Atherosclerosis 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Health Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics-Pharmacokinetics, Athens, Greece. Electronic address:
Background And Aims
: We aimed to evaluate a possible atheroprotective effect of saffron aqueous extract (SFE), and its potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms, in apoE knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice.Methods
: Fifty male, ApoE(-/-) mice, fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, were randomized into 5 groups: (1) baseline group, euthanatized, without intervention, (2) three saffron groups, receiving HFD and 30,60,90 mg/kg/day of SFE, respectively, for four weeks, per os through gavage, after reconstitution in water for injection (WFI), (3) control group (COG), receiving daily HFD and the same volume of WFI (four weeks). After blood sampling and euthanasia, aortic roots were excised and analyzed for gene expression and/or percentage of aortic stenosis, relative content of macrophages, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), connective tissue, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinases-2,-3,-9 (MMP-2,-3,-9) and their inhibitor (TIMP-2) and IL-6. Read More