43,292 results match your criteria Astrocytoma

Diabetes in Individuals With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Treated With mTOR Inhibitors.

Pediatr Neurol 2021 Apr 2;120:7-10. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Neurology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Background: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder that is manifested in multiple body systems. A mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor (mTORi), either everolimus or sirolimus, is now routinely prescribed for multiple clinical manifestations of TSC, including subependymal giant cell astrocytoma and epilepsy. These medications are generally well tolerated. Read More

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Outcomes of salvage fractionated re-irradiation combined with bevacizumab for recurrent high-grade gliomas that progressed after bevacizumab treatment*.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neurosurgery and Neuro-Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: There is no standard treatment for patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas who progress after bevacizumab treatment. We evaluated the outcomes of re-irradiation combined with bevacizumab for patients refractory to bevacizumab.

Methods: Between January 2015 and September 2019, patients with progression after bevacizumab treatment were treated with re-irradiation combined with bevacizumab (25 Gy in five fractions). Read More

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Analysis of the EGFR Amplification and CDKN2A Deletion Regulated Transcriptomic Signatures Reveals the Prognostic Significance of in Patients With Glioma.

Front Oncol 2021 20;11:551160. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Medical Research Center, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

This study was conducted in order to analyze the prognostic effects of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and CDKN2A alterations and determine the prognostic significance of EGFR and CDKN2A alterations on regulated genes in patients with glioblastoma (GBM) or lower grade glioma (LGG). The alteration frequencies of EGFR and CDKN2A across 32 tumor types were derived from cBioPortal based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets. The Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine the prognostic significance of EGFR and CDKN2A alterations. Read More

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Hypothalamic Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma in a Child with Lipodystrophy.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Radiology (J.C.B., T.J.K., L.E., J.G.), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Pilomyxoid astrocytoma is a rare form of pediatric CNS malignancy first classified in 2007 by the World Health Organization. The tumors are similar to pilocytic astrocytomas, sharing both some imaging and histologic traits. However, pilomyxoid astrocytomas portend a more ominous prognosis, with more aggressive local tendencies and a greater proclivity for leptomeningeal spread. Read More

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A subset of PARP inhibitors induces lethal telomere fusion in ALT-dependent tumor cells.

Sci Transl Med 2021 May;13(592)

Department of Neurosurgery and The Brain Tumor Center, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.

About 10% of all tumors, including most lower-grade astrocytoma, rely on the alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) mechanism to resolve telomeric shortening and avoid limitations on their growth. Here, we found that dependence on the ALT mechanism made cells hypersensitive to a subset of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi). We found that this hypersensitivity was not associated with PARPi-created genomic DNA damage as in most PARPi-sensitive populations but rather with PARPi-induced telomere fusion. Read More

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The role of sex genotype in paediatric CNS tumour incidence and survival.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.

Purpose: Evidence exists, in CNS germinomas and medulloblastomas (MB), that patient sex significantly influences incidence and outcome. The role of sex genotype in other paediatric CNS tumours remains unclear. This study sought to examine the role of sex genotype in CNS tumour incidence and overall survival (OS). Read More

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Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma in the insula: Case report and review of the literature.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 May 15;65:102300. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Surgery, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman, Jordan.

Introduction: and Importance: Adult Pilocytic Astrocytomas (APA) are infrequent low grade tumors. While supratentorial APA is considered rare, insular APA is extremely rare.

Case Presentation: We present a case of pure insular APA along with surgical outcomes. Read More

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Intramedullary spinal cord lesions in children.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Feb;71(2(B)):775-777

Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi.

Paediatric intramedullary spinal cord lesions are uncommon pathologies, prone to result in dismal prognosis if not managed promptly and aggressively. While children usually present in good functional grades compared to adults, early recognition and treatment is important to improve outcomes. In this review, we present tumour demographics, patient factors, and treatment modalities of intramedullary spinal cord lesions in paediatric patients. Read More

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February 2021

Nasal-alar invasive cutaneous aspergillosis in a patient with anaplastic astrocytoma: A case report.

Clin Case Rep 2021 Apr 8;9(4):2295-2299. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Otolaryngology Department Ambulatory Care Center (ACC) Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC) Doha Qatar.

Invasive aspergillosis is commonly encountered in immunosuppressed patients either primarily through direct inoculation or secondary from blood dissemination. This report describes a case of 53 years old immunocompromised female patient who was diagnosed with frontotemporal anaplastic astrocytoma and developed nasal skin lesion turned to be invasive cutaneous aspergillosis. Read More

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UV spectroscopic method for estimation of temozolomide: Application in stability studies in simulated plasma pH, degradation rate kinetics, formulation design, and selection of dissolution media.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Apr 17;258:119848. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Industrial Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Pilani Campus, India. Electronic address:

Temozolomide (TMZ) is a broad spectrum alkylating agent found effective in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme, refractory anaplastic astrocytoma, and metastatic melanoma. The major drawback associated with TMZ is pH-dependent stability and short half-life. At physiological pH, it undergoes conversion to MTIC (methyltriazine imidazole carboxamide) and AIC (amino imidazole carboxamide), resulting in only 20-30% brain bioavailability. Read More

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Refining the treatment of spinal cord lesions: experience from 500 cases.

Neurosurg Focus 2021 May;50(5):E22

Objective: Tumorous lesions of the spinal cord, as well as some vascular lesions like cavernous hemangiomas, demand careful consideration as to the indication and approach for surgery. As these lesions are rare in any departmental series, refinement of treatment strategies evolves over long periods. In this context, the authors evaluated a series of 500 intramedullary lesions for approach, technique, outcome, complications, and follow-up. Read More

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Clinical Classification of Acquired Concomitant Esotropia.

Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2021 Apr 30;238(4):482-487. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Lausanne, Jules-Gonin Eye Hospital, Fondation Asile des aveugles, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Classification and management of acquired concomitant esotropia is controversial. We sought to establish a simple clinical classification in order to determine in which cases further investigations in search of underlying pathologies are necessary.

Patients And Methods: Observational retrospective study of the files of 175 consecutive patients examined in our unit between 2009 and 2018 for acute convergent strabismus. Read More

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Commentary: The Resection of a Thalamic Pilocytic Astrocytoma Through the Transchoroidal Fissure, Transcallosal Approach: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, Allegheny General Hospital, Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

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Correlation of 4'-[methyl-C]-thiothymidine PET with Gd-enhanced and FLAIR MRI in patients with newly diagnosed glioma.

EJNMMI Res 2021 Apr 30;11(1):42. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa, 761-0793, Japan.

Purpose: To elucidate the biological association between tumor proliferation, tumor infiltration and neovascularization, we analyzed the association between volumetric information of 4'-[methyl-C]thiothymidine (4DST) positron emission tomography (PET) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-weighted gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in patients with newly diagnosed glioma.

Methods: A total of 23 patients with newly diagnosed glioma who underwent both 4DST PET/CT and Gd-enhanced MRI before therapy were available for a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) for tumor (T) and the mean SUV for normal contralateral hemisphere (N) were calculated, and the tumor-to-normal (T/N) ratio was determined. Read More

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Diagnostic Utility of the Immunohistochemical Expression of Serine and Arginine Rich Splicing Factor 1 (SRSF1) in the Differential Diagnosis of Adult Gliomas.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies "G.F. Ingrassia", Anatomic Pathology, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy.

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression and distribution of serine and arginine rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1) in a series of 102 cases of both diffuse and circumscribed adult gliomas to establish the potential diagnostic role of this protein in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors.

Methods: This retrospective immunohistochemical study included 42 glioblastoma cases, 21 oligodendrogliomas, 15 ependymomas, 15 pilocytic astrocytomas, 5 sub-ependymal giant cell astrocytoma and 4 pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas.

Results: Most glioblastoma (81%), oligodendroglioma (71%), sub-ependymal giant cell astrocytoma (80%) and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (75%) cases showed strong SRSF1 immunoexpression, while no detectable staining was found in the majority of ependymomas (87% of cases) and pilocytic astrocytomas (67% of cases). Read More

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The Characterization of a Subependymal Giant Astrocytoma-Like Cell Line from Murine Astrocyte with mTORC1 Hyperactivation.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 16;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Cancer Biology, University of Cincinnati College Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA.

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder caused by inactivating mutations in TSC1 (hamartin) or TSC2 (tuberin), crucial negative regulators of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway. TSC affects multiple organs including the brain. The neurologic manifestation is characterized by cortical tubers, subependymal nodules (SEN), and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) in brain. Read More

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High-Grade Gliomas in Children-A Multi-Institutional Polish Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 24;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Neurooncology and Radiosurgery, Franciszek Lukaszczyk Memorial Oncology Center, 85-796 Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Due to the rarity of high-grade gliomas (HGG) in children, data on this topic are scarce. The study aimed to investigate the long-term results of treatment of children with HGG and to identify factors related to better survival. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients treated for HGG who had the main tumor located outside the brainstem. Read More

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Eye Tumors in Childhood as First Sign of Tumor Predisposition Syndromes: Insights from an Observational Study Conducted in Germany and Austria.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 14;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Institute of Human Genetics, Medical Faculty, University Duisburg-Essen, 45122 Essen, Germany.

Retinoblastoma and other eye tumors in childhood are rare diseases. Many eye tumors are the first signs of a genetic tumor predisposition syndrome and the affected children carry a higher risk of developing other cancers later in life. Clinical and genetic data of all children with eye tumors diagnosed between 2013-2018 in Germany and Austria were collected in a multicenter prospective observational study. Read More

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The Fibronectin Expression Determines the Distinct Progressions of Malignant Gliomas via Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Pathway.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 6;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan.

Due to the increasing incidence of malignant gliomas, particularly glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a simple and reliable GBM diagnosis is needed to screen early the death-threaten patients. This study aimed to identify a protein that can be used to discriminate GBM from low-grade astrocytoma and elucidate further that it has a functional role during malignant glioma progressions. To identify proteins that display low or no expression in low-grade astrocytoma but elevated levels in GBM, glycoprotein fibronectin (FN) was particularly examined according to the mining of the Human Protein Atlas. Read More

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LPA Receptor Promotes Progesterone Receptor Phosphorylation through PKCα in Human Glioblastoma Cells.

Cells 2021 Apr 4;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Departamento de Medicina Genómica y Toxicología Ambiental, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), 04510 Ciudad de México, Mexico.

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) induces a wide range of cellular processes and its signaling is increased in several cancers including glioblastoma (GBM), a high-grade astrocytoma, which is the most common malignant brain tumor. LPA receptor is expressed in GBM cells and its signaling pathways activate protein kinases C (PKCs). A downstream target of PKC, involved in GBM progression, is the intracellular progesterone receptor (PR), which can be phosphorylated by this enzyme, increasing its transcriptional activity. Read More

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Prognostic significance of genome-wide DNA methylation profiles within the randomised, phase 3, EORTC CATNON trial on non-1p/19q deleted anaplastic glioma.

Neuro Oncol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Pathology Department, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Survival in patients with IDH1/2 mutant (mt) anaplastic astrocytomas is highly variable. We have used the prospective phase 3 CATNON trial to identify molecular factors related to outcome in IDH1/2mt anaplastic astrocytoma patients.

Methods: The CATNON trial randomized 751 adult patients with newly diagnosed 1p/19q non-codeleted anaplastic glioma to 59. Read More

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Glutaminolysis dynamics during astrocytoma progression correlates with tumor aggressiveness.

Cancer Metab 2021 Apr 28;9(1):18. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology (LIM 15), Department of Neurology, Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 01246-903, Brazil.

Background: Glioblastoma is the most frequent and high-grade adult malignant central nervous system tumor. The prognosis is still poor despite the use of combined therapy involving maximal surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Metabolic reprogramming currently is recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer. Read More

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A self-immolated fluorogenic agent triggered by HS exhibiting potential anti-glioblastoma activity.

Analyst 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, P. R. China.

Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive type of malignant brain tumor with poor survival and limited therapeutic options. Theranostic anticancer agents with dual functions of diagnosis and therapy are highly attractive. Self-immolation reaction is a promising approach for theranostic prodrugs triggered by the tumor microenvironment. Read More

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Role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in central nervous system tumors: Biological and therapeutic implications.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jun 11;21(6):460. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Laboratorio de Investigación en Patología Experimental, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, Mexico City 06720, México.

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor, whose canonical pathway mainly regulates the genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. However, it can also regulate several responses in a non-canonical manner, such as proliferation, differentiation, cell death and cell adhesion. AhR plays an important role in central nervous system tumors, as it can regulate several cellular responses via different pathways. Read More

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Diffusion MRI in Evaluation of Pediatric Posterior Fossa Tumors.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 Apr 1;22(4):1129-1136. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Background: To evaluate the role of diffusion MRI in differentiating pediatric posterior fossa tumors and determine the cut-off values of ADC ratio to distinguish medulloblastoma from other common tumors.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed MRI of 90 patients (7.5-year median age) with pathologically proven posterior fossa tumors (24 medulloblastoma, 7 ependymoma, 4 anaplastic ependymoma, 13 pilocytic astrocytoma, 30 diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), 4 ATRT, 3 diffuse astrocytoma, 2 high grade astrocytoma, 2 glioblastoma, and 1 low grade glioma). Read More

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High-grade astrocytoma with piloid features (HGAP): the Charité experience with a new central nervous system tumor entity.

J Neurooncol 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Department of Radiation Oncology, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany.

Purpose: High-grade astrocytoma with piloid features (HGAP) is a recently described brain tumor entity defined by a specific DNA methylation profile. HGAP has been proposed to be integrated in the upcoming World Health Organization classification of central nervous system tumors expected in 2021. In this series, we present the first single-center experience with this new entity. Read More

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DCE-MRI in Glioma, Infiltration Zone and Healthy Brain to Assess Angiogenesis: A Biopsy Study.

Clin Neuroradiol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Bonn, Venusberg-Campus 1, 53127, Bonn, Germany.

Purpose: To explore the focal predictability of vascular growth factor expression and neovascularization using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in glioma.

Methods: 120 brain biopsies were taken in vital tumor, infiltration zone and normal brain tissue of 30 glioma patients: 17 IDH(isocitrate dehydrogenase)-wildtype glioblastoma (GBM), 1 IDH-wildtype astrocytoma °III (together prognostic group 1), 3 IDH-mutated GBM (group 2), 3 anaplastic astrocytomas IDH-mutated (group 3), 4 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and 2 low-grade oligodendrogliomas (together prognostic group 4). A mixed linear model evaluated the predictabilities of microvessel density (MVD), vascular area ratio (VAR), mean vessel size (MVS), vascular endothelial growth factor and receptors (VEGF-A, VEGFR‑2) and vascular endothelial-protein tyrosine phosphatase (VE-PTP) expression from Tofts model kinetic and model-free curve parameters. Read More

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Maintenance Therapy With Everolimus for Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma in Patients With Tuberous Sclerosis - Final Results From the EMINENTS Study.

Front Neurol 2021 9;12:581102. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Pediatrics, Oncology and Hematology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

The aim of this EMINENTS prospective, single-center, open-label, single-arm study was to evaluate the cumulative efficacy and safety of reduced doses of everolimus (maintenance therapy) in patients with tuberous sclerosis and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA). The trial included 15 patients who had undergone at least 12 months of treatment with a standard everolimus dose. The dose of everolimus was reduced to three times a week, with a daily dose as in standard regimen. Read More

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Challenges in diagnosis and management of adult spinal cord gliomas.

Rev Neurol (Paris) 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille, France.

Intramedullary spinal cord gliomas have very low incidence rates. They are associated with difficulties in diagnosis and treatment, and cause significant morbidity. Their clinical presentation and their appearance at magnetic resonance imaging are not specific. Read More

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Ultrasound-responsive nutlin-loaded nanoparticles for combined chemotherapy and piezoelectric treatment of glioblastoma cells.

Acta Biomater 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Smart Bio-Interfaces, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, 56025 Pontedera, Italy. Electronic address:

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), also known as grade IV astrocytoma, represents the most aggressive primary brain tumor. The complex genetic heterogeneity, the acquired drug resistance, and the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limit the efficacy of the current therapies, with effectiveness demonstrated only in a small subset of patients. To overcome these issues, here we propose an anticancer approach based on ultrasound-responsive drug-loaded organic piezoelectric nanoparticles. Read More

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