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    1 OF 273

    Aerobic, resistance or combined training: A systematic review and meta-analysis of exercise to reduce cardiovascular risk in adults with metabolic syndrome.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 May 3;274:162-171. Epub 2018 May 3.
    School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Background And Aims: Exercise is beneficial to individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). An understudied group, who represent the majority of the MetS population, are individuals who have not developed diabetes. This review examined aerobic, resistance and combined (aerobic + resistance) exercise for cardiovascular risk factors in MetS without diabetes. Read More

    Inflammatory patterns in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and acute coronary syndrome: A propensity score matched analysis.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 May 18;274:157-161. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Department of Medical and Surgical Science, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: Systemic inflammatory activation can be observed in both Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim of this study was therefore to compare circulating cytokine levels during the acute and subacute phase of TTC and ACS.

    Methods: One hundred thirty-six consecutive patients were enrolled in the study; after a propensity score matching, 32 TTC patients were compared with 32 subjects with ACS. Read More

    YKL-40 levels increase with declining ankle-brachial index and are associated with long-term cardiovascular mortality in peripheral arterial disease patients.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 May 9;274:152-156. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Division of Angiology, Medicine II, Medical University Vienna, Spitalgasse 23, 1090, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: YKL-40 is an inflammatory marker secreted by macrophages and is expressed in atherosclerotic plaques. YKL-40 increases in coronary artery disease (CAD) with poor coronary collateral vessel development. Higher levels are linked to reduced survival in CAD patients. Read More

    Prognostic significance of serum cystatin C in acute ischemic stroke patients according to lipid component levels.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 May 17;274:146-151. Epub 2018 May 17.
    Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; Department of Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: Serum cystatin C (CysC) is associated with the risk of ischemic stroke and may predict cardiovascular events and death after ischemic stroke onset. However, the association between serum CysC and functional outcome in ischemic stroke patients remains unclear, and whether lipid component level influences the relationship between them has not been studied.

    Methods: A total of 3348 ischemic patients from China Antihypertensive Trial in Acute Ischemic Stroke were included in the study. Read More

    Baseline serum sitosterol level as predictor of adverse clinical events in acute coronary syndrome patients with dyslipidaemia: A sub-analysis of HIJ-PROPER.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 May 5;274:139-145. Epub 2018 May 5.
    Department of Cardiology, The Heart Institute of Japan, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, 162-8666, Japan.
    Background And Aims: We aimed to examine the effect of serum sitosterol, a cholesterol absorption marker, on clinical outcomes in acute coronary syndrome patients with dyslipidaemia.

    Methods: This is a sub-analysis of the HIJ-PROPER trial that assesses the effect of aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering treatment with pitavastatin + ezetimibe in 1734 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with dyslipidaemia. Patients were divided into two groups based on sitosterol level at enrolment (cut-off value was 2. Read More

    Vascular peroxide 1 promotes ox-LDL-induced programmed necrosis in endothelial cells through a mechanism involving β-catenin signaling.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 May 3;274:128-138. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Department of Pharmacology, Xiangya School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, 410078, China; Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, 410078, China. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: Vascular peroxidase 1 (VPO1) plays a key role in mediation of cardiovascular oxidative injury. This study aims to determine whether VPO1 can promote programmed necrosis of endothelial cells and the underlying mechanisms.

    Methods And Results: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL, 100 μg/mL) for 48 h to induce cell injury, which showed an elevation in cell necrosis (reflected by the increased propidium iodide (PI) positive-staining cells, LDH release and decreased cell viability), concomitant with an increase in programmed necrosis-relevant proteins including receptor-interacting protein kinase 1/3 (RIPK1/3), p-RIPK3 and mixed lineage kinase domain like (MLKL); these phenomena were attenuated by necrostatin-1(Nec-1) and RIPK3 siRNA. Read More

    Proteoglycan 4 regulates macrophage function without altering atherosclerotic lesion formation in a murine bone marrow-specific deletion model.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 May 5;274:120-127. Epub 2018 May 5.
    Division of BioTherapeutics, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research (LACDR), The Netherlands.
    Background And Aims: Proteoglycan 4 (Prg4) has a high structural similarity with the established atherosclerosis-modulating proteoglycan versican, but its role in atherogenesis is still unknown. Therefore, the impact of Prg4 deficiency on macrophage function in vitro and atherosclerosis susceptibility in vivo was investigated.

    Methods: The presence and localization of Prg4 was studied in atherosclerotic lesions. Read More

    Adverse lipid profile elevates risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage: A prospective population-based cohort study.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 May 5;274:112-119. Epub 2018 May 5.
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 20, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland; Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, P.O. Box 20, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland.
    Background And Aims: Studies report that both high and low total cholesterol (TC) elevates SAH risk. There are few prospective studies on high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C), and apparently none concerns apolipoproteins A and B. We aimed to clarify the association between lipid profile and SAH risk. Read More

    Associations of body weight and weight change with cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with coronary heart disease.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 May 5;274:104-111. Epub 2018 May 5.
    Health Management Institute, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853, China. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: It is recommended that patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) pursue a normal body weight, while the effects of body weight and weight change on prognosis are still controversial. The present study was to assess these effects using a large-scale population with CHD in China.

    Methods: A total of 5276 patients with CHD were included from Jan 2000 to Dec 2014. Read More

    Associations of Y chromosomal haplogroups with cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical vascular measures in males during childhood and adolescence.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Apr 25;274:94-103. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit at the University of Bristol, Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Bristol, BS82BN, UK; Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Bristol, BS82BN, UK; School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, UK.
    Background And Aims: Males have greater cardiometabolic risk than females, though the reasons for this are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the association between common Y chromosomal haplogroups and cardiometabolic risk during early life.

    Methods: In a British birth cohort, we examined the association of Y chromosomal haplogroups with trajectories of cardiometabolic risk factors from birth to 18 years and with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, carotid intima media thickness and left ventricular mass index at age 18. Read More

    Traditional and nontraditional glycemic markers and risk of peripheral artery disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Apr 30;274:86-93. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: Traditional glycemic markers, fasting glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), predict incident peripheral artery disease (PAD). However, it is unknown whether nontraditional glycemic markers, fructosamine, glycated albumin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol, are associated with PAD and whether these glycemic markers demonstrate particularly strong associations with severe PAD, critical limb ischemia (CLI).

    Methods: We quantified the associations of these five glycemic markers with incident PAD (hospitalizations with PAD diagnosis or leg revascularization) in 11,634 ARIC participants using Cox regression models. Read More

    Vascular brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis: Effect of anti-rheumatic drugs.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 May 2;274:77-85. Epub 2018 May 2.
    INSERM UMR1093-CAPS, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, UFR des Sciences de Santé, F-21000, Dijon, France. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: In rheumatoid arthritis, the control of both disease activity and standard cardiovascular (CV) risk factors is expected to attenuate the increased CV risk. Evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in vascular biology led us to investigate the vascular BDNF pathway in arthritis rats as well as the interaction between endothelial nitric oxide (NO) and BDNF production.

    Methods: The aortic BDNF pathway was studied in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis, (AIA) using Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Read More

    Nebivolol prevents vascular oxidative stress and hypertension in rats chronically treated with ethanol.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Apr 30;274:67-76. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    Laboratory of Pharmacology, Department of Psychiatric Nursing and Human Sciences, School of Nursing of Ribeirao Preto, USP, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: Chronic ethanol consumption is associated with hypertension and atherosclerosis. Vascular oxidative stress is described as an important mechanism whereby ethanol predisposes to atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that nebivolol would prevent ethanol-induced hypertension and vascular oxidative stress. Read More

    The prevalence and correlates of subclinical atherosclerosis among adults with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <70 mg/dL: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Apr 28;274:61-66. Epub 2018 Apr 28.
    The Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for Prevention of Heart Disease, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: The prevalence and correlates of subclinical atherosclerosis when low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are low remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the association of cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis among individuals with untreated LDL-C <70 mg/dL.

    Methods: We included participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohorts. Read More

    Improving identification and management of familial hypercholesterolaemia in primary care: Pre- and post-intervention study.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Apr 30;274:54-60. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    Division of Primary Care, NIHR School for Primary Care Research, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, UK.
    Background And Aims: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a major cause of premature heart disease but remains unrecognised in most patients. This study investigated if a systematic primary care-based approach to identify and manage possible FH improves recommended best clinical practice.

    Methods: Pre- and post-intervention study in six UK general practices (population 45,033), which invited patients with total cholesterol >7. Read More

    Association of skin autofluorescence with plaque vulnerability evaluated by optical coherence tomography in patients with cardiovascular disease.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Mar 2;274:47-53. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Department of Cardiology, New Tokyo Hospital, Chiba, Japan.
    Background And Aims: Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can be measured non-invasively by skin autofluorescence (SAF) whose values are elevated in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an intravascular imaging modality that could allow visualization of plaque composition. We aim to examine the relationship between SAF and plaque composition evaluated by frequency-domain OCT in patients with CVD. Read More

    Coronary heart disease mortality in treated familial hypercholesterolaemia: Update of the UK Simon Broome FH register.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 May 1;274:41-46. Epub 2018 May 1.
    Wolfson College, University of Oxford, UK.
    Background And Aims: Patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) have an elevated risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Here we compare changes in CHD mortality in patients with heterozygous (FH) pre 1992, before lipid-lowering therapy with statins was used routinely, and in the periods 1992-2008 and 2008-2016.

    Methods: 1903 Definite (DFH) and 1650 Possible (PFH) patients (51% women) aged 20-79 years, recruited from 21 lipid clinics in the United Kingdom and followed prospectively between 1980 and 2016 for 67,060 person-years. Read More

    Sleep duration and subclinical atherosclerosis: The Aragon Workers' Health Study.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 May 3;274:35-40. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Division of Internal Medicine and Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Background And Aims: Few studies have evaluated the association of sleep duration with subclinical atherosclerosis, and with heterogeneous findings. We evaluated the association of sleep duration with the presence of coronary, carotid, and femoral subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy middle-age men with low prevalence of clinical comorbidities.

    Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1968 men, 40-60 years of age, participating in the Aragon Workers' Health Study (AWHS). Read More

    Effects of high-intensity interval training on optic nerve head and macular perfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in healthy adults.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Apr 26;274:8-15. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Muenster Medical Center, Muenster, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been identified to be efficient for increasing health-related fitness in general and in lifestyle-induced chronic diseases such as hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to evaluate HIIT effects on optic nerve head (ONH) and macular perfusion in healthy adults using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).

    Methods: Fifty-eight healthy participants (22. Read More

    Blood hydrogen peroxide break-down activity in healthy subjects and in patients at risk of cardiovascular events.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Apr 25;274:29-34. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    I Clinica Medica, Atherothrombosis Centre, Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Background And Aims: Antioxidant status has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular events (CVEs). The aim of the study was to develop an assay measuring serum hydrogen peroxide (HO) break-down activity (HBA) of healthy subjects (HS) and to validate it in a cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).

    Methods: We developed the HBA assay in 121 HS and validated it in 842 AF patients. Read More

    HDL cholesterol efflux capacity and cholesteryl ester transfer are associated with body mass, but are not changed by diet-induced weight loss: A randomized trial in abdominally obese men.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Apr 28;274:23-28. Epub 2018 Apr 28.
    Department of Nutrition and Movement Sciences, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Background And Aims: Obesity is associated with a lower HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages and a higher CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein) activity, but effects of weight loss are not clear. In addition, associations with visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue are not known. We therefore investigated effects of diet-induced weight loss on HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux and cholesterol ester (CE) transfer in abdominally obese men. Read More

    Is Lp(a) ready for prime time use in the clinic? A pros-and-cons debate.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Apr 30;274:16-22. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    Department of Metabolic Medicine/Chemical Pathology, Guy's & St Thomas' Hospitals, London, UK. Electronic address:
    Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) is a cholesterol-rich lipoprotein known since 1963. In spite of extensive research on Lp(a), there are still numerous gaps in our knowledge relating to its function, biosynthesis and catabolism. One reason for this might be that apo(a), the characteristic glycoprotein of Lp(a), is expressed only in primates. Read More

    MicroRNA-132 targeting PTEN contributes to cilostazol-promoted vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Apr 26;274:1-7. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    Division of Cardiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.
    Background And Aims: Cilostazol, beyond its antiplatelet effect, is also capable of promoting vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation. The aim of this study was to explore the potential role of PTEN, known to associate with VSMC differentiation, and its related microRNA (miRNA) in cilostazol-dependent effects.

    Methods And Results: Microarray analysis in balloon-injured rat carotid arteries comparing with and without balloon injury revealed that miR-132 was differentially expressed. Read More

    MRI with gadofosveset: A potential marker for permeability in myocardial infarction.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    The British Heart Foundation Centre of Excellence, Cardiovascular Division, King's College London, London, United Kingdom; Cardiovascular Division, James Black Centre, King's College Hospital Denmark Hill London, London, SE5 9NU, United Kingdom.
    Background And Aims: Acute ischemia is associated with myocardial endothelial damage and microvessel formation, resulting in leakage of plasma albumin into the myocardial extravascular space. In this study, we tested whether an albumin-binding intravascular contrast agent (gadofosveset) allows for improved quantification of myocardial permeability compared to the conventional extracellular contrast agent Gd-DTPA using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and T1 mapping in vivo.

    Methods: MI was induced in C57BL/6 mice (n = 6) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) was performed at 3, 10 and 21 days post-MI using Gd-DTPA and 24 h later using gadofosveset. Read More

    Non-HDL-C goals based on the distribution of population percentiles in ELSA-Brasil: Is it time to change?
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Department of Clinical Pathology, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) goals are defined as 30 mg/dL (0.78 mmol/L) higher than the respective low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals. This definition, however, do not consider the population distribution of non-HDL-C, which could represent a more appropriate individual goal when both markers are discordant. Read More

    Ex vivo vessel wall thickness measurements of the human circle of Willis using 7T MRI.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Jun 24;273:106-114. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Postbox 85500, 3508 GA, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Background And Aims: MRI can detect intracranial vessel wall thickening before any luminal stenosis is present. Apart from representing a vessel wall lesion, wall thickening could also reflect normal (age-related) variations in vessel wall thickness present throughout the intracranial arterial vasculature. The aim of this study was to perform vessel wall thickness measurements of the major intracranial arteries in ex vivo circle of Willis (CoW) specimens using 7T MRI, to obtain more detailed information about wall thickness variations of the intracranial arteries. Read More

    Effect of magnesium supplementation on endothelial function: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Jun 14;273:98-105. Epub 2018 Apr 14.
    Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: Findings of past studies are inconsistent regarding the effects of magnesium (Mg) supplementation on endothelial function (EF). We performed this meta-analysis to examine the effects of magnesium supplementation on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) as markers of EF.

    Methods: Literature searches of English publications in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were conducted up to November 2017. Read More

    Differences in the association of total versus local coronary artery calcium with acute coronary syndrome and culprit lesions in patients with acute chest pain: The coronary calcium paradox.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Knight Cardiovascular Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: Total coronary artery calcium (CAC) burden is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, while local CAC may represent stable plaques. We determined differences in relationship of total CAC with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and local CAC with culprit lesions in patients with suspected ACS.

    Methods: We performed computed tomography (CT) for CAC and CT angiography to assess the presence of significant stenosis and high-risk plaque (positive remodeling, low CT attenuation, napkin-ring sign, spotty calcium) in 37 patients with ACS and 223 controls. Read More

    Human mast cell neutral proteases generate modified LDL particles with increased proteoglycan binding.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Apr 13. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Wihuri Research Institute, Biomedicum 1, Haartmaninkatu 8, 00290 Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: Subendothelial interaction of LDL with extracellular matrix drives atherogenesis. This interaction can be strengthened by proteolytic modification of LDL. Mast cells (MCs) are present in atherosclerotic lesions, and upon activation, they degranulate and release a variety of neutral proteases. Read More

    Metabolic products of the intestinal microbiome and extremes of atherosclerosis.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Jun 17;273:91-97. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Stroke Prevention & Atherosclerosis Research Centre, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Canada; Divisions of Neurology and Clinical Pharmacology, Western University, London, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: There is increasing awareness that the intestinal microbiome plays an important role in human health. We investigated its role in the burden of carotid atherosclerosis, measured by ultrasound as total plaque area.

    Methods: Multiple regression with traditional risk factors was used to identify three phenotypes among 316/3056 patients attending vascular prevention clinics. Read More

    Secular trends in the incidence, risk factors, and prognosis of transient ischemic attack in Japan: The Hisayama Study.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Jun 12;273:84-90. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan; Center for Cohort Studies, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.
    Background And Aims: We aimed to investigate secular trends in the incidence, risk factors, and prognosis of transient ischemic attack (TIA) in a general Japanese population.

    Methods: Two cohorts consisting of stroke-free Japanese individuals aged ≥40 years in 1961 (n = 1621) and 1988 (n = 2646) were followed up for 24 years. The associations of potential risk factors with the development of TIA were estimated by a Cox proportional hazards model. Read More

    Myeloperoxidase modification of high-density lipoprotein suppresses human endothelial cell proliferation and migration via inhibition of ERK1/2 and Akt activation.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Jun 9;273:75-83. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Heart Health, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, SA, 5000, Australia; University of Adelaide, Department of Health and Medical Science, Adelaide, SA, 5000, Australia.
    Background And Aims: Preclinical studies show high-density lipoproteins (HDL) have a protective and reparative effect on the endothelium. HDL is, however, susceptible to oxidation, which affects function. Myeloperoxidase (MPO)-induced modification of HDL results in loss of anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory functions, however, its effect on endothelial proliferation and migration has not been characterized. Read More

    Release of endothelial microparticles in patients with arterial hypertension, hypertensive emergencies and catheter-related injury.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Jun 12;273:67-74. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Division of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Vascular Medicine, Medical Faculty, University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany; University of Surrey, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Guildford, UK; Surrey and Sussex Healthcare NHS Trust, Redhill, UK. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: Circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are increased in arterial hypertension. The role of physicomechanical factors that may induce EMP release in vivo is still unknown. We studied the relationship of EMPs and physicomechanical factors in stable arterial hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, and investigated the pattern of EMP release after mechanical endothelial injury. Read More

    Effects of vitamin D supplementation on adherence to and persistence with long-term statin therapy: Secondary analysis from the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled ViDA study.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Jun 7;273:59-66. Epub 2018 Apr 7.
    School of Population Health, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: Long-term statin use increases survival. However, the adherence to and persistence with statin use are challenging and this influences the success of statin treatment. Our aim was to explore if monthly vitamin D supplementation (100,000-IU) improves the adherence to and persistence with long-term statin use in older adults. Read More

    Metabolic control, ApoE genotypes, and dyslipidemia in children, adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Jun 12;273:53-58. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    University Children's Hospital, UMC Ljubljana, Slovenia. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: Limited data is available on the factors influencing the lipid profiles and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in children, adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. We aimed at assessing the influences of metabolic control and ApoE genotypes on lipid profiles and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in children, adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

    Methods: Children, adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes from our nationwide cohort attending the annual check-up were prospectively included. Read More

    Resting heart rate and the incidence and progression of valvular calcium: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Jun 6;273:45-52. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: Left-sided valvular calcification is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Resting heart rate (RHR) may influence valvular calcium progression through shear stress. Whether RHR, an established CVD risk factor, is associated with valvular calcium progression is unknown. Read More

    Effects of gastric bypass surgery followed by supervised physical training on inflammation and endothelial function: A randomized controlled trial.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Jun 6;273:37-44. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Hospital of Southwest Jutland, Denmark; Department of Regional Health Research, University of Southern, Denmark.
    Background And Aims: Obesity and physical inactivity are both associated with low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Bariatric surgery improves markers of inflammation and endothelial function, but it is unknown if physical training after bariatric surgery can improve these markers even further. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) followed by physical training on markers of low-grade inflammation and endothelial function. Read More

    Circulating metabolomic profile can predict dyslipidemia in HIV patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Jun 9;273:28-36. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Hospital Universitari Joan XXIII, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: Dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients is unique and pathophysiologically associated with host factors, HIV itself and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) provides additional data to conventional lipid measurements concerning the number of lipoprotein subclasses and particle sizes.

    Methods: To investigate the ability of lipoprotein profile, we used a circulating metabolomic approach in a cohort of 103 ART-naive HIV-infected patients, who were initiating non-nucleoside analogue transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART, and we subsequently followed up these patients for 36 months. Read More

    Novel association between CDKAL1 and cholesterol efflux capacity: Replication after GWAS-based discovery.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Jun 12;273:21-27. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: Although the importance of the functional properties of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has been increasingly emphasized, studies on the genetic factors associated with HDL function are highly limited. The aim of this study was to identify genetic variants associated with an individual's cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) using a genome-wide association study approach.

    Methods: This study included a discovery group of 607 subjects with coronary artery disease and an independent replication group of 158 subjects. Read More

    The contribution of obesity to carotid atherosclerotic plaque burden in a general population sample in Norway: The Tromsø Study.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Jun 12;273:15-20. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Department of Medical Statistics, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, UK.
    Background And Aims: Few studies have investigated the association of different measures of adiposity with carotid plaque. We aimed to investigate and compare the associations of four measures of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with the presence of carotid plaque and total plaque area (TPA) in the right carotid artery.

    Methods: We included 4906 individuals aged 31-88 years who participated in a population-based study with ultrasonography of the right carotid artery. Read More

    Corrigendum to "HDL-C, triglycerides and carotid IMT: A meta-analysis of 21,000 patients with automated edge detection IMT measurement" [Atherosclerosis 232 (2014) 65-71].
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Jun 12;273:158. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    From INSERM U 698, Paris, France; Paris Diderot e Sorbonne Paris City University, Paris, France; Department of Neurology and Stroke Centre, Hôpital Bichat, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France. Electronic address:

    Serum magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium levels and subclinical calcific aortic valve disease: A population-based study.
    Atherosclerosis 2018 Jun 22;273:145-152. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Department of Public Health, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan; Center for Epidemiologic Research in Asia, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.
    Background And Aims: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common valve disease. Although micronutrients are known to contribute to cardiovascular disease, the relationship with CAVD remains poorly evaluated. We examined the association of serum levels of magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium with prevalence, incidence, and progression of aortic valve calcification (AVC). Read More

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