361 results match your criteria Astin Bulletin[Journal]


Towards a new model of trained immunity: Exposure to bacteria and β-glucan protects larval zebrafish against subsequent infections.

Dev Comp Immunol 2022 Jul 31;132:104400. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Once thought to be a feature exclusive to lymphocyte-driven adaptive immunity, immune memory has also been shown to operate as part of the innate immune system following infection to provide an elevated host response to subsequent pathogenic challenge. This evolutionarily conserved process, termed 'trained immunity', enables cells of the innate immune system to 'remember' previous pathogen encounters and mount stronger responses to the same, or different, pathogens after returning to a non-activated state. Here we show that challenging larval zebrafish, that exclusively rely on innate immunity, with live or heat-killed Salmonella typhimurium provides protection to subsequent infection with either Salmonella typhimurium or Streptococcus iniae, that lasts for at least 12 days. Read More

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Can families help veterans get more from PTSD treatment? A randomized clinical trial examining Prolonged Exposure with and without family involvement.

Trials 2022 Mar 30;23(1):243. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Center for Care Delivery and Outcomes Research, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder occurs in as many as one in five combat veterans and is associated with a host of negative, long-term consequences to the individual, their families, and society at large. Trauma-focused treatments, such as Prolonged Exposure, result in clinically significant symptom relief for many. Adherence to these treatments (i. Read More

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Comparison of Prolonged Exposure vs Cognitive Processing Therapy for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among US Veterans: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Netw Open 2022 01 4;5(1):e2136921. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, California.

Importance: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent and serious mental health problem. Although there are effective psychotherapies for PTSD, there is little information about their comparative effectiveness.

Objective: To compare the effectiveness of prolonged exposure (PE) vs cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for treating PTSD in veterans. Read More

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January 2022

Optimal surveillance strategies for patients with stage 1 cutaneous melanoma post primary tumour excision: three systematic reviews and an economic model.

Health Technol Assess 2021 11;25(64):1-178

Institute of Translation and Clinical Studies, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Background: Malignant melanoma is the fifth most common cancer in the UK, with rates continuing to rise, resulting in considerable burden to patients and the NHS.

Objectives: The objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of current and alternative follow-up strategies for stage IA and IB melanoma.

Review Methods: Three systematic reviews were conducted. Read More

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November 2021

Physical-Mechanical Behavior and Water-Barrier Properties of Biopolymers-Clay Nanocomposites.

Molecules 2021 Nov 7;26(21). Epub 2021 Nov 7.

Grupo de Investigación en Química y Biotecnología (QUIBIO), Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Santiago de Cali, Pampalinda, Santiago de Cali 760035, Colombia.

The preparation and characterization of biodegradable films based on starch-PVA-nanoclay by solvent casting are reported in this study. The films were prepared with a relation of 3:2 of starch:PVA and nanoclay (0.5, 1. Read More

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November 2021

Post-COVID-19 assessment in a specialist clinical service: a 12-month, single-centre, prospective study in 1325 individuals.

BMJ Open Respir Res 2021 11;8(1)

University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

Introduction: Post-COVID-19 complications require simultaneous characterisation and management to plan policy and health system responses. We describe the 12-month experience of the first UK dedicated post-COVID-19 clinical service to include hospitalised and non-hospitalised patients.

Methods: In a single-centre, observational analysis, we report the demographics, symptoms, comorbidities, investigations, treatments, functional recovery, specialist referral and rehabilitation of 1325 individuals assessed at the University College London Hospitals post-COVID-19 service between April 2020 and April 2021, comparing by referral route: posthospitalised (PH), non-hospitalised (NH) and post emergency department (PED). Read More

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November 2021

FEBio finite element model of a pediatric cervical spine.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Oct 22:1-7. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

1Department of Biomedical Engineering and Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute, and.

Objective: The underlying biomechanical differences between the pediatric and adult cervical spine are incompletely understood. Computational spine modeling can address that knowledge gap. Using a computational method known as finite element modeling, the authors describe the creation and evaluation of a complete pediatric cervical spine model. Read More

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October 2021

The Endophytic Fungus Influences Growth of the Nonnatural Host Plant .

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2022 Jan 17;35(1):49-63. Epub 2021 Dec 17.

Plant Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany.

is a fungal endophyte from , a perennial plant from the northern part of Asia. Here, we demonstrated an interaction of with , Chinese cabbage, rapeseed, tomato, maize, or sunflower resulting in different phenotypes such as shorter main roots, massive lateral root growth, higher leaf and root biomass, and increased anthocyanin levels. In a variety of cocultivation assays, it was shown that these altered phenotypes are caused by fungal CO, volatile organic compounds, and soluble compounds, notably astins. Read More

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January 2022

Quality of fruits coated with pectin and pectin reinforced with nanocellulose from calyces.

Heliyon 2021 Sep 14;7(9):e07988. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Research Center and Ethnobiological Garden, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, 27480, Viesca, Coahuila, Mexico.

is marketed without its calyx, which generates byproducts and a decrease in the shelf life of these fruits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of edible pectin-coatings reinforced with nanocellulose from calyx on the physical-chemical and physiological parameters of fruits during refrigerated storage (5 °C) for ten days. The nanocellulose extraction was carried out using a combined extraction method (chemical procedures and ultrasound radiation). Read More

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September 2021

Adult North Star Network (ANSN): Consensus Guideline For The Standard Of Care Of Adults With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

J Neuromuscul Dis 2021 ;8(6):899-926

Academic Neurology Department, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Foundation Trust and Sheffield Institute for Translational Neurosciences (SITRAN), University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

There are growing numbers of adults with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy living well into their fourth decade. These patients have complex medical needs that to date have not been addressed in the International standards of care. We sought to create a consensus based standard of care through a series of multi-disciplinary workshops with specialists from a wide range of clinical areas: Neurology, Cardiology, Respiratory Medicine, Gastroenterology, Endocrinology, Palliative Care Medicine, Rehabilitation, Renal, Anaesthetics and Clinical Psychology. Read More

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February 2022

Coronary risk reduction intervention for siblings and offspring of patients with premature coronary heart disease: the CRISO study protocol for a randomised controlled pilot study.

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2021 Aug 9;7(1):153. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta, Msida, Malta.

Background: Research has consistently demonstrated that preventive cardiology programs have limited success, and healthy practices among high-risk individuals remain suboptimal. Furthermore, there are no current programmes in Malta that offer support to first-degree relatives of patients with premature coronary heart disease. This internal pilot study will determine the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of a preventative intervention. Read More

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The Role of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in Cardiovascular and Diabetes Healthcare: A Scoping Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 31;18(15). Epub 2021 Jul 31.

School of Nursing and Allied Health, Faculty of Health, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L2 2ER, UK.

Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is an adapted form of cognitive behavioural therapy. ACT focuses on how thinking affects behaviour and promotes psychological flexibility. The prevalence of psychological distress among people living with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is high, and ACT may offer an alternative treatment approach. Read More

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Poor adherence to lifestyle recommendations in patients with coronary heart disease: results from the EUROASPIRE surveys.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2022 Mar;29(2):383-395

National Institute for Prevention and Cardiovascular Health, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.

Aims: Despite the high use of cardioprotective medications, the risk factor control in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) is still inadequate. Guidelines identify healthy lifestyles as equally important in secondary prevention as pharmacotherapy. Here, we describe reasons for poor lifestyle adherence from the patient's perspective. Read More

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Educational theory and its application to advanced life support courses: a narrative review.

Resusc Plus 2021 Mar 28;5:100053. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Calderdale & Huddersfield NHS Trust, Halifax, UK.

The knowledge, skills and attitudes taught on Advanced Life Support (ALS) courses are an important learning requirement for healthcare professionals who are involved with the care of acutely unwell patients. It is essential that the course design and delivery is appropriately planned to ensure that it optimises the learning opportunities for all learners. This paper offers a narrative review of how the application of educational theory has positively influenced the evolution of ALS courses since their inception in the late twentieth century. Read More

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3,4-Difluorobenzocurcumin Inhibits Vegfc-Vegfr3-Erk Signalling to Block Developmental Lymphangiogenesis in Zebrafish.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Jun 26;14(7). Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Cancer Research Malaysia, Subang Jaya 47500, Selangor, Malaysia.

Lymphangiogenesis, the formation of new lymphatic vessels from pre-existing vasculature, plays critical roles in disease, including in cancer metastasis and chronic inflammation. Preclinical and recent clinical studies have now demonstrated therapeutic utility for several anti-lymphangiogenic agents, but optimal agents and efficacy in different settings remain to be determined. We tested the anti-lymphangiogenic property of 3,4-Difluorobenzocurcumin (CDF), which has previously been implicated as an anti-cancer agent, using zebrafish embryos and cultured vascular endothelial cells. Read More

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Implementing a novel protocol for withdrawal of CPAP support in COVID-19 patients: a case series.

Clin Med (Lond) 2021 07 6;21(4):e392-e394. Epub 2021 May 6.

University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: No published protocol to guide the withdrawal of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for patients with COVID-19 exists.

Case Series: Description of the introduction of a novel protocol, developed by consensus to guide the withdrawal of CPAP for patients diagnosed as dying with COVID-19 in an acute hospital.

Outcome: 19 patients died on the high-dependency respiratory unit following treatment with CPAP. Read More

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Preprocedural Anxiety in the Transradial Cardiac Catheterization Era.

J Cardiovasc Nurs 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Ritin Fernandez, PhD, MN Professor, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, School of Nursing, University of Wollongong; and Head of Department Centre for Research in Nursing and Health, St George Hospital, Kogarah, Australia. Laura Ellwood, MPH, RN Registered Nurse, Centre for Research in Nursing and Health, St George Hospital, Kogarah, Australia. Heidi Lord, MPH, RN Clinical Nurse Consultant, Centre for Research in Nursing and Health, St George Hospital, Kogarah, Australia. Elizabeth Curtis, MN, RN Lecturer, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, School of Nursing, University of Wollongong, Australia. John Khoo, MBBS(Hons) Advanced Trainee, Department of Cardiology, The Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. Astin Lee, MBBS(Hons)Syd, FRCP(London), FRACP, FCSANZ, FACC, FESC, FSCAI Clinical Associate Professor and Director of Cardiology, Wollongong and Shellharbour Hospitals, Australia. James Weaver, PhD, FRACP Staff Specialist Interventional Cardiologist, Department of Cardiology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Transradial cardiac catheterization is increasingly being used for the management of coronary artery disease given the low risk of procedural discomfort and complications with this approach. However, the evidence relating to preprocedural anxiety levels in these patients is scarce.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anxiety levels and the predictors of anxiety in patients undergoing transradial cardiac catheterization procedures. Read More

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Physiological responses during ascent to high altitude and the incidence of acute mountain sickness.

Physiol Rep 2021 04;9(7):e14809

University College London Centre for Altitude Space and Extreme Environment Medicine, UCLH NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Institute of Sport and Exercise Health, London, UK.

Acute mountain sickness (AMS) occurs when there is failure of acclimatisation to high altitude. The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between physiological variables and the incidence of AMS during ascent to 5300 m. A total of 332 lowland-dwelling volunteers followed an identical ascent profile on staggered treks. Read More

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Grounded theory: what makes a grounded theory study?

Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs 2021 04;20(3):285-289

School of Human and Health Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK.

Grounded theory (GT) is both a research method and a research methodology. There are several different ways of doing GT which reflect the different viewpoints of the originators. For those who are new to this approach to conducting qualitative research, this can be confusing. Read More

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Finite element modeling to compare craniocervical motion in two age-matched pediatric patients without or with Down syndrome: implications for the role of bony geometry in craniocervical junction instability.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Nov 13;27(2):218-224. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

2Neurosurgery, Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Objective: Instability of the craniocervical junction (CCJ) is a well-known finding in patients with Down syndrome (DS); however, the relative contributions of bony morphology versus ligamentous laxity responsible for abnormal CCJ motion are unknown. Using finite element modeling, the authors of this study attempted to quantify those relative differences.

Methods: Two CCJ finite element models were created for age-matched pediatric patients, a patient with DS and a control without DS. Read More

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November 2020

Motivational interviewing to support modifiable risk factor change in individuals at increased risk of cardiovascular disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2020 11;15(11):e0241193. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, United Kingdom.

Background: Programmes using motivational interviewing show potential in facilitating lifestyle change, however this has not been well established and explored in individuals at risk of, yet without symptomatic pre-existent cardiovascular disease. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effectiveness of motivational interviewing in supporting modifiable risk factor change in individuals at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis with results were reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Read More

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December 2020

Physical Activity and Cardiac Self-Efficacy Levels During Early Recovery After Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Jordanian Study.

J Nurs Res 2020 Nov 2;29(1):e131. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

PhD, RN, Professor, Centre for Applied Research in Health, University of Huddersfield; and Research and Development, Huddersfield Royal Infirmary, Acre Street, Huddersfield, UK.

Background: Regular physical activity is important for patients with established coronary heart disease as it favorably influences their coronary risk profile. General self-efficacy is a powerful predictor of health behavior change that involves increases in physical activity levels. Few studies have simultaneously measured physical activity and self-efficacy during early recovery after a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Read More

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November 2020

Author Correction: Valorization of Colombian fique (Furcraea bedinghausii) for production of cellulose nanofibers and its application in hydrogels.

Sci Rep 2020 Oct 14;10(1):17639. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Bioprocesses and Bioproducts Research Group. Food Research Department, School of Chemistry, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Saltillo, Mexico.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper. Read More

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October 2020

Effect of Extrusion Screw Speed and Plasticizer Proportions on the Rheological, Thermal, Mechanical, Morphological and Superficial Properties of PLA.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Sep 16;12(9). Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Grupo de Investigación en Química y Biotecnología (QUIBIO), Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Santiago de Cali, Calle 5 No. 62-00, Cali 760035, Colombia.

One of the critical processing parameters-the speed of the extrusion process for plasticized poly (lactic acid) (PLA)-was investigated in the presence of acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) as plasticizer. The mixtures were obtained by varying the content of plasticizer (ATBC, 10-30% by weight), using a twin screw extruder as a processing medium for which a temperature profile with peak was established that ended at 160 °C, two mixing zones and different screw rotation speeds (60 and 150 rpm). To evaluate the thermo-mechanical properties of the blend and hydrophilicity, the miscibility of the plasticizing and PLA matrix, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), oscillatory rheological analysis, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), mechanical analysis, as well as the contact angle were tested. Read More

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September 2020

Expiratory muscle strength training improves measures of pressure generation and cough strength in a patient with myotonic dystrophy type 1.

Neuromuscul Disord 2020 09 14;30(9):750-755. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

University College London Hospitals, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery. 8-11 Queen Square, London, England WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom.

Expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) exercise programmes aim to improve respiratory function by increasing the force generating capability of expiratory muscles by resistance training. In neuromuscular conditions, in which cough flow generation is often decreased, there is increasing interest in EMST as a therapeutic intervention. We present data showing efficacy of EMST in a patient with adult onset Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 (DM1). Read More

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September 2020

Environmental noise levels in hospital settings: A rapid review of measurement techniques and implementation in hospital settings.

Noise Health 2019 Sep-Oct;21(102):200-216

Centre for Applied Research in Health, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, HD1 3DH, United Kingdom.

Background: Hospitals provide treatment to improve patient health and well-being but the characteristics of the care environment receive little attention. Excessive noise at night has a negative impact on in-patient health through disturbed sleep. To address this hospital staff must measure night-time environmental noise levels. Read More

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September 2020

Self-management support activities in primary care: A qualitative study to compare provision across common health problems.

Patient Educ Couns 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

School of Human and Health Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK; Research and Development, Calderdale and Huddersfield NHS Foundation Trust, Huddersfield, UK.

Objective: To explore the views of primary care teams about the provision of self-management support to patients with common health problems.

Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-one members of the primary care team from thirteen general practices. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and analysed using the 'Framework' approach. Read More

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Valorization of Colombian fique (Furcraea bedinghausii) for production of cellulose nanofibers and its application in hydrogels.

Sci Rep 2020 07 15;10(1):11637. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Bioprocesses and Bioproducts Research Group. Food Research Department, School of Chemistry. Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Saltillo, Mexico.

Cellulose nanofibers were obtained from the Colombian fique (Furcraea bedinghausii) and Acrylic hydrogels (H) and reinforced acrylic hydrogels with fique nanofibres (HRFN) were synthesized, using the solution polymerization method. The extraction was carried out using a combined extraction method (chemical procedures and ultrasound radiation). The raw material (NAT-F), bleached fibers (B-F), hydrolyzed fibers and fibers treated with ultrasound (US-F) were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal stability analysis; also, in order to have a comparison criterion, a commercial microcrystalline cellulose sample (CC) was analyzed, which demonstrated the extraction of fique cellulose. Read More

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The Effects of Reprocessing and Fiber Treatments on the Properties of Polypropylene-Sugarcane Bagasse Biocomposites.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Jun 27;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Research Group for Manufacturing Technologies GITEM, Universidad Autónoma de Occidente, Cali 760030, Colombia.

This study explores the reprocessing behavior of polypropylene-sugarcane bagasse biocomposites using neat and chemically treated bagasse fibers (20 wt.%). Biocomposites were reprocessed 5 times using the extrusion process followed by injection molding. Read More

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Leadership, Spirituality, and the Legacy of Helen "Lena" Astin.

New Dir Stud Leadersh 2020 06;2020(166):13-32

University of California, Los Angeles.

What will be your legacy? is a "big" question that challenges us to consider how we will engage our passions and talents to make a difference in the world. This chapter celebrates the legacy of Helen "Lena" Astin in the context of her contributions to how we think about and exercise leadership and to what we understand about spirituality, particularly the spiritual lives of undergraduate students. Read More

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