269,678 results match your criteria Athletic Foot Injuries


University athletes and changes in cardiac geometry: insight from the 2015 Gwangju Summer Universiade.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Chonnam National University Hospital, 42 Jebong-ro, Dong-gu, Gwangju, Korea.

Aims: There is a paucity of data regarding the changes of cardiac geometry in highly trained international and multiracial university athletes. We aimed to investigate the incidence of structural cardiac abnormalities and changes of cardiac geometry in highly trained university athletes.

Methods And Results: Comprehensive echocardiographic studies were performed in 1185 university athletes through the Check-up Your Heart Program during the 2015 Gwangju Summer Universiade. Read More

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December 2018

Effect modification of FADS2 polymorphisms on the association between breastfeeding and intelligence: results from a collaborative meta-analysis.

Int J Epidemiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Population Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that breastfeeding benefits children's intelligence, possibly due to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) present in breast milk. Under a nutritional adequacy hypothesis, an interaction between breastfeeding and genetic variants associated with endogenous LC-PUFAs synthesis might be expected. However, the literature on this topic is controversial. Read More

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December 2018

Isolated Tear of the Teres Major Muscle.

Authors:
Katsumi Takase

Orthopedics 2018 Dec 11:1-3. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Rotator cuff tears are frequently treated in daily clinical practice. However, there have been few reports of tears around the shoulder involving the latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles. The author reports the rare case of an isolated tear of the teres major muscle with symptom onset during ordinary sports activities without a clear traumatic mechanism. Read More

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December 2018

Population pharmacokinetic analysis of bisoprolol in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Niš, Serbia.

To date, many questions about the extent and cause of pharmacokinetic variability of even the most widely studied and prescribed β1-adrenergic receptor blockers, such as metoprolol and bisoprolol, remain unanswered. Given that there are still no published population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) analyses of bisoprolol in routinely treated patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the aim of this study was to determine its PK variability in 71 Serbian patients with ACS. PopPK analysis was carried out using a non-linear mixed effects model (NONMEM), version 7. Read More

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December 2018

ACSM PRE-PARTICIPATION HEALTH SCREENING GUIDELINES: A UK UNIVERSITY COHORT PERSPECTIVE.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Carnegie School of Sport, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Pre-participation health screening is recommended to detect individuals susceptible to serious adverse cardiovascular complications during exercise. Although expert opinion and best available scientific evidence have informed recent modifications, there remains limited experimental data to support or refute current practice. We therefore aimed to quantify the impact of change to the ACSM pre-participation health screening guidelines on risk classification and referral for medical clearance in a large cohort of undergraduate university students. Read More

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December 2018

Management of Long-Term Complications in the Setting of Lateral Meniscal Deficiency After Saucerization of a Discoid Lateral Meniscus in an Adolescent Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

JBJS Case Connect 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Elite Sports Medicine, Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Connecticut Children's Medical Center, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut.

Case: A 14-year-old adolescent with bilateral discoid menisci who had previously undergone discoid meniscal saucerization presented with pain and mechanical knee symptoms bilaterally. She had a torn left discoid lateral meniscus, a right lateral meniscal deficiency with an associated osteochondral defect, and valgus collapse of the right femur. She underwent successful repair of the left discoid meniscus as well as a femoral osteotomy, a meniscal transplant, and an osteochondral allograft transplantation in the right knee. Read More

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December 2018

Preinjury and Postinjury Factors That Predict Sports-Related Concussion and Clinical Recovery Time.

Clin J Sport Med 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychology, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri.

Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between preinjury risk factors (RFs) and subsequent occurrence of concussion and examine whether preinjury RFs or postinjury assessments predict clinical recovery in collegiate athletes.

Methods: Risk factors (sex, sport, and self-report history of concussion, migraine, attention-deficit disorder, learning disability, depression, and anxiety) and Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT), depression/anxiety screenings, and neuropsychological testing were obtained before the season. For athletes who sustained concussion, RFs, postinjury SCAT, neuropsychological assessment, and clinical recovery were assessed. Read More

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December 2018

Near-miss crashes and other predictors of motorcycle crashes: Findings from a population-based survey.

Traffic Inj Prev 2018 Dec 12:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

d Accident Research Centre, Monash University , Melbourne , Victoria , Australia.

Objective: Crash and injury surveillance studies have identified a range of rider-related factors, including age, sex, licensure, training and experience, as being associated with motorcycle crash risk. The aim of this study was to establish whether these previously identified factors were associated with crash involvement in an Australian-based population.

Methods: Data obtained from motorcyclists recruited from road authority licensing offices in a population-based survey design were analyzed. Read More

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December 2018

Influence of Different Methods to Determine Maximum Heart Rate on Training Load Outcomes in Basketball Players.

J Strength Cond Res 2018 Nov;32(11):3177-3185

School of Health, Medical, and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Australia.

Berkelmans, DM, Dalbo, VJ, Fox, JL, Stanton, R, Kean, CO, Giamarelos, KE, Teramoto, M, and Scanlan, AT. Influence of different methods to determine maximum heart rate on training load outcomes in basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3177-3185, 2018-The summated-heart-rate-zones (SHRZ) approach uses heart rate (HR) responses relative to maximum HR (HRmax) to calculate the internal training load (TL). Read More

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November 2018
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Physical, Anthropometric, and Athletic Movement Qualities Discriminate Development Level in a Rugby League Talent Pathway.

J Strength Cond Res 2018 Nov;32(11):3169-3176

Discipline of Sport and Exercise Science, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia.

Pearce, LA, Sinclair, WH, Leicht, AS, and Woods, CT. Physical, anthropometric, and athletic movement qualities discriminate development level in a rugby league talent pathway. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3169-3176, 2018-This study compared the physical, anthropometric, and athletic movement qualities of talent-identified rugby league (RL) players within a development pathway. Read More

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November 2018

Variations in lower body stiffness during sports-specific tasks in well-trained female athletes.

Sports Biomech 2018 Dec 12:1-16. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

a School of Exercise Science, Faculty of Health Science , Australian Catholic University , Strathfield , Australia.

The present study aimed to assess the differences in leg stiffness and the associated performance variables between athletes from various training backgrounds during tasks relevant to athletic training. Forty-seven female participants (20 nationally identified netballers, 13 high-level endurance athletes and 14 age-matched controls) completed a sprint, anticipated sidestep change of direction and unilateral repetitive hopping task to assess leg stiffness and the relationship of stiffness between the different tasks. Leg stiffness and performance variables were evaluated with a 10-camera motion analysis system and force plate, and leg stiffness was derived through the McMahon and Cheng methodology (1990). Read More

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December 2018

Optimisation of applied loads when using the two-point method for assessing the force-velocity relationship during vertical jumps.

Sports Biomech 2018 Dec 12:1-16. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

c Department of Kinesiology and Applied Physiology & Biomechanics and Movement Science Graduate Program , University of Delaware , Newark , DE , USA.

This study aimed to compare the reliability and validity of the force-velocity (F-V) relationship parameters obtained from two-point methods differing in the distance between experimental points, and to evaluate the acute change in unloaded jump height after a vertical jump testing procedure based on multiple loads. Totally, 18 men randomly performed two sessions of the squat jump (SJ) and two sessions of the countermovement jump (CMJ) exercises against five external loads (17, 30, 45, 60 and 75 kg). The unloaded jump height was evaluated before and after each testing procedure. Read More

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December 2018
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Quantifying hitting activity in tennis with racket sensors: new dawn or false dawn?

Sports Biomech 2018 Dec 12:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

b Game Insight Group , Tennis Australia , Melbourne , Australia.

The non-invasive measurement of movement through sensor technologies is common in elite sport, yet only recently become possible in tennis. This study validated two commercial tennis racquet sensors compared to gold standards in VICON and expert notational analysis. One national-level male tennis player hit 24 shots (9 forehands and 9 backhands, hit with heavy topspin, flat and slice; 6 serves) using a Babolat Play racket with a Zepp sensor. Read More

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December 2018

[Leisure among university students in the healthcare area: a review of the literature].

Cien Saude Colet 2018 Dec;23(12):4221-4229

Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho. Rubião Junior s/n, Rubião Junior. 18618-000 Botucatu SP Brasil.

This article set out to analyze studies on leisure activities among university students in the healthcare area. It conducted a search using the following key words: leisure and students, and their corresponding terms in Spanish and English in the Bireme database, which resulted in 32 articles at the end of the review. In the articles analyzed there was a predominance of the following leisure interests: sports, social, intellectual and artistic activities, with a greater number of articles presenting experiences in sports. Read More

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December 2018

Technical Note on Using the Movement Velocity to Estimate the Relative Load in Resistance Exercises - Letter to the Editor.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Jan 29;2(1):E16. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Clinical Research Institute, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA.

The studies by Sanchez-Medina et al. ( , (02), E80-E88. 2017) and Gonzalez-Badillo and Sanchez-Medina ( 31 347-52. Read More

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January 2018

Risk behaviors contributing to recent serious unintentional injuries among school-going adolescent boys in Kolkata: Application of zero-inflated count model.

Indian J Public Health 2018 Oct-Dec;62(4):265-270

Post-Graduate Trainee, Department of Community Medicine, Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Background: Unintentional injuries have become a major noncommunicable disease burden, especially among the adolescents.

Objective: The current study was conducted to estimate the effect of different aspects of daily activities of adolescence for sustaining serious unintentional injuries in the past 1 year.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey with multistage sampling with validated pretested questionnaire was done among the school-going adolescent boys in Kolkata. Read More

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December 2018

Sports Injuries: Diagnosis, Prevention, Stem Cell Therapy, and Medical Sport Strategy.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Sports injuries diagnosis, prevention, and treatment are the most important issues of sports medicine. Fortunately, sports injuries are often treated effectively, and people with damage recover and return to the sport in a satisfactory condition. Meanwhile, many sports injuries and complications can be prevented. Read More

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December 2018

High short-term return to sports rate despite an ongoing healing process after acute meniscus repair in young athletes.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, Ismaningerstr. 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: Acute meniscus repair in young athletes is always a challenge due to the long rehabilitation process and time to return to sport (RTS). The purpose was to investigate signal alterations in short-term follow-up after acute meniscus repair on specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan sequences. It was hypothesized that (1) MRI signal changes over the first postoperative healing phase and represent a continuous healing process and (2) meniscus healing properties correlates with clinical outcomes and RTS. Read More

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December 2018

Preoperative valgus deformity has twice the risk of failure as compared to varus deformity after total knee arthroplasty.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

1st Orthopaedic and Traumatologic Clinic, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via Giulio Cesare Pupilli 1, 40136, Bologna, Italy.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess whether preoperative valgus or varus deformity affected survivorship after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and to quantify the risk factors for implant failure in a registry-based population.

Methods: The Emilia-Romagna Registry of Prosthetic Orthopedic Implants was examined regarding TKAs performed on patients with a preoperative diagnosis of valgus or varus deformity. Demographics, implant characteristic and survivorships were investigated and compared. Read More

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December 2018

Large opening gaps, unstable hinge fractures, and osteotomy line below the safe zone cause delayed bone healing after open-wedge high tibial osteotomy.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hokuriku Hospital, 2-13-43 Izumigaoka, Kanazawa, 921-8035, Japan.

Purpose: To evaluate bone formation in the osteotomy gap after open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO), including after plate removal, and to investigate risk factors for delayed bone healing.

Methods: Ninety-three patients (102 knees) who underwent OWHTO without bone grafting were enrolled. The osteotomy gap was divided into the lateral hinge and the four zones on anteroposterior radiographs, and we defined the zone in which trabecular bone continuity could be observed as gap filling. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of age-related differences in anterior cruciate ligament size.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to reveal the relation between age and the morphological characteristics of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: Thirty-seven young subjects who were diagnosed with a meniscus injury without ACL tear using MRI (15 male and 22 female, median age 26, range 15-49), and 33 elderly subjects for whom knee MRI was performed before uni-compartmental knee arthroplasty (11 male and 22 female, median age 77, range 60-83), were included in this study. In the elderly group, healthy ACL gross morphology was confirmed macroscopically during surgery. Read More

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December 2018

Tourniquet application does not affect the periprosthetic bone cement penetration in total knee arthroplasty.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, University Medical Center Mannheim of University Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167, Mannheim, Germany.

Purpose: Poor scientific evidence exists on the issue of tourniquet application during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It has been suggested that tourniquet application might improve interdigitation of the cement into the periprosthetic bones due to relatively dry surgical field. The hypothesis of the present study was that tourniquet use did not affect the periprosthetic bone cement penetration. Read More

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December 2018

Clinical and radiologic outcomes of two patellar resection techniques during total knee arthroplasty: a prospective randomized controlled study.

Int Orthop 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institution of Sports Medicine, Beijing Key Laboratory of Sports Injuries, Peking University Third Hospital, No. 49 North, Garden Road, Haidian, Beijing, 100191, China.

Purpose: A cutting guide technique for patella resurfacing in total knee arthroplasty was expected to result in less patellofemoral syndromes. The aim of this study was to identify differences in the patellofemoral function, clinical outcomes, and radiographic parameters between the freehand and cutting guide patellar resection techniques in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.

Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. Read More

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December 2018
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Low-Calorie Sweeteners in Foods, Beverages, and Food and Beverage Additions: NHANES 2007-2012.

Curr Dev Nutr 2018 Dec 11;2(12):nzy024. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Departments of Medicine and Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC.

Background: Most publications about low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) focus on person-level intake prevalence.

Objective: We assessed LCS distribution in foods, beverages, and food and beverage additions (FBAs), e.g. Read More

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December 2018

Dance Functional Outcome Survey: Development and Preliminary Analyses.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Nov 28;2(6):E191-E199. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

ADAM Center, New York, NY United States.

The Dance Functional Outcome Survey (DFOS) was developed as a self-report questionnaire for healthy and injured ballet and modern dancers, focusing on the low back and lower extremities. Our aim was to determine factor analysis and internal consistency of the 16 items and to investigate test-retest and equivalence reliability and validity of the DFOS compared to three orthopedic outcomes instruments. Data were collected from 80 healthy and injured adult ballet and modern pre-professional and professional dancers. Read More

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November 2018

Unilateral Conditioning Contractions Enhance Power Output in Elite Short Track Speed Skaters.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Nov 15;2(6):E185-E190. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

École de kinésiologie et des sciences de l'activité physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada.

The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of unilateral lower-body-conditioning muscle contractions during multiple sets of fatiguing repeated jumps in elite athletes. Five elite short-track speed-skating athletes performed 9 sets of 6 maximal consecutive jumps on 2 separate occasions: with (COND) and without (CTRL) preliminary voluntary conditioning contractions (CC) 5 min before the beginning of the sets. The CC consisted of 2 consecutive 3 s maximal unilateral isometric squats against a fixed bar, resulting in a 6 s overall isometric contraction per leg. Read More

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November 2018

Lumbar Spine Injuries: Primary Prevention in Amateur and Professional Golf Players.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Nov 16;2(6):E179-E184. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Golf Biomechanic Academy, Teaching, Pforzheim, Germany.

In the sport of golf, there is no standard teaching method or swing technique even though golf is known for overuse injuries. This prospective study was to analyze classic swing kinematics in comparison with the Free-Release method and to define a physiological golf swing. Two hundred eighty-three players, age 50-59 years, were included in the study. Read More

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November 2018

Explosive Resistance Training Using Elastic Bands in Young Female Team Handball Players.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Nov 15;2(6):E171-E178. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Faculty of Education, Arts and Sports, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.

The aim of the study was to examine the effects of full-body elastic resistance band training in young female team handball players. 12 players (16.5±0. Read More

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November 2018

Acute Effect of Active and Passive Static Stretching on Elastic Modulus of the Hamstrings.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Nov 15;2(6):E163-E170. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Graduate School of Health Sciences, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan.

The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the acute effects of passive knee extension (PKE) and active knee extension (AKE) stretching on the shear elastic modulus of the hamstrings. In 20 healthy men, maximum knee extension (maximum range of motion [ROM]) and shear elastic modulus of the hamstrings (biceps femoris long head, semitendinosus, semimembranosus) were measured before (Pre) and after (Post) AKE and PKE stretching. The maximum ROM during stretching was measured. Read More

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November 2018

Inter-Individual Variability in The Joint Negative Work During Running.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Sep 23;2(5):E157-E162. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Human Informatics Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan.

The inter-individual variability of running technique is an important factor affecting the negative work of lower extremity joints that leads to muscle damage. Our study examines the relationships between the negative work of the lower extremity joints and the associated mechanical parameters that account for inter-individual variability in the negative work. Twenty-four young male adults were asked to run on a runway at a speed of 3. Read More

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September 2018

Predictive Factors for Vitamin D Concentrations in Swiss Athletes: A Cross-sectional Study.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Sep 25;2(5):E148-E156. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Vitamin D concentrations corresponding to 75 nmol/L 25(OH)D have been associated with maintained muscle function, growth and regeneration, optimal bone health and immunology in athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of insufficient 25(OH)D concentrations in athletes. Six hundred three Swiss athletes were assessed. Read More

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September 2018

Effect of Static Stretching with Superficial Cooling on Muscle Stiffness.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Sep 25;2(5):E142-E147. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Department of Physical Therapy, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, Japan.

This study aimed to clarify the acute effect of static stretching (SS) with superficial cooling on dorsiflexion range of motion (DF ROM) and muscle stiffness. Sixteen healthy males participated in the cooling condition and a control condition in a random order. The DF ROM and the shear elastic modulus of medial gastrocnemius (MG) in the dominant leg were measured during passive dorsiflexion. Read More

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September 2018

Reliability and Accuracy of Ball Speed During Different Strokes in Young Tennis Players.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Sep 25;2(5):E133-E141. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Centro de Investigación en Rendimiento Físico y Deportivo, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain.

This study aimed to examine the relationship between anthropometric and sport level (SL) variables and both ball speed and accuracy in young male competitive tennis players. A secondary aim of this study was to analyze the possible differences in ball speed and accuracy between players of different competitive levels. A total of 85 players (age: 14. Read More

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September 2018

Effects of Repeated-Sprint Training in Hypoxia on Tennis-Specific Performance in Well-Trained Players.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Sep 25;2(5):E123-E132. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

ISSUL, Institute of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

This study examined the physiological, physical and technical responses to repeated-sprint training in normobaric hypoxia [RSH, inspired fraction of oxygen (FiO ) 14.5%] vs. normoxia (RSN, FiO 20. Read More

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September 2018

Effects of Backpack Load and Trekking Poles on Energy Expenditure During Field Track Walking.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Jul 6;2(4):E117-E122. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Research Center for Sports, Health & Human Development, University of Trás-os-Montes & Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal.

This study evaluates the effects of the use of backpack load and trekking poles on field track walking energy expenditure. Twenty male volunteer pole walkers (age: 22.70±2. Read More

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Tuck Jump Assessment as an Indicator for Upper Extremity Injury.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Jul 6;2(4):E113-E116. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, United States.

The purpose of this study was to determine if tuck jumps can be used as a dynamic movement assessment to ascertain a previous history of upper extremity injury in an overhead throwing sport. Seventy-one youth baseball and softball athletes (28 baseball/43 softball; 12.41±2. Read More

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Aerobic Variables for Prediction of Alpine Skiing Performance - A Novel Approach.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Jul 7;2(4):E105-E112. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports Medicine Unit, Umea University, Umeå, Sweden.

The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive power of aerobic test results and anthropometric variables on FIS-ranking of junior elite alpine skiers. Results from twenty-three male and female adolescent elite alpine skiers from two seasons were included in the multivariate statistical models. Physical work capacity was determined by V̇O2peak, blood lactate concentration ([HLa]b), and heart rate (HR) during ergometer cycling. Read More

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The Influence of Oxygen Saturation on the Relationship Between Hemoglobin Mass and VO max.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Jul 6;2(4):E98-E104. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, United States.

Hemoglobin mass (tHb) is a key determinant of maximal oxygen uptake (VO max). We examined whether oxyhemoglobin desaturation (ΔS O ) at VO max modifies the relationship between tHb and VO max at moderate altitude (1,625 m). Seventeen female and 16 male competitive, endurance-trained moderate-altitude residents performed two tHb assessments and two graded exercise tests on a cycle ergometer to determine VO max and ΔS O . Read More

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Lack of a Dose Response from 7 Days of Ischemic Preconditioning in Moderately trained Cyclists.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Jul 7;2(4):E91-E97. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

UC Sport, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Ischemic preconditioning (IP) has a small benefit on exercise performance, but differences in the IP method, performance tasks and exercise modality have made providing practical coach guidelines difficult. We investigated the performance-enhancing effects of IP on cyclists by comparing the frequency of IP application over a 7-day period. Using a randomized, sham-controlled, single-blinded experiment, 24 competitive age-group track cyclists (38±12 years) were assigned to one of three twice-daily (sham: 20 and 20 mmHg; once-a-day: 20 and 220 mmHg; twice-a-day: 220 and 220 mmHg) IP leg protocols (4 × 5 min ischemia/5 min reperfusion alternating between legs) over seven consecutive days. Read More

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Pre-season Fitness Level and Injury Rate in Professional Soccer - A Prospective Study.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Jun 22;2(3):E84-E90. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Child Health & Sports Center, Meir Medical Center, Pediatrics, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University Kfar Saba, Israel.

The aim of the present study was to assess prospectively the effect of pre-season fitness on injury rate during the competitive season among professional soccer players. Thirty-one players participated in the study during two consecutive competitive seasons (2015-16 and 2016-17; a squad of 22 players in each season). During the 6-week pre-season training period (8 training sessions and a friendly match every week, 14-18 training hours/week) there was a significant improvement in VO max, a significant increase in ideal and total sprint time and no change in vertical jump, flexibility and repeated sprint-test performance decrement. Read More

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Accelerated Decline in Javelin Throwing Performance in Master Athletes 70 Years and Older - Do Changes in Technique Play a Role?

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Jun 27;2(3):E79-E83. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Manchester Metropolitan University, School of Healthcare Science, Manchester, United Kingdom.

While many older adults are immobile and frail, others still participate in competitive sports. World records of javelin throw decrease with increasing age. It is, however, unknown 1) whether the decline is linear or, as in sprint performance, accelerates beyond the age of 69; and 2) to what extent frailty-related changes in throwing technique contribute to decreasing performance. Read More

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Metabolic and Performance Responses to Sprint Exercise under Hypoxia among Female Athletes.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Jun 22;2(3):E71-E78. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Ritsumeikan University, Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Kusatsu, Japan.

The present study determined metabolic and performance responses to repeated sprint exercise under hypoxia among female team-sport athletes. Fifteen female athletes (age, 20.7±0. Read More

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The Polar OH1 Optical Heart Rate Sensor is Valid during Moderate-Vigorous Exercise.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Jun 17;2(3):E67-E70. Epub 2018 Jun 17.

California State University San Marcos, Kinesiology, San Marcos, United States.

Purpose: Traditional heart-rate monitoring through the use of electrocardiograms or chest-worn heart rate sensors can be challenging in certain sports or in field settings. New technologies, such as photoplethysmography (PPG), have enabled heart-rate monitoring at alternate sites. However, to date, the accuracy and validity of various PPG sensors has not been examined in detail. Read More

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Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motives Support Adults' Regular Physical Activity Maintenance.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Jun 17;2(3):E62-E66. Epub 2018 Jun 17.

Miami University, Kinesiology and Health, Oxford, United States.

Motives for physical activity were compared between adults who either successfully or unsuccessfully maintained regular physical activity over the last 10 years. Adults age 28-45 (N=721) completed an online survey, reporting their current physical activity levels and self-determination theory (SDT) motives, as well as their physical activity levels at least 10 years prior. With participants' current and retrospective reports of their physical activity, four sample subgroups were created, including maintainers, improvers, decliners, and sedentary. Read More

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Current Soccer Footwear, Its Role in Injuries and Potential for Improvement.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Apr 25;2(2):E52-E61. Epub 2018 May 25.

Laboratoire de Biomécanique Appliquée, Aix-Marseille Univ, IFSTTAR, LBA UMR_T24, Marseille, France.

Soccer is the most popular sport in the world and generates great financial revenue. It is also a sport whose practice has evolved considerably in terms of intensity and commitment, and in which the intrinsic risk of injury (not directly related to an interaction with the environment) is particularly high. In this context, the cleated shoe as a major component of soccer equipment may play a key role in the overexposure to injury. Read More

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Wearing Colored Glasses can Influence Exercise Performance and Testosterone concentration?

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Apr 5;2(2):E46-E51. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Human Performance and Sport Research Group, Department of Sport Science/Institute of Health Sciences, Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, Brazil.

Perception of red color is associated with higher testosterone concentration and better human performance. Thus, we evaluated the acute effects of wearing colored-lens glasses on the YoYo intermittent endurance exercise test 2 (YoYoIE2) performance indicators and testosterone concentration. Ten soccer players performed three YoYoIE2 (counterbalanced crossover) wearing colorless (control), blue- or red-lensed glasses (2-4 days of rest in between). Read More

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Small Step Frequency Changes Due to Footwear Condition Have No Effect on Running Economy.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Apr 16;2(2):E41-E45. Epub 2018 May 16.

University of Limerick Faculty of Education and Health Sciences, Education and Health Sciences, Limerick, Ireland.

The aim of this study is to examine if small increases to step frequency associated with minimal footwear can influence Running Economy (RE). Twelve club-level runners with eight weeks of minimal footwear experience were recruited (age, 41±9 years; stature, 177.2±10. Read More

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Landing Styles Influences Reactive Strength Index without Increasing Risk for Injury.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Apr 22;2(2):E35-E40. Epub 2018 May 22.

UT Health San Antonio, Department of Physical Therapy, San Antonio, United States.

The aim was to determine which three landing styles - stiff (ST), self-selected (SS), or soft (SF) - exhibit safer landing mechanics and greater jumping performance. Thirty participants (age: 26.5±5. Read More

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A 9-Week Nordic and Free Walking Improve Postural Balance in Parkinson's Disease.

Sports Med Int Open 2018 Apr 8;2(2):E28-E34. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Exercise Research Laboratory, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Aerobic training has a neuroprotective effect in people with Parkinson's disease. Recent evidence indicates that Nordic walking seems a promising alternative due to positive outcomes in functional mobility. However, the effects of Nordic walking compared to free walking on static and functional balance parameters are still unknown. Read More

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