Pediatric Health Med Ther 2022 14;13:53-62. Epub 2022 Mar 14.
Division of Pediatrics, Children's Mercy Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, USA.
Down syndrome (DS) is one of the most common birth defects in the United States, the most common genomic disorder of intellectual disability, and results from trisomy 21. This chromosome disorder causes an extensive, heterogenous phenotype that results in a broad presentation of symptoms that includes atlantoaxial instability, congenital heart defects, muscle hypotonia, hypothyroidism, hematologic disorders, recurrent infections, and autoimmune diseases. The autoimmune diseases are caused by immune system dysregulation that results in increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, along with other innate and adaptive immune system dysregulation. Read More