47,033 results match your criteria Astrocytoma

Long Term Survivals in Aggressive Primary Brain Malignancies Treated With an Adjuvant Ketogenic Diet.

Front Nutr 2022 3;9:770796. Epub 2022 May 3.

Colleges of Human and Osteopathic Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States.

Aggressive primary brain tumors (APBT) glioblastoma multiforme and grade IV astrocytoma are treated with multimodality treatments that include surgery to remove as much tumor as possible without sacrificing neurological function followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy usually temozolomide. Survivals in adults are in the range of 8-16 months. The addition of a ketogenic diet (KD) to rodents with transplanted brain tumors increased survival in nine of 11 animals to over 299 days compared to survival in untreated controls of 33 days and radiation only controls of 38 days. Read More

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Survival rates of children and young adolescents with CNS tumors improved in the Netherlands since 1990: A population-based study.

Neurooncol Adv 2022 Jan-Dec;4(1):vdab183. Epub 2021 Dec 21.

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Introduction: Survival of children with central nervous system (CNS) tumors varies largely between countries. For the Netherlands, detailed population-based estimation of incidence, survival, and mortality of pediatric CNS tumors are lacking but are needed to evaluate progress.

Methods: All CNS tumors diagnosed in patients <18 years during 1990-2017 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Read More

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December 2021

EMR adoption in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a template to index pediatric central nervous system tumor care and a review of preliminary neuro-oncologic observations.

Childs Nerv Syst 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, National Institute of Neurosciences and Hospital (NINS&H), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Purpose: To describe the design, implementation, and adoption of a simplified electronic medical record (EMR) and its use in documenting pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumors at a tertiary care referral hospital in South-East Asia.

Methods: A novel EMR, cataloguing pediatric CNS tumors was used to collect data from August 2017 to March 2020 at National Institute of Neurosciences and Hospital (NINS&H) in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Results: Two hundred forty-nine pediatric patients with a CNS tumor were admitted to NINS&H. Read More

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Diffuse glioma, not otherwise specified: imaging-based risk stratification achieves histomolecular-level prognostication.

Eur Radiol 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: To determine whether imaging-based risk stratification enables prognostication in diffuse glioma, NOS (not otherwise specified).

Methods: Data from 220 patients classified as diffuse glioma, NOS, between January 2011 and December 2020 were retrospectively included. Two neuroradiologists analyzed pre-surgical CT and MRI to assign gliomas to the three imaging-based risk types considering well-known imaging phenotypes (e. Read More

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Monomodality versus Combined Therapy in Optic Pathway Gliomas-20-Year Experience from a Singapore Children's Hospital.

Front Surg 2022 2;9:827675. Epub 2022 May 2.

Neurosurgical Service, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.

Introduction: The treatment of pediatric optic pathway gliomas (OPG) is challenging. At present, most centers provide individualized treatment to maximize progression free survival (PFS) and minimize morbidity. We aim to report our experience in the management of pediatric OPG, and investigate factors associated with an increased duration of remission after treatment. Read More

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A Window of Opportunity to Overcome Therapeutic Failure in Neuro-Oncology.

Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2022 Apr;42:1-8

Department of Neurosurgery, Barrow Neurologic Institute, Phoenix, AZ.

Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain neoplasm and it remains one of the most difficult-to-treat human cancers despite decades of discovery and translational and clinical research. Many advances have been made in our understanding of the genetics and epigenetics of gliomas in general; yet, there remains an urgent need to develop novel agents that will improve the survival of patients with this deadly disease. What sets glioblastoma apart from all other cancers is that it develops and spreads within an organ that renders tumor cells inaccessible to most systemically administered agents because of the presence of the blood-brain barrier. Read More

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Major Features of the 2021 WHO Classification of CNS Tumors.

Neurotherapeutics 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Pathology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Advances in the understanding of the molecular biology of central nervous system (CNS) tumors prompted a new World Health Organization (WHO) classification scheme in 2021, only 5 years after the prior iteration. The 2016 version was the first to include specific molecular alterations in the diagnoses of a few tumors, but the 2021 system greatly expanded this approach, with over 40 tumor types and subtypes now being defined by their key molecular features. Many tumors have also been reconceptualized into new "supercategories," including adult-type diffuse gliomas, pediatric-type diffuse low- and high-grade gliomas, and circumscribed astrocytic gliomas. Read More

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Recent Molecular and Genetic Findings in Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors.

Neurospine 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

The study of genetic alterations and molecular biology in central nervous system (CNS) tumors has improved the accuracy of estimations of patient prognosis and tumor categorization. Therefore, the updated 2021 World Health Organization (WHO) classification includes various diagnostic genes, molecules, and pathways for diagnosis, as well as histological findings. These findings are expected both to have diagnostic applications and to facilitate new targeted therapies that target tumor-specific genetic changes and molecular biology. Read More

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Optic Neuropathy Revealing Severe Superficial Siderosis in the Setting of Long-standing Low-grade Intracranial Neoplasm.

Neuroophthalmology 2022 2;46(3):171-177. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Ophthalmology Department, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium.

Two cases of optic neuropathy due to superficial siderosis (SS) are reported in two patients, aged 29 and 38 years, operated for intracranial neoplasms, the first one with a desmoplasic infantile ganglioglioma excised in 1991, and the other one with a pilocytic astrocytoma, operated on in 1997, 1998 and 2016. Both patients presented with progressive loss of visual acuity, as a result of bilateral optic nerve atrophy, as well as unsteadiness, ataxic gait and hearing loss. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spine, including gradient echo (GRE) T2-weighted acquisitions, revealed thin optic nerves and strong hypointensity with susceptibility artefacts corresponding to haemosiderin deposits within the meningeal layers of the spine, the infra- and supratentorial spaces of the brain and the peri-optic sheaths in both patients. Read More

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Type 1 Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor Nuclear Localization in High-Grade Glioma Cells Enhances Motility, Metabolism, and Tumorigenesis.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 27;13:849279. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Centro de Investigaciones Endocrinológicas "Dr. César Bergadá" CONICET-FEI-División de Endocrinología, Hospital de Niños R. Gutierrez, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Gliomas are the most frequent solid tumors in children. Among these, high-grade gliomas are less common in children than in adults, though they are similar in their aggressive clinical behavior. In adults, glioblastoma is the most lethal tumor of the central nervous system. Read More

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Towards real-time intraoperative tissue interrogation for REIMS-guided glioma surgery.

J Mass Spectrom Adv Clin Lab 2022 Apr 29;24:80-89. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Maastricht MultiModal Molecular Imaging (M4I) Institute, Division of Imaging Mass Spectrometry, Maastricht University, 6229 ER Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Introduction: The main goal of brain tumour surgery is to maximize tumour resection while avoiding neurological deficits. Accurate characterization of tissue and delineation of resection margins are, therefore, essential to achieve optimal surgical results.

Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to develop and validate a mass spectrometry- based technique for the molecular characterization of high- and low-grade glioma tissue during surgery. Read More

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Epigenetic Underpinnings of Inflammation: A Key to Unlock the Tumor Microenvironment in Glioblastoma.

Front Immunol 2022 29;13:869307. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

State Key Laboratory of Southwestern Characteristic Chinese Medicine Resources, School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults, and immunotherapies and genetic therapies for GBM have evolved dramatically over the past decade, but GBM therapy is still facing a dilemma due to the high recurrence rate. The inflammatory microenvironment is a general signature of tumors that accelerates epigenetic changes in GBM and helps tumors avoid immunological surveillance. GBM tumor cells and glioma-associated microglia/macrophages are the primary contributors to the inflammatory condition, meanwhile the modification of epigenetic events including DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and histone methylation and deacetylases involved in this pathological process of GBM, finally result in exacerbating the proliferation, invasion, and migration of GBM. Read More

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Mitochondrial 1555 G>A variant as a potential risk factor for childhood glioblastoma.

Neurooncol Adv 2022 Jan-Dec;4(1):vdac045. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Center for Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Population and Public Health Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: Childhood glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive disease with low survival, and its etiology, especially concerning germline genetic risk, is poorly understood. Mitochondria play a key role in putative tumorigenic processes relating to cellular oxidative metabolism, and mitochondrial DNA variants were not previously assessed for association with pediatric brain tumor risk.

Methods: We conducted an analysis of 675 mitochondrial DNA variants in 90 childhood GBM cases and 2789 controls to identify enrichment of mitochondrial variant associated with GBM risk. Read More

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Impact of childhood cerebellar tumor surgery on cognition revealed by precuneus hyperconnectivity.

Neurooncol Adv 2022 Jan-Dec;4(1):vdac050. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Childhood cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas harbor excellent overall survival rates after surgical resection, but the patients may exhibit specific cognitive and behavioral problems. Functional MRI has catalyzed insights into brain functional systems and has already been linked with the neuropsychological performance. We aimed to exploit the question of whether resting-state functional MRI can be used as a biomarker for the cognitive outcome assessment of these patients. Read More

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The Diagnostic Significance of CXCL13 in M2 Tumor Immune Microenvironment of Human Astrocytoma.

Pathol Oncol Res 2022 28;28:1610230. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

CXCL13 may act as a mediator of tumor-associated macrophage immunity during malignant progression. The present study clarifies the clinicopathological significances of CXCL13 and its corresponding trend with M2 macrophage in human astrocytoma. The predictive potential of CXCL13 was performed using 695 glioma samples derived from TCGA lower-grade glioma and glioblastoma (GBMLGG) dataset. Read More

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The Role of NRF2/KEAP1 Pathway in Glioblastoma: Pharmacological Implications.

Med Oncol 2022 May 15;39(5):91. Epub 2022 May 15.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) grade IV glioma is the most frequent and deadly intracranial cancer. This tumor is determined by unrestrained progression, uncontroled angiogenesis, high infiltration and weak response to treatment, which is chiefly because of abnormal signaling pathways in the tumor. A member related to the Cap 'n' collar family of keypart-leucine zipper transcription agents-the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulates adaptive protection answers by organized upregulation of many genes that produce the cytoprotective factors. Read More

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Loss of dimethylated H3K27 (H3K27me2) expression is not a specific marker of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST): An immunohistochemical study of 137 cases, with emphasis on MPNST and melanocytic tumors.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2022 May 6;59:151967. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 59005, United States of America. Electronic address:

Introduction: Loss-of-function mutations in EED and SUZ12, core components of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), occur in >90% of sporadic and radiation-associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) and in roughly 70% of NF1-related tumors. PRC2 inactivation results in loss of H3K27me3 expression and aberrant downstream transcription. H3K27me3 expression is lost in 40-90% of spindle cell MPNST but is not specific. Read More

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Investigating the Stability of Six Phenolic TMZ Ester Analogues, Incubated in the Presence of Porcine Liver Esterase and Monitored by HPLC.

Molecules 2022 May 5;27(9). Epub 2022 May 5.

Kindeva Drug Delivery, Bakewell Road, Loughborough LE11 5RB, UK.

Previous published data from our group showed the encouraging in vitro activities of six phenolic temozolomide (TMZ) ester analogues (ES8-ES12 and ES14) with up to a five-fold increase in potency compared to TMZ against glioblastoma multiform cell lines and TMZ-resistant O-methylguanine-DNA methyl transferase (MGMT)-positive primary cells. This study investigated the stabilities of the six phenolic TMZ ester analogues in the presence of porcine liver esterase (PLE) as a hydrolytic enzyme, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), monitored by a diode-array detector (DAD). Determining the rates of hydrolysis of the esters provided a useful insight into the feasibility of progressing them to the next phase of drug development. Read More

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Phenolic Profile and Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Antiproliferative Activity of L. Male Flowers.

Molecules 2022 Apr 26;27(9). Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department Food Technology and Human Nutrition, Institute of Food Technology and Nutrition, University of Rzeszow, 4 Zelwerowicza St., 35-601 Rzeszow, Poland.

L., walnut, is a large, long-living tree, cultivated in temperate climates around the world. It is highly appreciated for its nutritional kernels and high-quality timber. Read More

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Knockout in U251 Glioblastoma Cells Reduces Tumor Sphere Formation by Increasing Oxidative Stress and Suppressing Methionine Dependency.

Nutrients 2022 Apr 30;14(9). Epub 2022 Apr 30.

INSERM U1256, NGERE-Nutrition, Genetics, and Environmental Risk Exposure, University of Lorraine, 54500 Nancy, France.

Previously, the in vitro growth of cancer stem cells in the form of tumor spheres from five different brain cancer cell lines was found to be methionine-dependent. As this earlier work indicated that , a folate-dependent mitochondria aldehyde dehydrogenase gene, is upregulated in glioblastoma stem cells, we invalidated this gene using CRISPR-cas 9 technique in this present work. We reported here that this invalidation was effective in U251 glioblastoma cells, and no cas9 off target site could be detected by genome sequencing of the two independent knockout targeting either exon I or exon III. Read More

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The Cytoskeleton Effectors Rho-Kinase (ROCK) and Mammalian Diaphanous-Related (mDia) Formin Have Dynamic Roles in Tumor Microtube Formation in Invasive Glioblastoma Cells.

Cells 2022 May 5;11(9). Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Cell and Cancer Biology, University of Toledo Health Science Campus, Toledo, OH 43614, USA.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a progressive and lethal brain cancer. Malignant control of actin and microtubule cytoskeletal mechanics facilitates two major GBM therapeutic resistance strategies-diffuse invasion and tumor microtube network formation. Actin and microtubule reorganization is controlled by Rho-GTPases, which exert their effects through downstream effector protein activation, including Rho-associated kinases (ROCK) 1 and 2 and mammalian diaphanous-related (mDia) formins (mDia1, 2, and 3). Read More

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Focused Ultrasound Treatment of a Spheroid In Vitro Tumour Model.

Cells 2022 Apr 30;11(9). Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Innovation Center Computer Assisted Surgery, Institute at the Faculty of Medicine, Leipzig University, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

Focused ultrasound (FUS) is a non-invasive technique producing a variety of biological effects by either thermal or mechanical mechanisms of ultrasound interaction with the targeted tissue. FUS could bring benefits, e.g. Read More

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XRN2 Is Required for Cell Motility and Invasion in Glioblastomas.

Cells 2022 Apr 28;11(9). Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Sttephenson Cancer Center University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.

One of the major obstacles in treating brain cancers, particularly glioblastoma multiforme, is the occurrence of secondary tumor lesions that arise in areas of the brain and are inoperable while obtaining resistance to current therapeutic agents. Thus, gaining a better understanding of the cellular factors that regulate glioblastoma multiforme cellular movement is imperative. In our study, we demonstrate that the 5'-3' exoribonuclease XRN2 is important to the invasive nature of glioblastoma. Read More

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Effects of Long-Term Temozolomide Treatment on Glioblastoma and Astrocytoma WHO Grade 4 Stem-like Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 May 7;23(9). Epub 2022 May 7.

Section Experimental Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Würzburg, D-97080 Würzburg, Germany.

Glioblastoma leads to a fatal course within two years in more than two thirds of patients. An essential cornerstone of therapy is chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ). The effect of TMZ is counteracted by the cellular repair enzyme O-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). Read More

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Hybrid Self-Assembling Nanoparticles Encapsulating Zoledronic Acid: A Strategy for Fostering Their Clinical Use.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 May 5;23(9). Epub 2022 May 5.

Research and Advanced Technologies Department, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Via Elio Chianesi, 53, 00144 Rome, Italy.

Self-assembling nanoparticles (SANPs) promise an effective delivery of bisphosphonates or microRNAs in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) and are obtained through the sequential mixing of four components immediately before use. The self-assembling approach facilitates technology transfer, but the complexity of the SANP preparation protocol raises significant concerns in the clinical setting due to the high risk of human errors during the procedure. In this work, it was hypothesized that the SANP preparation protocol could be simplified by using freeze-dried formulations. Read More

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Allopregnanolone Promotes Migration and Invasion of Human Glioblastoma Cells through the Protein Tyrosine Kinase c-Src Activation.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Apr 30;23(9). Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Unidad de Investigación en Reproducción Humana, Instituto Nacional de Perinatología-Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuidad de México 04510, Mexico.

Glioblastomas (GBs) are the most aggressive and common primary malignant brain tumors. Steroid hormone progesterone (P4) and its neuroactive metabolites, such as allopregnanolone (3α-THP) are synthesized by neural, glial, and malignant GB cells. P4 promotes cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion of human GB cells at physiological concentrations. Read More

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Antagonizing RARγ Drives Necroptosis of Cancer Stem Cells.

Geoffrey Brown

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Apr 27;23(9). Epub 2022 Apr 27.

School of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Clinical Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.

There is a need for agents that eliminate cancer stem cells, which sustain cancer and are also largely responsible for disease relapse and metastasis. Conventional chemotherapeutics and radiotherapy are often highly effective against the bulk of cancer cells, which are proliferating, but spare cancer stem cells. Therapeutics that target cancer stem cells may also provide a cure for cancer. Read More

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Glioblastoma Stem Cells-Useful Tools in the Battle against Cancer.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Apr 21;23(9). Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Neurosurgical Department, Clinical Hospital "Bagdasar-Arseni", 041915 Bucharest, Romania.

Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are cells with a self-renewal ability and capacity to initiate tumors upon serial transplantation that have been linked to tumor cell heterogeneity. Most standard treatments fail to completely eradicate GSCs, causing the recurrence of the disease. GSCs could represent one reason for the low efficacy of cancer therapy and for the short relapse time. Read More

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Crosstalk between β-Catenin and CCL2 Drives Migration of Monocytes towards Glioblastoma Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Apr 20;23(9). Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Department of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, University Hospital Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany.

Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype glioblastoma (GBM) is a fast growing and highly heterogeneous tumor, often characterized by the presence of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). The plasticity of GSCs results in therapy resistance and impairs anti-tumor immune response by influencing immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Previously, β-catenin was associated with stemness in GBM as well as with immune escape mechanisms. Read More

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