37,464 results match your criteria Astronomy & Geophysics[Journal]


Reduced graphene oxide mitigates cadmium-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells.

Food Chem Toxicol 2020 Jul 4:111515. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia; Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Numerous applications of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and pervasive cadmium (Cd) have led concern about their co-exposure to the environment and human. We studied the combined effects of RGO and Cd in human liver (HepG2) cells. Initially, we found that RGO (up to 50 μg/ml) did not harm to HepG2 cells while Cd induced dose-dependent (1-10 μg/ml) cytotoxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2020.111515DOI Listing

Cell Division: Interkinetic Nuclear… Mechanics.

Curr Biol 2020 Jul;30(13):R759-R761

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA; Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA; Department of Biomedical Genetics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14627, USA. Electronic address:

New work reveals that interkinetic nuclear migration - the movement of nuclei towards the apical surface of dividing epithelial cells - is mechanically regulated, relying on a balance of forces between the mitotic cell and the surrounding tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.05.028DOI Listing

Taxonomic classification method for metagenomics based on core protein families with Core-Kaiju.

Nucleic Acids Res 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Physics and Astronomy Department, LIPh Lab, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova, Italy.

Characterizing species diversity and composition of bacteria hosted by biota is revolutionizing our understanding of the role of symbiotic interactions in ecosystems. Determining microbiomes diversity implies the assignment of individual reads to taxa by comparison to reference databases. Although computational methods aimed at identifying the microbe(s) taxa are available, it is well known that inferences using different methods can vary widely depending on various biases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkaa568DOI Listing

Multiferroic decorated FeO monolayer predicted from first principles.

Nanoscale 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154, USA.

Two-dimensional (2D) multiferroics exhibit cross-control capacity between magnetic and electric responses in a reduced spatial domain, making them well suited for next-generation nanoscale devices; however, progress has been slow in developing materials with required characteristic properties. Here we identify by first-principles calculations robust 2D multiferroic behaviors in decorated Fe2O3 monolayers, showcasing Li@Fe2O3 as a prototypical case, where ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism stem from the same origin, namely Fe d-orbital splitting induced by the Jahn-Teller distortion and associated crystal field changes. These findings establish strong material phenomena and elucidate the underlying physics mechanism in a family of truly 2D multiferroics that are highly promising for advanced device applications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr03391jDOI Listing

Artificial Double-Helix for Geometrical Control of Magnetic Chirality.

ACS Nano 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom.

Chirality plays a major role in nature, from particle physics to DNA, and its control is much sought-after due to the scientific and technological opportunities it unlocks. For magnetic materials, chiral interactions between spins promote the formation of sophisticated swirling magnetic states such as skyrmions, with rich topological properties and great potential for future technologies. Currently, chiral magnetism requires either a restricted group of natural materials or synthetic thin-film systems that exploit interfacial effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c00720DOI Listing

Biological pacemaker: from biological experiments to computational simulation.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2020 Jul;21(7):524-536

School of Computer Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China.

Pacemaking dysfunction has become a significant disease that may contribute to heart rhythm disorders, syncope, and even death. Up to now, the best way to treat it is to implant electronic pacemakers. However, these have many disadvantages such as limited battery life, infection, and fixed pacing rate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B1900632DOI Listing

Application of a stretched-exponential model for morphometric analysis of accelerated diffusion-weighted 129Xe MRI of the rat lung.

MAGMA 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Translational Medicine Program, Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objective: Diffusion-weighted, hyperpolarized Xe MRI is useful for the characterization of microstructural changes in the lung. A stretched exponential model was proposed for morphometric extraction of the mean chord length (L) from diffusion-weighted data. The stretched exponential model enables accelerated mapping of L in a single-breathhold using compressed sensing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10334-020-00860-6DOI Listing

Odd- and even-denominator fractional quantum Hall states in monolayer WSe.

Nat Nanotechnol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Monolayer semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) represent a unique class of two-dimensional (2D) electron systems. Their atomically thin structure facilitates gate tunability just like graphene does, but unlike graphene, TMDs have the advantage of a sizable band gap and strong spin-orbit coupling. Measurements under large magnetic fields have revealed an unusual Landau level (LL) structure, distinct from other 2D electron systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41565-020-0685-6DOI Listing

Ultrastable monodisperse polymer glass formed by physical vapour deposition.

Nat Mater 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Stable glasses prepared by vapour deposition are an analogue of glassy materials aged for geological timescales. The ability to prepare such materials allows the study of near-ideal glassy systems. We report the preparation and characterization of stable glasses of polymers prepared by physical vapour deposition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-0723-7DOI Listing

Singlemoded THz guidance in bendable TOPAS suspended-core fiber directly drawn from a 3D printer.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 6;10(1):11045. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK.

Terahertz (THz) technology has witnessed a significant growth in a wide range of applications, including spectroscopy, bio-medical sensing, astronomical and space detection, THz tomography, and non-invasive imaging. Current THz microstructured fibers show a complex fabrication process and their flexibility is severely restricted by the relatively large cross-sections, which turn them into rigid rods. In this paper, we demonstrate a simple and novel method to fabricate low-cost THz microstructured fibers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68079-yDOI Listing

Gearing up for a 'monumental' mission to Mars.

Authors:
Amber Dance

Nature 2020 Jul;583(7815):324

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-01933-1DOI Listing

Publisher Correction: Holistic Monte-Carlo optical modelling of biological imaging.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 7;10(1):11440. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68533-xDOI Listing

The cellular heat shock response monitored by chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 6;10(1):11118. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167, Mannheim, Germany.

CEST-MRI of the rNOE signal has been demonstrated in vitro to be closely linked to the protein conformational state. As the detectability of denaturation and aggregation processes on a physiologically relevant scale in living organisms has yet to be verified, the aim of this study was to perform heat-shock experiments with living cells to monitor the cellular heat-shock response of the rNOE CEST signal. Cancer cells (HepG2) were dynamically investigated after a mild, non-lethal heat-shock of 42 °C for 20 min using an MR-compatible bioreactor system at 9. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68022-1DOI Listing

Strongly correlated superfluid order parameters from dc Josephson supercurrents.

Science 2020 Jul;369(6499):84-88

Istituto Nazionale di Ottica del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR-INO), 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.

The direct-current (dc) Josephson effect provides a phase-sensitive tool for investigating superfluid order parameters. We report on the observation of dc Josephson supercurrents in strongly interacting fermionic superfluids across a tunneling barrier in the absence of any applied potential difference. For sufficiently strong barriers, we observed a sinusoidal current-phase relation, in agreement with Josephson's seminal prediction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaz2463DOI Listing

In-Situ X-ray Imaging Of Sublimating Spin-Frozen Solutions.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Jul 1;13(13). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Radiation Physics, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86/N12, B-9000 Gent, Belgium.

Spin-freeze-drying is a promising technique to enable long-term storage of pharmaceutical unit doses of aqueous drug solutions. To investigate the sublimation of the ice during the primary phase of freeze-drying, X-ray imaging can yield crucial temporally resolved information on the local dynamics. In this paper, we describe a methodology to investigate the sublimation front during single unit-dose freeze-drying using 4D in-situ X-ray imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13132953DOI Listing

The Impact of Composition and Morphology on Ionic Conductivity of Silk/Cellulose Bio-Composites Fabricated from Ionic Liquid and Varying Percentages of Coagulation Agents.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 30;21(13). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Camden, NJ 08102, USA.

Blended biocomposites created from the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between polysaccharides and structural proteins exhibit useful and unique properties. However, engineering these biopolymers into applicable forms is challenging due to the coupling of the material's physicochemical properties to its morphology, and the undertaking that comes with controlling this. In this particular study, numerous properties of the silk and microcrystalline cellulose biocomposites blended using ionic liquid and regenerated with various coagulation agents were investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134695DOI Listing

Ion-Selective Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors for Monitoring Drug Effects on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Activation in Live Cells.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Jun 30;20(13). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Physics and Astronomy and Institute of Applied Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

We developed ion-selective field-effect transistor (FET) sensors with floating electrodes for the monitoring of the potassium ion release by the stimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on PC12 cells. Here, ion-selective valinomycin-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membranes were coated on the floating electrode-based carbon nanotube (CNT) FETs to build the sensors. The sensors could selectively measure potassium ions with a minimum detection limit of 1 nM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20133680DOI Listing

Charge Accumulation of Amplified Spontaneous Emission in a Conjugated Polymer Chain and Its Dynamical Phonon Spectra.

Molecules 2020 Jun 30;25(13). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China.

In this article, the detailed photoexcitation dynamics which combines nonadiabatic molecular dynamics with electronic transitions shows the occurrence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in conjugated polymers, accompanied by spontaneous electric polarization. The elaborate molecular dynamic process of ultrafast photoexcitation can be described as follows: Continuous external optical pumping (laser of 70 µJ/cm) not only triggers the appearance of an instantaneous four-level electronic structure but causes population inversion for ASE as well. At the same time, the phonon spectrum of the conjugated polymer changes, and five local infrared lattice vibrational modes form at the two ends, which break the original symmetry in the system and leads to charge accumulation at the ends of the polymer chain without an external electric field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133003DOI Listing

A Structurally Simple Vaccine Candidate Reduces Progression and Dissemination of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

iScience 2020 Jun 6;23(6):101250. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, via della Lastruccia, 3-13, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy. Electronic address:

The Tn antigen is a well-known tumor-associated carbohydrate determinant, often incorporated in glycopeptides to develop cancer vaccines. Herein, four copies of a conformationally constrained mimetic of the antigen TnThr (GalNAc-Thr) were conjugated to the adjuvant CRM197, a protein licensed for human use. The resulting vaccine candidate, mime[4]CRM elicited a robust immune response in a triple-negative breast cancer mouse model, correlated with high frequency of CD4+ T cells and low frequency of M2-type macrophages, which reduces tumor progression and lung metastasis growth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101250DOI Listing

Photostimulation for In Vitro Optogenetics with High-Power Blue Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

Adv Biosyst 2019 Mar 16;3(3):e1800290. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Organic Semiconductor Centre, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, KY16 9SS, St Andrews, UK.

Optogenetics, photostimulation of neural tissues rendered sensitive to light, is widely used in neuroscience to modulate the electrical excitability of neurons. For effective optical excitation of neurons, light wavelength and power density must fit with the expression levels and biophysical properties of the genetically encoded light-sensitive ion channels used to confer light sensitivity on cells-most commonly, channelrhodopsins (ChRs). As light sources, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) offer attractive properties for miniaturized implantable devices for in vivo optical stimulation, but they do not yet operate routinely at the optical powers required for optogenetics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adbi.201800290DOI Listing

Manipulation of Single Cells Using a Ferromagnetic Nanorod Cluster Actuated by Weak AC Magnetic Fields.

Adv Biosyst 2019 Jan 17;3(1):e1800246. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.

A unique noncontact single cell manipulation technique based on the actuation of magnetic nanorods (MNRs) or clusters (MCs) by nonuniform alternating magnetic fields (nuAMFs) is demonstrated. Compared to the actuation of MNRs/MCs by conventional magnetophoresis, the motion of MNRs/MCs actuated by nuAMFs can be tuned by additional parameters including the shape of MNRs/MCs and the frequency of the applied magnetic fields. The manipulation of a single cell by an actuated MNR/MC are divided into five stages, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adbi.201800246DOI Listing
January 2019

Spectral X-ray imaging: Conditions under which propagation-based phase-contrast is beneficial.

Phys Med Biol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, AUSTRALIA.

Energy-resolved attenuation data in spectral X-ray imaging enables material decomposition, in which the different materials inside an object can be identified and separated virtually. Material decomposition has the drawback of increased noise in the resulting material images relative to the measured images. Recently, spectral X-ray imaging was combined with propagation-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging, an X-ray technique that has the potential to greatly reduce image noise by utilizing wave-optical effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/aba318DOI Listing

Accurate EELS background subtraction - an adaptable method in MATLAB.

Ultramicroscopy 2020 Jun 25;217:113052. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom; Nanoscale and Microscale Research Centre, Cripps South, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2020.113052DOI Listing

Fast diffraction-limited image recovery through turbulence via subsampled bispectrum analysis.

Opt Lett 2019 Dec;44(24):5985-5988

Imaging through temporally changing aberrations is a common challenge that can be found in many different fields such as astronomy, long-range surveillance, and deep tissue bioimaging. Based on the notions originally developed in speckle interferometry, time-varying aberrations can be used to our advantage to obtain diffraction-limited resolution images through turbulence via bispectrum analysis. However, due to the heavy computational load brought on by the triple correlation and the phase extraction process, widespread use has been limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.44.005985DOI Listing
December 2019

Fast Pixelated Detectors in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. Part I: Data Acquisition, Live Processing, and Storage.

Microsc Microanal 2020 Jul 6:1-14. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, GlasgowG12 8QQ, UK.

The use of fast pixelated detectors and direct electron detection technology is revolutionizing many aspects of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The widespread adoption of these new technologies is impeded by the technical challenges associated with them. These include issues related to hardware control, and the acquisition, real-time processing and visualization, and storage of data from such detectors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1431927620001713DOI Listing

Working with a new kind of team: harnessing the wisdom of the crowd in trial identification.

Authors:
Anna Noel-Storr

EFSA J 2019 Jul 8;17(Suppl 1):e170715. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group University of Oxford United Kingdom.

Background: At a time when research output is expanding exponentially, citizen science, the process of engaging willing volunteers in scientific research activities, has an important role to play in helping to manage the information overload. It also creates a model of contribution that enables anyone with an interest in health to contribute meaningfully and in a way that is flexible. Citizen science models have been shown to be extremely effective in other domains such as astronomy and ecology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.e170715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7015498PMC

Lagrangian formulation of Omori's law and analogy with the cosmic Big Rip.

Authors:
Valerio Faraoni

Eur Phys J C Part Fields 2020 19;80(5):445. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bishop's University, 2600 College Street, Sherbrooke, QC J1M 1Z7 Canada.

A recent model predicting Omori's law giving the number of aftershocks per unit time following an earthquake involves a differential equation analogous to the Friedmann equation of cosmology. The beforeshock phase is analogous to an accelerating universe approaching a Big Rip, the main shock to the Big Rip singularity, and the aftershock to a contracting universe. The analogy provides some physical intuition and Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations for Omori's law and its generalizations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-020-8019-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319289PMC

Exploring the Bimodal Solar System via Sample Return from the Main Asteroid Belt: The Case for Revisiting Ceres.

Space Sci Rev 2020 18;216(4):59. Epub 2020 May 18.

Planetary and Space Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA UK.

Sample return from a main-belt asteroid has not yet been attempted, but appears technologically feasible. While the cost implications are significant, the scientific case for such a mission appears overwhelming. As suggested by the "Grand Tack" model, the structure of the main belt was likely forged during the earliest stages of Solar System evolution in response to migration of the giant planets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11214-020-00671-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319314PMC

A Novel multidimensional Boltzmann neutrino transport scheme for core-collapse supernovae.

Mon Not R Astron Soc 2020 Aug 12;496(2):2000-2020. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.

We introduce a new discrete-ordinate scheme for solving the general relativistic (GR) Boltzmann transport equation in the context of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). Our algorithm avoids the need to spell out the complicated advection terms in energy and angle that arise when the transport equation is formulated in spherical polar coordinates, in the comoving frame, or in a GR space-time. We instead approach the problem by calculating the advection of neutrinos across momentum space using an intuitive particle-like approach that has excellent conservation properties and fully accounts for Lorentz boosts, GR effects, and grid geometry terms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa1666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324140PMC

Development of Flat Silicon-Based Mesh Lens Arrays for Millimeter and Sub-millimeter Wave Astronomy.

J Low Temp Phys 2020 24;199(3):923-934. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA USA.

The high sensitivity requirements set by future cosmic microwave background instruments are pushing the current technologies to produce highly performant focal plane arrays with thousands of detectors. The coupling of the detectors to the telescope optics is a challenging task. Current implemented solutions include phased-array antenna-coupled detectors, platelet horn arrays, and lenslet-coupled planar antennas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10909-019-02327-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319422PMC
January 2020

Dynamically constructed network with error correction for accurate ventricle volume estimation.

Med Image Anal 2020 May 13;64:101723. Epub 2020 May 13.

The Department of Medical Imaging, Western University, London, Canada; The Digital Imaging Group of London, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada. Electronic address:

Automated ventricle volume estimation (AVVE) on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images is very important for clinical cardiac disease diagnosis. However, current AVVE methods ignore the error correction for the estimated volume. This results in clinically intolerable ventricle volume estimation error and further leads to wrong ejection fraction (EF) assessment, which significantly limits the application potential of AVVE methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2020.101723DOI Listing

MDockPeP: A Web Server for Blind Prediction of Protein-Peptide Complex Structures.

Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2165:259-272

Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.

Protein-peptide interactions mediate a wide range of important cellular tasks. In silico prediction of protein-peptide complex structure is highly desirable for mechanistic investigation of these processes and for therapeutic design. Recently, we developed a docking-based method for predicting protein-peptide complex structures, which starts with the peptide sequence and globally docks the all-atom, flexible peptide onto the protein structure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0708-4_15DOI Listing
January 2020

Evaluation of the phytoremediation uptake model for predicting heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and Zn) from the soil using Nerium oleander L.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

College of Agriculture, Environment and Nutrition Sciences, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL, 36088, USA.

The experiment was carried out during two seasons (spring and autumn) of the year 2015, in El-Max (industrial zone) and Antoniadis park (control zone), Alexandria, Egypt. Nerium oleander L. plants has been used in this experiment because of its capability to remediate heavy metals (HMs) from the soil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09657-5DOI Listing

Remarkable thermal conductivity enhancement in Ag-decorated graphene nanocomposites based nanofluid by laser liquid solid interaction in ethylene glycol.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 3;10(1):10982. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria, South Africa.

We report on the synthesis and enhanced thermal conductivity of stable Ag-decorated 2-D graphene nanocomposite in ethylene glycol based nanofluid by laser liquid solid interaction. A surfactant free nanofluid of Ag nanoparticles anchored onto the 2-D graphene sheets were synthesized using a two-step laser liquid solid interaction approach. In order to understand a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at the fundamental frequency (λ = 1,064 nm) to ablate Ag and graphite composite target submerged in ethylene glycol (EG) to form AgNPs decorated 2-D GNs-EG based nanofluid. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67418-3DOI Listing

Real-time gap-free dynamic waveform spectral analysis with nanosecond resolutions through analog signal processing.

Nat Commun 2020 Jul 3;11(1):3309. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications (INRS-EMT), 800 de la Gauchetière Ouest, Suite 6900, H5A 1K6, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Real-time tracking of a waveform frequency content is essential for detection and analysis of fast rare events in communications, radar, radio astronomy, spectroscopy, sensing etc. This requires a method that can provide real-time spectrum analysis (RT-SA) of high-speed waveforms in a continuous and gap-free fashion. Digital signal processing is inefficient to perform RT-SA over instantaneous frequency bandwidths above the sub-GHz range and/or to track spectral changes faster than a few microseconds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17119-2DOI Listing

Observation of Weyl fermions in a magnetic non-centrosymmetric crystal.

Nat Commun 2020 Jul 3;11(1):3356. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Laboratory for Topological Quantum Matter and Advanced Spectroscopy (B7), Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08544, USA.

The absence of inversion symmetry in non-centrosymmetric materials has a fundamental role in the emergence of a vast number of fascinating phenomena, like ferroelectricity, second harmonic generation, and Weyl fermions. The removal of time-reversal symmetry in such systems further extends the variety of observable magneto-electric and topological effects. Here we report the striking topological properties in the non-centrosymmetric spin-orbit magnet PrAlGe by combining spectroscopy and transport measurements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16879-1DOI Listing

The temperature dependence of kinesin motor-protein mechanochemistry.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Physics and Astronomy and LaserLaB, Vrije Universiteit, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Biophysical studies of the mechanochemical cycle of kinesin motors are essential for understanding the mechanism of energy conversion. Here, we report a systematic study of the impact of temperature on velocity and run length of homodimeric Drosophila kinesin-1, homodimeric C. elegans OSM-3 and heterodimeric C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.06.004DOI Listing

Monte Carlo simulation of uncertainty to identify barriers to optimizing blood pressure control.

J Hypertens 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

King's College London British Heart Foundation Centre, School of Cardiovascular Medicine and Sciences.

Objectives: To assess the impact of variable drug response and measurement error on SBP control.

Methods: We simulated a treat-to-target strategy for populations with different pretreatment SBP, whereby medications were added sequentially until measured SBP (mSBP) less than 140 mmHg. Monte Carlo simulations determined variability of both drug response (drugeff ± σdrug; 10 ± 5 mmHg base case) and measurement error (σmeas; 10 mmHg base case) of true SBP (tSBP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002546DOI Listing

Capacity enhancement of polylithiated functionalized boron nitride nanotubes: an efficient hydrogen storage medium.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

School of Molecular Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009, Australia.

By using first principles density functional theory simulations, we report detailed geometries, electronic structures and hydrogen (H2) storage properties of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) doped with selective polylithiated molecules (CLi2). We find that unsaturated bonding of Li-1s states with BNNT significantly enhances the system stability and hinders the Li-Li clustering effect, which can be detrimental for reversible H2 storage. The H2 adsorption mechanism is explained on the basis of polarization caused by the cationic Li+ of CLi2 molecules bonded with BNNT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp01237hDOI Listing

Effects of grain alignment efficiency on synthetic dust polarization observations of molecular clouds.

Mon Not R Astron Soc 2019 Dec 21;490(2):2760-2778. Epub 2019 Sep 21.

Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA.

It is well known that the polarized continuum emission from magnetically aligned dust grains is determined to a large extent by local magnetic field structure. However, the observed significant anticorrelation between polarization fraction and column density may be strongly affected, perhaps even dominated by variations in grain alignment efficiency with local conditions, in contrast to standard assumptions of a spatially homogeneous grain alignment efficiency. Here we introduce a generic way to incorporate heterogeneous grain alignment into synthetic polarization observations of molecular clouds (MCs), through a simple model where the grain alignment efficiency depends on the local gas density as a power law. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz2628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307389PMC
December 2019

Mantle redox state drives outgassing chemistry and atmospheric composition of rocky planets.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 2;10(1):10907. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center, Rutherfordstr. 2, 12489, Berlin, Germany.

Volcanic degassing of planetary interiors has important implications for their corresponding atmospheres. The oxidation state of rocky interiors affects the volatile partitioning during mantle melting and subsequent volatile speciation near the surface. Here we show that the mantle redox state is central to the chemical composition of atmospheres while factors such as planetary mass, thermal state, and age mainly affect the degassing rate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67751-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331660PMC

Quantification of muco-obstructive lung disease variability in mice via laboratory X-ray velocimetry.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 2;10(1):10859. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

To effectively diagnose, monitor and treat respiratory disease clinicians should be able to accurately assess the spatial distribution of airflow across the fine structure of lung. This capability would enable any decline or improvement in health to be located and measured, allowing improved treatment options to be designed. Current lung function assessment methods have many limitations, including the inability to accurately localise the origin of global changes within the lung. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67633-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331693PMC

Contrast modes in a 3D ion transmission approach at keV energies.

Ultramicroscopy 2020 Jun 23;217:113051. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala, Sweden.

We present options for visualizing contrast maps in 3D ion transmission experiments. Simultaneous measurement of angular distributions and flight time of ions transmitted through self-supporting, single-crystalline silicon foils allows for mapping of intensity and different energy loss moments. The transmitted projectiles were detected mainly for random beam-sample orientation using pulsed beams of He ions and protons with incident energies 50 and 200 keV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2020.113051DOI Listing

Characterizing the cellular architecture of dynamically remodeling vascular tissue using 3-D image analysis and virtual reconstruction.

Mol Biol Cell 2020 Jul 2:mbcE20020091. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Denver, CO 80208.

Epithelial tubules form critical structures in lung, kidney and vascular tissues. However, the processes that control their morphogenesis and physiological expansion and contraction are not well understood. Here we examine the dynamic remodeling of epithelial tubes  using a novel model system: the extracorporeal vasculature of , in which the disruption of the basement membrane triggers rapid, massive vascular retraction without loss of barrier function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.E20-02-0091DOI Listing

Integration of graphene and two-dimensional ferroelectrics: properties and related functional devices.

Nanoscale Horiz 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Institute of Physics & University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China. and CAS Centre for Excellence in Topological Quantum Computation, Beijing 100190, P. R. China and Songshan Lake Materials Laboratory, Dongguan 523808, China.

Ferroelectric (FE) thin films have been investigated for many years due to their broad applications in electronic devices. It was recently demonstrated that FE functionality persists in ultrathin films, possibly even in monolayers of two-dimensional (2D) FEs. However, the feasibility of 2D-based FE functional devices remains an open challenge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nh00255kDOI Listing

Internal conversion and intersystem crossing dynamics of uracil upon double thionation: a time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy study in the gas phase.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

The photophysical properties of 2,4-dithiouracil (2,4-DTU) in the gas phase are studied by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) with three different excitation wavelengths in direct extension of previous work on uracil (U), 2-thiouracil (2-TU) and 4-thiouracil (4-TU). Non-radiative deactivation in the canonical nucleobases like uracil mainly occurs via internal conversion (IC) along singlet excited states, although intersystem crossing (ISC) to a long-lived triplet state was confirmed to play a minor role. In thionated uracils, ISC to the triplet state becomes ultrafast and highly efficient with a quantum yield near unity; however, the lifetime of the triplet state is strongly dependent on the position of the sulfur atom. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp02145hDOI Listing

TimeTrial: An Interactive Application for Optimizing the Design and Analysis of Transcriptomic Times-Series Data in Circadian Biology Research.

J Biol Rhythms 2020 Jul 2:748730420934672. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Biostatistics Division, Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

The circadian rhythm drives the oscillatory expression of thousands of genes across all tissues, coordinating physiological processes. The effect of this rhythm on health has generated increasing interest in discovering genes under circadian control by searching for periodic patterns in transcriptomic time-series experiments. While algorithms for detecting cycling transcripts have advanced, there remains little guidance quantifying the effect of experimental design and analysis choices on cycling detection accuracy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0748730420934672DOI Listing

Quantitative Imaging of B1 Cyclin Expression Across the Cell Cycle Using Green Fluorescent Protein Tagging and Epifluorescence.

Cytometry A 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

In this article, we report the number of cyclin B1 proteins tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in fixed U-2 OS cells across the cell cycle. We use a quantitative analysis of epifluorescence to determine the number of eGFP molecules in a nondestructive way, and integrated over the cell we find 10 to 10 molecules. Based on the measured number of eGFP tagged cyclin B1 proteins, knowledge of cyclin B1 dynamics through the cell cycle, and the cell morphology, we identify the stages of cells in the cell cycle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.24038DOI Listing

Macromolecule crowding effects on the phase separation of semi-flexible polymer in spherical confined space.

J Biol Phys 2020 Jun 1;46(2):223-231. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

College of Physics, Guizhou University, Guiyang, 550025, China.

Current works focus on detecting macromolecule crowding effects on the phase separation of the mixture between semi-flexible polymer and crowders (hydrophilic polymers) in confined space by Monte Carlo simulations. With the increasing addition of crowders into the spherical confined space, the semi-flexible polymer was first compressed into a condensed state from the initial coil state, and then the condensed conformation expanded and deposited on the inner surface of the spherical confined space with an extended state. The phase diagram in the phase space of the volume fraction of crowders and the scaled radius of spherical confined space by crowder diameter, and the direct conformation transition of semi-flexible polymer have validated the phase transition process successfully. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10867-020-09550-9DOI Listing

Demonstration of a pseudo-magnetization based simultaneous write and read operation in a CoFeB/Pb(MgNb)TiO heterostructure.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 1;10(1):10791. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA.

Taking advantage of the magnetoelectric and its inverse effect, this article demonstrates strain-mediated magnetoelectric write and read operations simultaneously in CoFeB/Pb(MgNb)TiO heterostructures based on a pseudo-magnetization µ ≡ m- m. By applying an external DC-voltage across a (011)-cut PMN-PT substrate, the ferroelectric polarization is re-oriented, which results in an anisotropic in-plane strain that transfers to the CoFeB thin film and changes its magnetic anisotropy H. The change in H in-turn results in a 90° rotation of the magnetic easy axis for sufficiently high voltages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67776-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329837PMC