flinders University, College of Science and Engineering, Adelaide, SA, 5001, Australia; University of Melbourne, School of Geography, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Melbourne, VIC, 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

Data on the uptake of elements and radionuclides by flora from soils in arid environments are underrepresented in international databases, especially when comparing across seasons. This study improved the understanding on the uptake of natural uranium-series radionuclides, as well as more than 30 elements, in a range of Australian native flora species that are internationally representative of an arid/semi-arid zone (e.g. Read More

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Prostate Cancer Targeted X-ray Fluorescence Imaging via Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA).

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Miller school of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.

Purpose: Gold nanoparticle (GNP) as a promising theranostic probe has been increasingly studied. The tumor-targeting efficiency of GNPs is crucial to increase the therapeutic ratio. In this study, we developed PSMA-targeted GNPs to enhance GNP uptake in prostate cancer and developed an x-ray fluorescence imaging system to noninvasively monitor and assess GNP delivery. Read More

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Associations of acute exposure to airborne pollutants with COVID-19 infection: evidence from China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, People's Republic of China.

The outbreak of COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has spread across many countries globally. Greatly, there are limited studies concerned with the effect of airborne pollutants on COVID-19 infection, while exposure to airborne pollutants may harm human health. This paper aimed to examine the associations of acute exposure to ambient atmospheric pollutants to daily newly COVID-19 confirmed cases in 41 Chinese cities. Read More

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Great-tailed Grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus) as Biomonitors of Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution in Urban Areas of Monterrey, Mexico.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Laboratorio de Biología de la Conservación y Desarrollo Sustentable, C.P. 66455, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, México.

Heavy metals exposure has been linked to severe health problems. In Mexico, the Monterrey metropolitan area (MMA) is considered one of the most polluted industrial regions. Because birds have been used successfully as environmental biomonitors, the levels of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in feathers of Great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus) from two sites within and one site outside the MMA were determined. Read More

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Mesoscale and wind-driven intra-annual variability in the East Auckland Current.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9764. Epub 2021 May 7.

National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington, 6021, New Zealand.

Intra-annual variability in the East Auckland Current (EAuC) was studied using a year-long timeseries of in situ and remotely-sensed velocity, temperature and salinity observations. Satellite-derived velocities correlated well ([Formula: see text]) with in situ observations and well-represent the long-term ([Formula: see text] days) variability of the upper ocean circulation. Four mesoscale eddies were observed during the year (for 260 days) which generated distinct flows between the continental slope and rise. Read More

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Response of the Indian summer monsoon to global warming, solar geoengineering and its termination.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9791. Epub 2021 May 7.

Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IIT Delhi), New Delhi, 110016, India.

The response of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) to global warming, solar geoengineering and its termination is examined using the multi-model mean of seven global climate model simulations from G2 experiment of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. Under the global warming scenario, land-ocean temperature contrasts and low-level monsoon circulation progressively strengthen accompanied by enhanced precipitation over the Indian subcontinent. Notably, in the solar geoengineered scenario, marginal surface cooling is projected over the majority of the ISM region, and there is strengthening of both upper and lower level circulation. Read More

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Nitrogen oxides concentration and emission change detection during COVID-19 restrictions in North India.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9800. Epub 2021 May 7.

Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, Japan.

COVID-19 related restrictions lowered particulate matter and trace gas concentrations across cities around the world, providing a natural opportunity to study effects of anthropogenic activities on emissions of air pollutants. In this paper, the impact of sudden suspension of human activities on air pollution was analyzed by studying the change in satellite retrieved NO concentrations and top-down NOx emission over the urban and rural areas around Delhi. NO was chosen for being the most indicative of emission intensity due to its short lifetime of the order of a few hours in the planetary boundary layer. Read More

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Addendum: A database of optimal integration times for Lagrangian studies of atmospheric moisture sources and sinks.

Sci Data 2021 May 7;8(1):130. Epub 2021 May 7.

Environmental Physics Laboratory (EPhysLab), CIM-UVIGO, Universidade de Vigo, Ourense, 32004, Spain.

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Testing the climate intervention potential of ocean afforestation using the Great Atlantic Sargassum Belt.

Nat Commun 2021 May 7;12(1):2556. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia.

Ensuring that global warming remains <2 °C requires rapid CO emissions reduction. Additionally, 100-900 gigatons CO must be removed from the atmosphere by 2100 using a portfolio of CO removal (CDR) methods. Ocean afforestation, CDR through basin-scale seaweed farming in the open ocean, is seen as a key component of the marine portfolio. Read More

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Engineering post-translational regulation of glutamine synthetase for controllable ammonia production in the plant-symbiont .

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, Stanford University

Nitrogen requirements for modern agriculture far exceed the levels of bioavailable nitrogen in most arable soils. As a result, the addition of nitrogen fertilizer is necessary to sustain productivity and yields, especially for cereal crops, the planet's major calorie suppliers. Given the unsustainability of industrial fertilizer production and application, engineering biological nitrogen fixation directly at the roots of plants has been a grand challenge for biotechnology. Read More

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An application of slow feature analysis to the genetic sequences of coronaviruses and influenza viruses.

Hum Genomics 2021 May 7;15(1):26. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biology and Center for Visual Sciences, Miami University, Oxford, OH, 45056, USA.

Background: Mathematical approaches have been for decades used to probe the structure of DNA sequences. This has led to the development of Bioinformatics. In this exploratory work, a novel mathematical method is applied to probe the DNA structure of two related viral families: those of coronaviruses and those of influenza viruses. Read More

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Time-series analysis of daily ambient temperature and emergency department visits in five US cities with a comparison of exposure metrics derived from 1-km meteorology products.

Environ Health 2021 May 7;20(1):55. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Emory University, Atlanta, USA.

Background: Ambient temperature observations from single monitoring stations (usually located at the major international airport serving a city) are routinely used to estimate heat exposures in epidemiologic studies. This method of exposure assessment does not account for potential spatial variability in ambient temperature. In environmental health research, there is increasing interest in utilizing spatially-resolved exposure estimates to minimize exposure measurement error. Read More

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Climatic modification effects on the association between PM1 and lung cancer incidence in China.

BMC Public Health 2021 May 7;21(1):880. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.

Background: Nationwide studies that examine climatic modification effects on the association between air pollution and health outcome are limited in developing countries. Moreover, few studies focus on PM1 pollution despite its greater health effect.

Objectives: This study aims to determine the modification effects of climatic factors on the associations between PM1 and the incidence rates of lung cancer for males and females in China. Read More

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Diurnal evolutions and sources of water-soluble chromophoric aerosols over Xi'an during haze event, in Northwest China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 29;786:147412. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi'an 710021, China.

Atmospheric brown carbon and their chemical behavior potentially impacts the climate and air quality. Due to lack of researches on the atmospheric chromophores by using online experimental instrument, so using the offline EEM approaches to study their types, sources and chemical processes. In this study, PILS-EEM-TOC system (Particle into liquid sampler coupled with excitation-emission matrix and total organic carbon) was developed in order to distinguish the hourly evolutions and sources of water-soluble chromophoric organic matters in atmospheric fine particles. Read More

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PM2.5 aggravates NQO1-induced mucus hyper-secretion through release of neutrophil extracellular traps in an asthma model.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 4;218:112272. Epub 2021 May 4.

Laboratory of Allergy and Precision Medicine, Chengdu Institute of Respiratory Health, the Third People's Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu 610031, China; Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Chengdu third people's hospital branch of National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Affiliated Hospital of ChongQing Medical University, Chengdu 610031, China. Electronic address:

Background: Particulate matter of 2.5 µm or less in diameter (PM2.5) is one of the most complex pollutants in the atmospheric environment and harmful to human health. Read More

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Protein unfolded states populated at high and ambient pressure are similarly compact.

Biophys J 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biological Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy NY 12180. Electronic address:

The relationship between the dimensions of pressure unfolded states of proteins compared to those at ambient pressure is controversial; resolving this issue is related directly to the mechanisms of pressure denaturation. Moreover, a significant pressure dependence of the compactness of unfolded states would complicate the interpretation of folding parameters from pressure perturbation and make comparison to those obtained using alternative perturbation approaches difficult. Here we determined the compactness of the pressure-unfolded state of a small, cooperatively folding model protein, CTL9-I98A, as a function of temperature. Read More

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Role of atmospheric particulate matter exposure in COVID-19 and other health risks in human: A review.

Environ Res 2021 May 4:111281. Epub 2021 May 4.

Biology Institute, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan, Shandong Province, P. R. China; Engineering Research Center of Zebrafish Models for Human Diseases and Drug Screening of Shandong Province, Jinan, Shandong Province, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Due to intense industrialization and urbanization, air pollution has become a serious global concern as a hazard to human health. Epidemiological studies found that exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) causes severe health problems in human and significant damage to the physiological systems. In recent days, PM exposure could be related as a carrier for SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission and COVID-19 infection. Read More

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Environmental impacts on single-cell variation within a ubiquitous diatom: The role of growth rate.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0251213. Epub 2021 May 7.

Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, Helgoland, Germany.

Morphological and physiological characteristics of phytoplankton cells are highly sensitive to changes in environmental conditions and, in turn, influence the dynamics of phytoplankton populations and communities. To cope with environmental change, trait variability and phenotypic plasticity may play an important role. Since global change comprises simultaneous changes in abiotic parameters, we assessed the impact of multiple drivers on functional traits of the diatom Thalassiosira (Conticribra) weissflogii by manipulating concurrently temperature, pCO2, and dissolved nitrogen:phosphorus (N:P) ratio. Read More

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Hierarchical Density-Aware Dehazing Network.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 May 7;PP. Epub 2021 May 7.

The commonly used atmospheric model in image dehazing cannot hold in real cases. Although deep end-to-end networks were presented to solve this problem by disregarding the physical model, the transmission map in the atmospheric model contains significant haze density information, which cannot simply be ignored. In this article, we propose a novel hierarchical density-aware dehazing network, which consists of a the densely connected pyramid encoder, a density generator, and a Laplacian pyramid decoder. Read More

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Has Carbon Emissions Trading Reduced PM in China?

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Business School, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China.

China today has an urgent need to develop low-carbon policies that also address local air pollution. This study uses a difference-in-differences model to estimate the extent to which China's Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), which directly addresses CO emissions, has also generated cobenefits by reducing PM. Using monthly PM concentration and weather data for 297 Chinese cities from January 2005 to December 2017, we find that (1) China's ETS has reduced PM concentrations by 4. Read More

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Photodegradation of α-Pinene Secondary Organic Aerosol Dominated by Moderately Oxidized Molecules.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland.

Atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) undergoes chemical and physical changes when exposed to UV radiation, affecting the atmospheric lifetime of the involved molecules. However, these photolytic processes remain poorly constrained. Here, we present a study aimed at characterizing, at a molecular level and in real time, the chemical composition of α-pinene SOA exposed to UV-A light at 50% relative humidity in an atmospheric simulation chamber. Read More

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Toward Building a Physical Proxy for Gas-Phase Sulfuric Acid Concentration Based on Its Budget Analysis in Polluted Yangtze River Delta, East China.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Atmospheric and Earth System Sciences, School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China.

Gaseous sulfuric acid (HSO) is a crucial precursor for secondary aerosol formation, particularly for new particle formation (NPF) that plays an essential role in the global number budget of aerosol particles and cloud condensation nuclei. Due to technology challenges, global-wide and long-term measurements of gaseous HSO are currently very challenging. Empirical proxies for HSO have been derived mainly based on short-term intensive campaigns. Read More

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Differences in specific mass density between dinoflagellate life stages and relevance to accumulation by hydrodynamic processes.

J Phycol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Milford Laboratory, 212 Rogers Avenue, Milford, Connecticut, 06460, USA.

One hitherto unstudied aspect of differences between sexual and asexual life stages in large-scale transport and accumulation is density (mass per unit volume) of cells in each life stage. The specific density was determined for Scrippsiella lachrymosa cells in medium with and without nitrogen (N) enrichment through density gradient centrifugation. Growth medium without N addition is often called "encystment medium" when used for the purpose of resting cyst formation in cyst-forming dinoflagellates; mating gametes are usually seen after two to three days. Read More

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High-frequency stable isotope signals in uneven-aged forests as proxy for physiological responses to climate in Central Europe.

Tree Physiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Forest Dynamics, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland.

Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica are important tree species in Europe, and the foreseen increase in temperature and VPD could increase the vulnerability of these species. However, their physiological performance under climate change at temperate and productive sites is not yet fully understood, especially in uneven aged stands. Therefore, we investigated tree-ring width and stable isotope chronologies (δ13C/δ18O) of these two species at ten sites along a climate gradient in Central Europe. Read More

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Direct observation of spin correlations in an artificial triangular lattice Ising spin system with grazing-incidence small-angle neutron scattering.

Nanoscale Horiz 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory for Mesoscopic Systems, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland. and Laboratory for Multiscale Materials Experiments, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI, Switzerland.

The triangular lattice with Ising magnetic moments is an archetypical example of geometric frustration. In the case of dipolar-coupled out-of-plane moments, the geometric frustration results in a disordered classical spin-liquid state at higher temperatures while the system is predicted to transition to an anti-ferromagnetic stripe ground state at low temperatures. In this work we fabricate artificial triangular Ising spin systems without and with uniaxial in-plane compression to tune the nature and temperature of the correlations. Read More

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Mobility and environmental monitoring of pesticides in the atmosphere - a review.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.

Knowledge of the partition mechanisms in the agrochemical environment is fundamental for understanding their behavior within an ecosystem and mitigating possible adverse effects of these products. In this review, the objective was to present the main transport mechanisms, physical-chemical properties, and atmospheric monitoring methodologies of the most diverse types of agrochemicals used in agriculture that can reach the atmosphere and affect different compartments. It has been verified that volatilization is one of more considerable significance of the various forms of transport since a significant part of the applied pesticides can volatilize in a few days. Read More

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Marine soundscape variation reveals insights into baleen whales and their environment: a case study in central New Zealand.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 3;8(3):201503. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Institute of Marine Science, Leigh Marine Laboratory, University of Auckland, 160 Goat Island Road, Leigh 0985, New Zealand.

Baleen whales reliably produce stereotyped vocalizations, enabling their spatio-temporal distributions to be inferred from acoustic detections. Soundscape analysis provides an integrated approach whereby vocal species, such as baleen whales, are sampled holistically with other acoustic contributors to their environment. Acoustic elements that occur concurrently in space, time and/or frequency can indicate overlaps between free-ranging species and potential stressors. Read More

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Matched Filter Cyclone Maximum Wind Retrievals Using CYGNSS: Progress Update and Error Analysis.

IEEE J Sel Top Appl Earth Obs Remote Sens 2021 17;14:3591-3601. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80301 USA.

This article describes progress relating to a previously reported matched filter retrieval approach for the estimation of hurricane maximum winds using delay Doppler map (DDM) measurements of the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) mission. The retrievals presented are based on comparisons of these measured DDMs, and their simulated counterparts as a set of storm parameters are varied. The analysis presented examines the dependencies of retrieval performance on the synthetic storm model used as part of the forward modeling process using a set of CYGNSS storm-observing full DDM downlinks containing 68 tracks and spanning 18 storms over the period 2017-2020. Read More

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