424 results match your criteria Atherosclerosis Supplements[Journal]


'Diet and lifestyle' in the management of dyslipidaemia and prevention of CVD - Understanding the level of knowledge and interest of European Atherosclerosis Society members.

Atheroscler Suppl 2020 Dec;42:e9-e14

Department of Cardiology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

To better understand the level of knowledge and interest in 'diet and lifestyle' for cholesterol management and CVD prevention, European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) members were invited to take part in an online survey. In total, 269 EAS members participated of which 64 (24%) were students/postdocs, 102 (38%) researchers involved with CVD-related research and 103 (38%) doctors and clinicians who directly interact with patients. All (99%) of the participants either agreed or strongly agreed that 'diet and lifestyle' have a role to play in cholesterol management, with 80% indicating that 'diet and lifestyle' is very or extremely important. Read More

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December 2020

Improving lipid management in patients with acute coronary syndrome: The ACS Lipid EuroPath tool.

Atheroscler Suppl 2020 Dec;42:e65-e71

Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain.

Post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients are at very high risk for recurrent events and mortality, despite the availability of effective pharmacological approaches. In 2018, the ACS EuroPath Survey, performed in collaboration with 555 European cardiologists, identified a sub-optimal LDL-C management in post-ACS patients. Based on these premises, the ACS EuroPath II project led to the development of a self-assessment tool to improve lipid management in these very high risk patients, taking into consideration the new 2019 ESC/EAS guidelines. Read More

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December 2020

Lipid Clinics Network. Rationale and design of the EAS global project.

Atheroscler Suppl 2020 Dec;42:e6-e8

Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milano, Multimedica IRCCS, Milano, Italy.

The evidence of the causal role of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is well-established. The clearly identified common position of the European guidelines proclaims necessity to decrease LDL-C concentrations based on a proper risk stratification. However, current worldwide situation with the lipid management still demonstrates inadequate dyslipidemia control, that is probably related to a healthcare system issues. Read More

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December 2020

Implementation of clinical practices and pathways optimizing ACS patients lipid management: Focus on eight European initiatives.

Atheroscler Suppl 2020 Dec;42:e59-e64

Center for the Study of Atherosclerosis, E. Bassini Hospital, Cinisello Balsamo, Milan; IRCCS MultiMedica, Sesto S. Giovanni, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients are at very high cardiovascular risk. Despite current guidelines strongly recommend to reduce LDL-C levels and initiation of high-intensity statins as early as possible in patients admitted with an ACS, less than half of ACS patients receive a high intensity statin, and a high percentage of has LDL-C well above the goal despite therapy. There are multiple reasons for that, including physician lack of guideline adherence, patient lack of compliance with treatment, and lack of standardized procedures. Read More

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December 2020

Lipid-lowering therapy and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal achievement in patients with acute coronary syndromes: The ACS patient pathway project.

Atheroscler Suppl 2020 Dec;42:e49-e58

Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, IRCCS MultiMedica, Sesto S. Giovanni, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients are at very high risk for recurrent events and mortality, despite the availability of effective pharmacological approaches. Aim of this survey was to evaluate the compliance to ESC/EAS guidelines during the management of ACS patients and the effectiveness of secondary prevention in seven European countries.

Methods: By means of an online questionnaire, data on 2775 ACS patients (either acute case or follow-up patients) were collected, including data on lipid profile, medications, follow-up visit planning, screening for familial hypercholesterolemia. Read More

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December 2020

Prevalence and relationship between metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease: Evidence from two population-based studies.

Atheroscler Suppl 2020 Dec;42:e41-e48

Epidemiology and Preventive Pharmacology Service (SEFAP), Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences (DisFeB), University of Milan, Milan, Italy; IRCCS MultiMedica Hospital, Sesto S. Giovanni, Milan, Italy.

Background And Aim: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become one of the most important clinical issues in the cardiovascular field for this decade because of the marked increase in cardiovascular (CV) risk associated with a clustering of risk factors. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between MetS and its components and cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study was based on data from two studies carried out in Russia (ESSE-RF) and Italy (PLIC). Read More

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December 2020

How registers could enhance knowledge and characterization of genetic dyslipidaemias: The experience of the LIPIGEN in Italy and of other networks for familial hypercholesterolemia.

Atheroscler Suppl 2020 Dec;42:e35-e40

Epidemiology and Preventive Pharmacology Service (SEFAP), Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; IRCCS MultiMedica, Sesto San Giovanni (MI), Italy.

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common genetic disorder of lipid metabolism, still underdiagnosed and undertreated in the general population. Pathology registers could play a crucial role in the creation of a comprehensive and integrated global approach to cover all aspects of this disease. Systematic data collection of patients affected by FH has increased dramatically worldwide in the past few years. Read More

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December 2020

Hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease: Focus on high cardiovascular risk patients.

Atheroscler Suppl 2020 Dec;42:e30-e34

Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

The widespread use of statins has largely improved the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, but many patients still fail to achieve the LDL-C targets recommended by guidelines. Furthermore, some patients continue to present a very high cardiovascular (CV) risk or even an extreme risk despite being well treated, mainly due to the presence of co-morbidities such as diabetes or peripheral artery disease, which significantly increase their global CV risk. For these very high CV risk patients, the most recent European guidelines have reviewed the LDL-C goals and recommend an LDL-C reduction of at least 50% and a goal of <55 mg/dL or even <40 mg/dL. Read More

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December 2020

Hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease: What to do before initiating pharmacological therapy.

Atheroscler Suppl 2020 Dec;42:e25-e29

Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; Multimedica IRCCS, Milano, Italy. Electronic address:

The availability of efficient lipid-lowering drugs has substantially reduced the incidence and mortality for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite that, CVD still represents a major cause of death and disability; efforts are thus required to prevent this disease, since reducing the established CV risk factors may slow or prevent the onset of cardiovascular events. Current guidelines recommend a healthier lifestyle for all CV risk categories, as it may have a beneficial impact on several risk factors; in individuals with a low-to-moderate hypercholesterolemia, which are not eligible for a pharmacological approach and are not far from the cholesterol target recommended for their risk category, functional foods or nutraceuticals may be considered as supplement to reduce their CV risk status. Read More

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December 2020

The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease among primary care patients in Poland: results from the LIPIDOGRAM2015 study.

Atheroscler Suppl 2020 Dec;42:e15-e24

Department of Hypertension, Medical University of Lodz, Rzgowska 281/289, 93-338, Łodz, Poland.

Background And Aim: To estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) disease and CV risk factors among Polish patients.

Methods: A nationwide cross-sectional study, LIPIDOGRAM2015, was carried out in Poland in the 4th quarter of 2015 and 1st and 2nd quarters of 2016; 438 primary care physicians enrolled 13,724 adult patients that sought medical care in primary health care practices.

Results: Nearly 19% of men and approximately 12% of women had cardiovascular disease (CVD). Read More

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December 2020

Similarities and differences between European and American guidelines on the management of blood lipids to reduce cardiovascular risk.

Atheroscler Suppl 2020 Dec;42:e1-e5

Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; IRCCS MultiMedica, Sesto S. Giovanni, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

The 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/Multi-Society (AHA/ACC/MS) Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol and the 2019 European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society (ESC/EAS) Guidelines for the Management of Dyslipidemias: Lipid Modification to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk, that were recently released by the United States and Europe, provide new recommendations for the management of blood lipid levels based on the latest evidence. Despite many common points, there are several differences in the recommendations, including the definition of very-high-risk patient category, the recommendations for some categories of patients, such as those with diabetes, familial hypercholesterolemia, chronic kidney disease, and aged patients, and the use of ezetimibe and PCSK9 inhibitors. These differences suggest that multiple approaches can be used to manage lipid abnormalities in the context of cardiovascular risk reduction. Read More

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December 2020

Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with premature cardiovascular events attending the University of Dresden Lipid Clinic.

Atheroscler Suppl 2019 Dec;40:94-99

Department of Internal Medicine III, Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus at the Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:

Objectives: Despite improved treatment, premature cardiovascular (CV) events remain a major health problem. Aim of this study was to evaluate the patterns of risk factors in patients with premature CV events.

Methods: CV risk factors (CVRF) were evaluated in 130 patients with a history of CV events (myocardial infarction, stroke, limb ischemia, stent and bypass intervention in any vessel bed) under 50 years of age attending our lipid clinic. Read More

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December 2019

Serum uric acid and left ventricular geometry pattern in obese children.

Atheroscler Suppl 2019 Dec;40:88-93

Medical Faculty, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia.

Background: Relative importance of traditional and non-traditional components of metabolic syndrome (MetSy) as risk factors for subclinical target organ damage in obese children is still under investigation. Recent studies highlight the role of serum uric acid (SUA) as an emerging non-traditional independent risk factor which correlates with obesity, MetSy, type 2 diabetes, preclinical cardiac and extracardiac organ damage, as well as cardiovascular events.

Aims: To study the relationship between SUA and left ventricular geometry pattern in obese children with or without MetSy. Read More

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December 2019

Lipoprotein apheresis in Austria - Reduction of cardiovascular events by regular lipoprotein apheresis treatment.

Atheroscler Suppl 2019 Dec 17;40:8-11. Epub 2019 Aug 17.

Athos Institute, Institute for Diagnosis and Treatment of Lipid Disorders and Atherosclerosis, Vienna, Austria; Sigmund Freud University, Department of Lipid Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Vienna, Austria.

Background: In Austria, about 12 patients per 1 million inhabitants are treated currently with lipoprotein (LP-) apheresis. In 2016 it has been suggested, that about 5000 patients were treated worldwide with LP-apheresis, more than half of them in Germany. Regular LP-apheresis aims to decrease apolipoprotein B-rich lipoproteins and to reduce cardiovascular events. Read More

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December 2019

Efficiency and problems of statin therapy in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

Atheroscler Suppl 2019 Dec 17;40:79-87. Epub 2019 Aug 17.

Lipidology and Lipoprotein Apheresis Center, Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus at the Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany.

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is associated with a very high risk of cardiovascular complications and the need for an early aggressive lipid-lowering therapy. The achievement of lipid target levels is often an extremely difficult task in these patients.

Aims: to analyze sex and age structure of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in patients with a definite, possible and probable FH. Read More

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December 2019

Apheresis as emerging treatment option in severe early onset preeclampsia.

Atheroscler Suppl 2019 Dec 17;40:61-67. Epub 2019 Aug 17.

Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Straße 55, 79106, Freiburg, Germany; Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Germany.

Based on an early suggestion by Winkler et al. 2003 and a subsequent successful study by Wang et al. 2006 using lipid apheresis (LA) in 9 patients with preeclampsia to prolong pregnancies, the use of apheresis as therapeutic option in severe early onset preeclampsia has received increasing attention. Read More

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December 2019

Optical coherence tomography of retinal and choroidal layers in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia treated with lipoprotein apheresis.

Atheroscler Suppl 2019 Dec;40:49-54

Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Purpose: Detect and quantify morpho-functional alterations of the retina and choroid in patients affected by familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) treated with lipoprotein apheresis (LA) using optic coherence tomography (OCT) and optic coherence tomography-angriography (OCTA).

Design: Observational study.

Subjects: To be diagnosed: A group of 20 patients (40 eyes) being clinically and genetically diagnosed as FH and under treatment (FH-Group)", for at least 2 years, was compared to a control group of 20 healthy subjects (40 eyes), with a normal lipid profile and no ocular disease (CT-Group). Read More

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December 2019

One year follow-up of patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on lipoprotein apheresis.

Atheroscler Suppl 2019 Dec;40:44-48

Institute for Diagnosis and Treatment of Lipid Disorders and Atherosclerosis (ATHOS), Austria; Department of Lipid Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Sigmund Freud University, Vienna, Austria; Isotopix, Institute for Nuclear Medicine, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Background: Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a valuable measure to assess left ventricular systolic function. Lipid lowering therapy by statins has been shown to have an impact on LVEF already after a 6 months treatment. Higher doses of statins have been claimed to be more effective as compared to a conventional one and even a difference between lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds has been reported. Read More

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December 2019

Experience with proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexine type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) in patients undergoing lipoprotein apheresis.

Atheroscler Suppl 2019 Dec;40:38-43

Lipidology, Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus at the Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany.

Purpose: We analyzed efficacy and safety of PCSK9i in patients undergoing lipoprotein apheresis (LA) and in patients treated at our outpatient department for metabolic disorders.

Methods: The medical records of 40 LA patients, taking PCSK9i were reviewed with respect to LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) lowering as well as occurrence of adverse events. Furthermore, we analyzed the data of 152 patients of our outpatient department, undergoing PCSK9i therapy. Read More

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December 2019

Short- and long-term effects of lipoprotein apheresis on plasma hormones in patients with therapy-resistant dyslipidemia.

Atheroscler Suppl 2019 Dec;40:30-37

Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus at the Technische Universität Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is a highly effective method to improve the clinical and metabolic situation in patients with therapy-resistant disorders of lipid metabolism. Cholesterol is the substrate for the synthesis of all steroid hormones. If repeated massive reduction of LDL-cholesterol may interfere with human adrenal steroidogenesis, and could become clinically relevant is unknown, so far. Read More

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December 2019

Lipoprotein apheresis in Germany - Still more commonly indicated than implemented. How can patients in need access therapy?

Atheroscler Suppl 2019 Dec;40:23-29

Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus at the Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Background: Although lipid-lowering drugs, especially statins, and recently also PCSK9 inhibitors can reduce LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) including coronary artery disease (CAD) events most efficiently, only 5-10% of high-risk cardiovascular patients reach the target values recommended by international guidelines. In patients who cannot be treated adequately by drugs it is possible to reduce increased LDL-C and/or lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) values by the use of lipoprotein apheresis (LA) with the potential to decrease severe CVD events in the range of 70%->80%. Even in Germany, a country with well-established reimbursement guidelines for LA, knowledge about this life-saving therapy is unsatisfactory in medical disciplines treating patients with CVD. Read More

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December 2019

Lipoprotein(a) - Marker for cardiovascular risk and target for lipoprotein apheresis.

Atheroscler Suppl 2019 Dec;40:17-22

Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus at the Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.

Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) consists of an LDL particle whose apolipoprotein B (apoB) is covalently bound to apolipoprotein(a) (apo[a]). An increased Lp(a) concentration is a causal, independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and a predictor of incident or recurrent cardiovascular events. Although Lp(a) was first described as early as 1963, only the more recent results of epidemiological, molecular, and genetic studies have led to this unequivocal conclusion. Read More

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December 2019

Lipoprotein apheresis - Shortening of treatment intervals reduces cardiovascular events: Case reports.

Atheroscler Suppl 2019 Dec 17;40:125-130. Epub 2019 Aug 17.

Athos Institute, Institute for Diagnosis and Treatment of Lipid Disorders, Vienna, Austria; Sigmund Freud University, Department of Lipid Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Lipoprotein (Lp-) apheresis is a life-long therapy, usually performed in weekly intervals. In some cases, however, atherosclerotic disease progresses despite adequate therapy with weekly Lp-apheresis and maximal lipid lowering medication. In an attempt to improve the effectiveness of therapy, we temporarily shortened treatment intervals of Lp-apheresis in patients with elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) and further progression of coronary atherosclerosis despite weekly Lp-apheresis and maximal lipid lowering medication. Read More

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December 2019

Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia in childhood - The first case report in Southeast Europe.

Atheroscler Suppl 2019 Dec 17;40:122-124. Epub 2019 Aug 17.

Pediatric Clinic, University Clinical Center of Kosovo, Prishtina, Kosovo.

Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is the rare, severe, but treatable disease characterised by exceedingly high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and subsequent premature coronary heart disease. Of note, HoFH detection rate and patient access to healthcare and treatment modalities still differ considerably across EU countries. To our current knowledge, there are still no published reports describing HoFH in the paediatric population of Southeastern Europe. Read More

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December 2019

Influence of lipoprotein apheresis on circulating plasma levels of miRNAs in patients with high Lp(a).

Atheroscler Suppl 2019 Dec;40:12-16

Centre for Experimental Medicine - Laboratory for Atherosclerosis Research, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Czech Republic; Department of Internal Medicine, 2nd Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is a well-established therapy for lowering lipid levels in serious cases of dyslipidaemia, including high levels of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]. This method lowers both LDL cholesterol and Lp(a) by more than 60% in most of patients; however, because randomized clinical studies could be extremely difficult, also other markers of the effect of this procedures on vascular health are of importance. Therefore, in addition to changes in plasma lipids and Lp(a) during LA, we also analysed the response of biomarkers associated with vascular integrity: small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs). Read More

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December 2019

A successful term pregnancy with severe hypertriglyceridaemia and acute pancreatitis. Clinical management and review of the literature.

Atheroscler Suppl 2019 Dec 17;40:117-121. Epub 2019 Aug 17.

Extracorporeal Therapeutic Techniques Unit, Lipid Clinic and Atherosclerosis Prevention Centre, Immunohematology and Transfusion Medicine, Department of Molecular Medicine, "Sapienza" University of Rome, "Umberto I" Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Background And Aims: Acute hyperlipidaemic pancreatitis (HP) may develop in pregnancy in patients with genetic predisposition. There are no accepted guidelines for the management of this rare but life-threatening condition in pregnancy. Plasma exchange (PEX) was suggested as a suitable option to treat HP in pregnancy; however, further evidence from case reports/case series are needed. Read More

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December 2019

A complicated pregnancy in homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia treated with lipoprotein apheresis: A case report.

Atheroscler Suppl 2019 Dec 17;40:113-116. Epub 2019 Aug 17.

Extracorporeal Therapeutic Techniques Unit, Lipid Clinic and Atherosclerosis Prevention Centre, Immunohaematology and Transfusion Medicine, Department of Molecular Medicine, "Sapienza" University of Rome, "Umberto I" Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Background And Aims: During pregnancy total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels increase significantly and lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is considered the most effective therapy in homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) for modulating lipid and lipoprotein levels and reducing maternal and foetal complications.

Clinical Case: A primigravida 28 years old Caucasian female patient, previously diagnosed as to be HoFH, was admitted at our outpatient service at the beginning of pregnancy.

Methods: The patient was continuously submitted to LA every two weeks without foetal complication. Read More

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December 2019

Kidney and liver are the main organs of expression of a key metabolic enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 in humans.

Atheroscler Suppl 2019 Dec;40:106-112

University Center for Vascular Medicine & Department of Medicine III - Section Angiology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors and is highly predictive for development of cardiovascular diseases. An association between elevated plasma levels of the endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and risk of cardiovascular diseases has been demonstrated in numerous epidemiological studies. ADMA can be catabolized by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) or metabolized through a much less understood alternative pathway by alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGXT2) with the formation of α-keto-δ-(N,N-dimethylguanidino)valeric acid (ADGV). Read More

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December 2019

ADMA elevation does not exacerbate development of diabetic nephropathy in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

Atheroscler Suppl 2019 Dec;40:100-105

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany.

Background And Aims: Cardiovascular disease is nowadays the major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The risk of developing cardiovascular disease is significantly increased in patients with diabetic nephropathy. It has been suggested that asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthases (NOS), may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Read More

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December 2019

Actual situation of lipoprotein apheresis in patients with elevated lipoprotein(a) levels.

Atheroscler Suppl 2019 Dec;40:1-7

Lipidology and Center for Extracorporeal Treatment, Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus at the Technische Universität Dresden, Germany, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany.

An elevation of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is an internationally recognized atherogenic risk factor, documented in epidemiological studies, in studies with Mendelian randomization and in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). At present, no drug is available to effectively reduce its concentration. In Germany, an elevation of Lp(a) associated with progressive cardiovascular diseases is officially recognized as an indication for a lipoprotein apheresis (LA). Read More

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December 2019