522 results match your criteria Athletes With Disabilities


Types and severity of physical impairments of Para Taekwondo athletes.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Yonsei University, Department of Physical Education, Republic of, Korea.

Background: Para Taekwondo has only recently been added to the Paralympic games scheduled to be held in 2021; however, there is limited research on the classification of the Para Taekwondo athletes. This study aimed to provide details on the impairments and disabilities of the Para Taekwondo players. The secondary objective was to investigate the relationship between some of the proposed factors and the athletes' rankings. Read More

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Static and Dynamic Strength Indicators in Paralympic Power-Lifters with and without Spinal Cord Injury.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 31;18(11). Epub 2021 May 31.

Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development (CIDESD), University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal.

Background: In Paralympic powerlifting (PP), athletes with and without spinal cord injury (SCI) compete in the same category. Athletes with SCI may be at a disadvantage in relation to the production of muscle strength and the execution of motor techniques.

Objective: To analyze the indicators force, dynamic and static, at different intensities, on performance in athletes with and without SCI. Read More

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Efficacy Sources that Predict Leadership Behaviors in Coaches of Athletes with Disabilities.

J Hum Kinet 2021 Mar 31;78:271-281. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, USA.

Researchers suggest that sport participation among athletes with disabilities promotes healthier lifestyles, increases self-esteem, and enhances peer acceptance. Ideally, coaches should be confident in teaching skills, tactics, and sportsmanship, while exhibiting appropriate leadership behaviors in order to positively impact the psychosocial development of any athlete. Thus, the present research examined sources of coaching efficacy that predict leadership behaviors in coaches who work with athletes who have physical disabilities. Read More

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Investigating environmental factors and paralympic sports: an analytical study.

Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol 2021 May 6;16(4):414-419. Epub 2021 May 6.

Occupational Therapist, Post Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, University of the Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.

Purpose: Few studies have reported the influence of environmental factors that may act as barriers or facilitators to participation in parasports. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse the relationship between environmental factors present in parasports (attitudes, support, services, assistive technology and policies). In addition, we present the concurrent validation of the Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment (ATD PA-Br). Read More

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The physical characteristics underpinning performance of wheelchair fencing athletes: A Delphi study of Paralympic coaches.

J Sports Sci 2021 May 5:1-9. Epub 2021 May 5.

Faculty of Science and Technology, London Sport Institute, Middlesex University, London, UK.

Wheelchair fencing (WF) is a Paralympic sport which is practised by athletes with physical disabilities and is classified into three categories according to the degree of activity limitation the impairment causes in the sport. All Paralympic sports are requested to develop their own evidence-based classification system to enhance the confidence in the classification process; however, this is yet to be achieved in WF. Research within WF is scarce; therefore, the aim of this study was to reach expert consensus on the physical characteristics that underpin performance of athletes competing in the sport as this is known as one of the initial steps required to achieve an evidence-based classification system. Read More

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Quality of Life and Associated Factors Among Male Wheelchair Handball Athletes.

Percept Mot Skills 2021 May 3:315125211014865. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Physical Education, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.

Although scarce, some recent studies have observed good self-reported quality of life (QOL) among wheelchair users who are involved in adapted sports. These findings have encouraged further investigations, particularly investigations of combined sociodemographic and sport factors in the study of QOL. In this study we analyzed the association between sociodemographic and sport factors with QOL in a cross-sectional study of 105 male wheelchair handball (WH) athletes with higher and lower QOL. Read More

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The Preparticipation Physical Evaluation.

Am Fam Physician 2021 05;103(9):539-546

Cleveland Clinic Family Medicine Residency Program, Cleveland, OH, USA.

The preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) is a common reason for young athletes to see a primary care physician. An annual PPE is required by most state high school athletic associations for participation in school-based sports, although there is limited evidence to support its effectiveness for detecting conditions that predispose athletes to injury or illness. In 2019, the American Academy of Pediatrics, with representatives from the American Academy of Family Physicians and other organizations, published updated PPE recommendations (PPE5). Read More

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Occupational therapy intervention in paralympic sport: a look at low-cost assistive technology for wheelchair rugby.

Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol 2021 May 27;16(4):432-437. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Occupational Therapy, Rehabilitation Sciences Programs, Ceilândia Campus, University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.

Introduction: Paralympic sport is characterized by the pursuit of better performance in sports played by people with disabilities. In wheelchair rugby, assistive technology (AT) equipment is used to enhance athletic performance.

Objectives: Assess the AT requirements of wheelchair rugby players, identify the psychosocial factors that contribute to their performance and AT use and assess user satisfaction with the recommended and implemented AT. Read More

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Medicine Ball Throw Responsiveness to Measure Wheelchair Basketball Mobility in Male Players.

J Sport Rehabil 2021 Apr 20:1-3. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Context: Monitoring training loads and consequent fatigue responses are usually a result of personal trainers' experiences and an adaptation of methods used in sports for people without disabilities. Currently, there is little scientific evidence on the relationship between training load and fatigue resulting from training sessions in wheelchair sports. Analogous to the vertical jump, which has been associated with competitive performance and used to assess fatigue in Olympic sports, the medicine ball throw (MBT) is a fast, feasible, and accessible test that might be used to measure performance outcomes in Paralympic athletes. Read More

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Oral Health Conditions and Treatment Needs of Children with Intellectual Disabilities Attending Special Olympics Australia.

J Dent Child (Chic) 2021 Jan;88(1):23-28

Dr. Zafar is a senior lecturer and department head, Department of Paediatric Dentistry, The University of Queensland Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia;, Email:

To describe and evaluate the oral health status and dental treatment needs of children with intellectual disabilities attending Special Olympics in Australia from 2010 to 2018.
This was a retrospective observational study. Children aged 18 years and younger with intellectual disabilities attending Special Olympics with their caregivers were screened between 2010 and 2018. Read More

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January 2021

The Development and Initial Validation of a Short, Self-Report Measure on Social Inclusion for People with Intellectual Disabilities-A Transnational Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 4;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Institute of Nursing and Health Sciences, Ulster University, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, UK.

Sport has been promoted as a means of increasing the social inclusion of persons with intellectual disabilities. Suitable tools for evaluating this claim are not readily available. The aim of this study was to develop a self-report tool for use by people with intellectual disabilities regarding the social inclusion they experience in sport and in the community. Read More

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Risk of Low Energy Availability in National and International Level Paralympic Athletes: An Exploratory Investigation.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 18;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

United States Olympic and Paralympic Committee, Chula Vista, CA 91915, USA.

(1) Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the symptoms of low energy availability (LEA) and risk of relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) symptoms in para-athletes using a multi-parameter approach. (2) Methods: National level para-athletes ( = 9 males, = 9 females) completed 7-day food and activity logs to quantify energy availability (EA), the LEA in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans to assess bone mineral density (BMD), and hormonal blood spot testing. (3) Results: Based on EA calculations, no athlete was at risk for LEA (females < 30 kcal·kg FFM·day; and males < 25 kcal·kg FFM·day; thresholds for able-bodied (AB) subjects). Read More

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Wearable Sensors in Sports for Persons with Disability: A Systematic Review.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 7;21(5). Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Interuniversity Centre of Bioengineering of the Human Neuromusculoskeletal System, Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome "Foro Italico", Piazza L. De Bosis 6, 00135 Rome, Italy.

The interest and competitiveness in sports for persons with disabilities has increased significantly in the recent years, creating a demand for technological tools supporting practice. Wearable sensors offer non-invasive, portable and overall convenient ways to monitor sports practice. This systematic review aims at providing current evidence on the application of wearable sensors in sports for persons with disability. Read More

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A Feasibility Study of Kinematic Characteristics on the Upper Body According to the Shooting of Elite Disabled Archery Athletes.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 14;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Department of Marine Sports, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Korea.

The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the kinematic characteristics of the upper limb segments during the archery shooting of Paralympic Wheelchair Class archers (ARW2-second wheelchair class-paraplegia or comparable disability) and Paralympic Standing Class archers (ARST-standing archery class-loss of 25 points in the upper limbs or lower limbs), where archers are classified according to their disability grade among elite disabled archers. The participants of this study were selected as seven elite athletes with disabilities by the ARW2 ( = 4) and ARST ( = 3). The analysis variables were (1) the time required for each phase, (2) the angle of inclination of the body center, (3) the change of trajectory of body center, and (4) the change of the movement trajectory of the bow center by phase when performing six shots in total. Read More

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Clinical outcomes of a unique ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction hybrid technique with ulnar-sided suspensory fixation.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

OrthoCarolina Sports Medicine Center, Charlotte, NC, USA; Atrium Health-Musculoskeletal Institute, Charlotte, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is the gold standard for treating ulnar collateral ligament injuries in throwing athletes who have failed conservative treatment. There are several described techniques that produce successful and reproducible outcomes. In addition, there is biomechanical evidence that supports hybrid fixation of the graft with a docking technique on the humeral side and suspensory fixation on the ulnar side. Read More

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Clinical Outcomes, Survivorship, and Return to Sport After Arthroscopic Capsular Repair With Suture Anchors for Adolescent Multidirectional Shoulder Instability: Results at 6-Year Follow-up.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Feb 22;9(2):2325967121993879. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego, California, USA.

Background: Multidirectional shoulder instability (MDI) refractory to rehabilitation can be treated with arthroscopic capsulolabral reconstruction with suture anchors. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have reported on outcomes or examined the risk factors that contribute to poor outcomes in adolescent athletes.

Purpose: To identify risk factors for surgical failure by comparing anatomic, clinical, and demographic variables in adolescents who underwent intervention for MDI. Read More

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February 2021

The relationships between isometric muscle strength and respiratory functions of the Turkish National Paralympic Goalball Team.

J Exerc Rehabil 2021 Feb 23;17(1):45-51. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Center of Athlete Training and Health Research, Ankara, Turkey.

Goalball is a unique sport for only blind and visually disabled people to prevent physical inactivity and its harmful consequences. Determining the profile of physical fitness parameters and their relationship is crucial for all sports discipline. The purpose of the study is to determine the characteristics and the relationship between isometric muscle strength and respiratory functions. Read More

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February 2021

Static postural balance between male athletes with intellectual disabilities and their sedentary peers: A comparative study.

J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Research Laboratory Education, Motricité, Sport et Santé (EM2S) LR19JS01, High Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax, University of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia.

Background: Previous reports showed that athletes without disabilities have better postural skills than their sedentary peers. This finding has not been elucidated in athletes with intellectual disabilities despite their decreased postural balance. This study aims to investigate static postural balance in track and field athletes with intellectual disabilities compared to their sedentary peers. Read More

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Influence of Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders on Cognitive and Symptom Profiles: Considerations for Baseline Sport Concussion Assessment.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Psychology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, USA.

Objective: The presence of neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disorders (LD) have demonstrated effects on Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) performance. No current research has directly examined whether autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has similar effects. The current study compared ImPACT cognitive and symptom profiles in athletes with self-reported ASD to other NDs and healthy controls using case-control matching. Read More

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February 2021

Nutritional factors in sport-related concussion.

Neurochirurgie 2021 May 11;67(3):255-258. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Service médical, ASM Clermont-Auvergne Rugby, 63028 Clermont-Ferrand cedex 2, France; Service de Médecine du Sport, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Background: Sports concussion is a major problem that affects thousands of people every year. Concussion-related neurometabolic changes are thought to underlie neurophysiological alterations and post-concussion symptoms, such as headaches and sensitivity to light and noise, disabilities of concentration and tiredness. The injury triggers a complex neurometabolic cascade involving multiple mechanisms. Read More

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Modern technology assists disabled competitors: the first "Cybathlon" special competition in Zürich.

Acta Bioeng Biomech 2020 ;22(3):69-75

School of Physical Education and Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Dafni, Athens, Greece.

Purpose: The purpose of the study was presentation of modern bioengineering technology in order to help people with severe disabilities.

Methods: Bioengineering industry can offer severely disabled people several devices in order to enable them to take part in the competition different than Paralympics. The first international competition for people with disabilities supported by modern assistive technology, such as sensors, motors, displays were allowed to compete in Cybathlon held in Zürich in 2016. Read More

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January 2020

Access to Physical Activity and Sport and the Effects of Isolation and Cordon Sanitaire During COVID-19 for People With Disabilities in Scotland and Canada.

Front Sports Act Living 2020 23;2:594501. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

School of Kinesiology, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

People with a disability are more at risk of experiencing inequalities in relation to sporting and physical activity opportunities, COVID-19 and the resulting restrictions stand to exacerbate these inequalities. This research directly contributes toward the World Health Organization, global research roadmap priority to explore "the impact of restrictive public health measures (e.g. Read More

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December 2020

Oral health needs of athletes with intellectual disability in Southern Europe: Greece, Italy and Spain.

Spec Care Dentist 2021 Mar 9;41(2):187-194. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Centre of Special care in dentistry, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Aims: The population with intellectual disabilities (ID) has been reported to be a vulnerable population in terms of oral health. The aims of this study were to evaluate the oral condition and treatment needs of Special Olympics (SO) athletes from Greece, Italy and Spain.

Methods And Results: A cross-sectional study was performed with data collected in annual SO events held in Greece, Italy and Spain, between 2010 and 2012. Read More

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Changing Concepts for the Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Powerlifting Athletes with Disabilities.

Rev Bras Ortop (Sao Paulo) 2020 Dec 15;55(6):755-758. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Departamento de Ortopedia e Traumatologia, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

 To examine the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in powerlifting athletes with disabilities.  The present study evaluated the presence and intensity of pain (numerical scale), nocturnal paresthesia (self-report), and nerve compression (Tinel and Phalen signs) in wheelchair- and non-wheelchair-bound powerlifting athletes with disabilities. The clinical diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome was confirmed by the presence of two or more signs/symptoms. Read More

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December 2020

Exercise Recovery Practices of Wheelchair Court Sports Athletes.

J Strength Cond Res 2021 Feb;35(2):366-372

School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.

Abstract: Murphy, CJ, Mason, BS, and Goosey-Tolfrey, VL. Exercise recovery practices of wheelchair court sports athletes. J Strength Cond Res 35(2): 366-372, 2021-Research that describes the recovery practices of Para-athletes around training and competition is limited. Read More

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February 2021

Evaluating the performance of PROMIS and QuickDASH instruments in an intercollegiate Division 1 athlete population.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Jan 9;30(1):158-164. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Orthopaedics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Athletes demonstrate high levels of physical function, leading to difficulties in patient-reported outcome scoring and interpretation. In particular, the ability of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments to adequately discriminate between high levels of upper extremity function-that is, the ceiling effect-is limited. This study evaluated performance characteristics of the shortened version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) survey and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) metrics in a population of Division 1 intercollegiate athletes, with specific attention to ceiling effects. Read More

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January 2021

Adaptations to Swimming Training in Athletes with Down's Syndrome.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 8;17(24). Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Sport, Physical Education & Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 8AQ, UK.

Swimming training programs may help to limit declines in cardiovascular conditioning, muscle strength, mobility and social functioning in individuals with Down's Syndrome (DS): (1) Background: This study aims to analyze the effects of a periodized swimming training program on swimming speed, lower body force and power and body composition in a group of swimmers with DS; (2) Methods: Nine swimmers with DS (2 men and 7 women; aged 21-30 years-old) completed an 18-week periodized swimming program. The swimmers were assessed, pre and post-training, for 25 m, 50 m and 100 m freestyle swim performance, countermovement jump performance and body composition; (3) Results: Significant and large improvements in 25 m (mean -6.39%, < 0. Read More

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December 2020

Participants in Behavior-Analytic Sports Studies: Can Anybody Play?

Behav Anal Pract 2020 Dec 21;13(4):820-825. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Psychology, Western Michigan University, Wood Hall, 1903 West Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 USA.

Participating in athletics confers a wide range of benefits, regardless of participants' gender or disability status. Our review of 95 behavior-analytic sports-performance articles revealed that over half of them included at least 1 female participant, but only 5 included at least 1 participant with a reported developmental disability. Given that females are often underrepresented as research participants, and that female athletes face unique barriers, it is heartening that so many articles involved female participants. Read More

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December 2020

Prevalence and risk factors of sleep disorders in visually impaired athletes.

Sleep Med 2021 03 13;79:175-182. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki, 305-8577, Japan. Electronic address:

Objective: The present study clarified the prevalence and risk factors of sleep disorders in visually impaired athletes.

Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted with 99 visually impaired athletes engaged in the following Paralympic sport events: track and field (marathon), goalball, swimming, blind soccer, and judo. Eighty-one respondents (male: 72. Read More

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Return to Play After Biceps Tenodesis and Transfer in a Young, Athletic Population.

Orthopedics 2021 Jan 3;44(1):e13-e18. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

The goal of this study was to investigate the level of play that can be expected in a young, athletic population after biceps tenodesis and transfer. The authors hypothesized that both return to play rates and clinical improvement would be high after biceps tenodesis and transfer among young athletes. They conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent biceps tenodesis and transfer procedures with a minimum follow-up of 24 months. Read More

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January 2021