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    The effects of early life adversity on the immune system.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 2017 May 17;82:140-154. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of Infection and Immunity, Luxembourg Institute of Health, Esch-sur-Alzette, L-4354, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Electronic address:
    Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for diseases in adulthood. Although the pathophysiological effects of ELA are varied, there may be a unifying role for the immune system in all of the long-term pathologies such as chronic inflammatory disorders (autoimmune diseases, allergy, and asthma). Recently, significant efforts have been made to elucidate the long-term effects ELA has on immune function, as well as the mechanisms underlying these immune changes. Read More

    Utilization of a patient-centered asthma passport tool in a subspecialty clinic.
    J Asthma 2017 May 26:1-8. Epub 2017 May 26.
    a Division of Respiratory Diseases , Boston Children's Hospital , Boston , MA , USA.
    Introduction: Despite available and effective tools for asthma self-assessment (Asthma Control Test, ACT) and self-management (Asthma Action Plan, AAP), they are underutilized in outpatient specialty clinics. We evaluated the impact of a patient-centered checklist, the Asthma Passport, on improving ACT and AAP utilization in clinic.

    Methods: This was a randomized, interventional quality-improvement project in which the Asthma Passport was distributed to 120 pediatric asthma patients over the duration of 16 weeks. Read More

    Comparison of a rapid albuterol pathway with a standard pathway for the treatment of children with a moderate to severe asthma exacerbation in the emergency department.
    J Asthma 2017 May 26:1-8. Epub 2017 May 26.
    a Department of Pediatrics , University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical School , Austin , TX , USA.
    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if a rapid albuterol delivery pathway with a breath-enhanced nebulizer can reduce emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS), while maintaining admission rates and side effects, when compared to a traditional asthma pathway with a standard jet nebulizer.

    Methods: Children aged 3-18 presenting to a large urban pediatric ED for asthma were enrolled if they were determined by pediatric asthma score to have a moderate to severe exacerbation. Subjects were randomized to either a standard treatment arm where they received up to 2 continuous albuterol nebulizations, or a rapid albuterol arm where they received up to 4 rapid albuterol treatments with a breath-enhanced nebulizer, depending on severity scoring. Read More

    Implementation of asthma clinical practice guidelines in primary care: A cross-sectional study based on the Knowledge-to-Action Cycle.
    J Asthma 2017 May 26:1-8. Epub 2017 May 26.
    a Knowledge Translation, Education and Prevention Chair in Respiratory and Cardiovascular Health , Laval University , Quebec City , Quebec , Canada.
    Objective: Based on the Knowledge-to-Action Cycle, we assessed the self-reported implementation and perception of asthma clinical practice guideline (CPG) recommendations in primary care physicians (PCPs), along with the barriers and facilitators to CPG use in primary care.

    Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study. Using the extended Asthma Physicians' Practice Assessment Questionnaire(©), PCPs self-reported the following: their knowledge of 15 key asthma CPG recommendations, the perceived usefulness of each of these recommendations, their motivation to apply these recommendations, and their agreement with the content of these recommendations. Read More

    Students With Asthma and Its Impacts.
    NASN Sch Nurse 2017 May 1:1942602X17710499. Epub 2017 May 1.
    Director of Information Technology Harmony Public Schools.
    Asthma is a common chronic disease in children. Uncontrolled asthma is a significant contributor to school absenteeism, emergency room visits, and hospitalization, all of which can lead to low school performance, financial burdens, and emotional problems for children and their parents. Asthma in children restricts the activities of school-aged children, such as participating in before- and after-school activity and extracurricular activities such as sports. Read More

    Inhaled corticosteroid prescribing in a pediatric emergency department: Sustained success and prescription filling rates.
    J Asthma 2017 May 26:1-7. Epub 2017 May 26.
    b Department of Pediatrics , Medical University of South Carolina , Charleston , South Carolina , USA.
    Objective: To determine if improvement in Inhaled Corticosteroid (ICS) prescribing in the pediatric emergency department (PED) can be sustained after transition from intense intervention to low-intervention phase, and to determine ICS fill rates.

    Methods: A Quality Improvement (QI) project began in Aug 2012. Results through Feb 2014 were previously published. Read More

    Asthma, other atopic conditions and risk of infections in 105,519 general population never and ever smokers.
    J Intern Med 2017 May 26. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark.
    Background: Individuals with atopic conditions may have increased susceptibility to infections outside the organs directly affected by their atopic condition.

    Objective: We tested the hypothesis that atopic conditions overall, and stratified by smoking history, are associated with increased risk of hospitalization for infections.

    Methods: We collected information on smoking history and self-reported atopic conditions from 105,519 individuals from the general population and followed them for up to 23 years for infectious disease hospitalizations and deaths. Read More

    In Memory and Celebration: Dr. James J. Lee.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2017 May 26. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Disease, University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.
    We come together to mourn the untimely passing of Dr. James (Jamie) J. Lee, Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in the Division of Pulmonary Medicine at Mayo Clinic Arizona. Read More

    Dupilumab: First Global Approval.
    Drugs 2017 May 25. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Springer, Mairangi Bay 0754, Private Bag 65901, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Dupilumab (Dupixent(®)) is a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against the interleukin (IL)-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) subunit. Dupilumab inhibits the signalling of the type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 and was co-developed by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Sanofi as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of atopic or allergic diseases. In March 2017 dupilumab received its first global approval, in the USA, for use in the treatment of adult patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis whose disease is not adequately controlled with topical prescription therapies or when those therapies are not advisable. Read More

    The effects of ozone on human health.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 May 25. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Unit of Epidemiology, Regional Health Agency of Tuscany, via Pietro Dazzi 1, Florence, Italy.
    Ozone is a highly reactive, oxidative gas associated with adverse health outcome, including mortality and morbidity. Data from monitoring sites worldwide show levels of ozone often exceeding EU legislation threshold and the more restrictive WHO guidelines for the protection of human health. Well-established evidence has been produced for short-term effects, especially on respiratory and cardiovascular systems, associated to ozone exposure. Read More

    Quality indicators for the acute and long-term management of anaphylaxis: a systematic review.
    Clin Transl Allergy 2017 24;7:15. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Allergy and Respiratory Research Group, Asthma UK Centre for Applied Research, Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Background: The quality of acute and long-term anaphylaxis management is variable and this contributes to the poor outcomes experienced by many patients. Clinical practice guidelines have the potential to improve outcomes, but implementing guideline recommendations in routine practice is challenging. Quality indicators have the potential to support guideline implementation efforts. Read More

    Why a registry of Chronic Urticaria (CUR) is needed.
    World Allergy Organ J 2017 16;10(1):16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Fundación Ayre at Instituto Médico Alas, Sarmiento 771, 330-31, 4400 Salta, Argentina.
    Chronic urticaria (CU) has a major effect on patients' quality of life. While there have been progressive advances regarding its pathogenesis and treatment, much remains to be done. Registries of other chronic non-communicable diseases have shown many benefits, such as additional basic knowledge and management approaches to diabetes mellitus. Read More

    Role of Adult Asthma Education in Improving Asthma Control and Reducing Emergency Room Utilization and Hospital Admissions in an Inner City Hospital.
    Can Respir J 2017 4;2017:5681962. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center, Bronx, NY, USA.
    Objective. Asthma education programs have been shown to decrease healthcare utilization and improve disease control and management. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the impact of an outpatient adult asthma education program in an inner city hospital caring for patients with low socioeconomic and educational status. Read More

    Microbiota in T-cell homeostasis and inflammatory diseases.
    Exp Mol Med 2017 May 26;49(5):e340. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Center for Integrative Rheumatoid Transcriptomics and Dynamics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
    The etiology of disease pathogenesis can be largely explained by genetic variations and several types of environmental factors. In genetically disease-susceptible individuals, subsequent environmental triggers may induce disease development. The human body is colonized by complex commensal microbes that have co-evolved with the host immune system. Read More

    The interplay between host immune cells and gut microbiota in chronic inflammatory diseases.
    Exp Mol Med 2017 May 26;49(5):e339. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Many benefits provided by the gut microbiota to the host rely on its intricate interactions with host cells. Perturbations of the gut microbiota, termed gut dysbiosis, affect the interplay between the gut microbiota and host cells, resulting in dysregulation of inflammation that contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, allergic asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. In this review, we provide an overview of how gut bacteria modulates host metabolic and immune functions, summarize studies that examined the roles of gut dysbiosis in chronic inflammatory diseases, and finally discuss measures to correct gut dysbiosis as potential therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases. Read More

    Automated Quality Control of Forced Oscillation Measurements: Respiratory Artifact Detection with Advanced Feature Extraction.
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 2017 May 25:jap.00726.2016. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, University of Sydney
    The forced oscillation technique (FOT) can provide unique and clinically relevant lung function information with little cooperation with subjects. However, FOT has higher variability than spirometry, possibly because strategies for quality control and reducing artifacts in FOT measurements have yet to be standardized or validated. Many quality control procedures either rely on simple statistical filters or subjective evaluation by a human operator. Read More

    Adjunct Therapies for Refractory Status Asthmaticus in Children.
    Respir Care 2017 Jun;62(6):849-865
    Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Duke Children's Hospital, Durham, North Carolina.
    Asthma exacerbation is a common reason for children to present to the emergency department. If primary therapies fail to halt the progression of an asthma flare, status asthmaticus often leads to hospital, and potentially ICU, admission. Following the initial administration of inhaled β agonists and systemic corticosteroids, a wide array of adjunct medical therapies may be used to treat status asthmaticus. Read More

    Pediatric Aerosol Therapy.
    Respir Care 2017 Jun;62(6):662-677
    Pulmonary Medicine Section, Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas and the Pediatric Aerosol Research Laboratory, Arkansas Children's Research Institute. Little Rock, Arkansas.
    Inhaled medications are the mainstay of therapy for many pediatric pulmonary diseases. Device and delivery technique selection is key to improving lung deposition of inhaled drugs. This paper will review the subject in relationship to several pediatric clinical situations: acute pediatric asthma, transnasal aerosol delivery, delivery through tracheostomies, and delivery during noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation. Read More

    Health-related quality of life and risk factors associated with spirometric restriction.
    Eur Respir J 2017 May 25;49(5). Epub 2017 May 25.
    Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.
    The restrictive spirometric pattern is associated with a substantial morbidity and mortality burden. We sought to determine to what extent spirometric restriction is associated with impaired quality of life.We used data from two large population-based European cohorts: 6698 European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) and 6069 Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) adult participants. Read More

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in Japan: A nationwide survey.
    Allergol Int 2017 May 23. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan. Electronic address:
    Background: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an allergic pulmonary disease characterized by a hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus species colonizing the airways. The clinical characteristics of ABPA may differ depending on genetic and environmental background. We performed a nationwide survey to determine the clinical characteristics of ABPA in Japan. Read More

    Benralizumab for patients with mild to moderate, persistent asthma (BISE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.
    Lancet Respir Med 2017 May 22. Epub 2017 May 22.
    AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
    Background: Benralizumab is a humanised, anti-interleukin 5 receptor α monoclonal antibody that directly and rapidly depletes eosinophils, reduces asthma exacerbations, and improves lung function for patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. The objective of this trial was to assess the safety and efficacy of benralizumab for patients with mild to moderate, persistent asthma.

    Methods: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients aged 18-75 years, weighing at least 40 kg, and with a postbronchodilator reversibility in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of at least 12% at screening, from 52 clinical research centres in six countries. Read More

    CAR: A key regulator of adhesion and inflammation.
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2017 May 22;89:1-5. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King's College London, New Hunt's House, Guys Campus, London, SE1 1UL, UK. Electronic address:
    The coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a transmembrane receptor that plays a key role in controlling adhesion between adjacent epithelial cells. CAR is highly expressed in epithelial cells and was originally identified as a primary receptor for adenovirus cell binding. However, studies over the last 10 years have demonstrated that CAR plays a key role in co-ordinating cell-cell adhesion under homeostatic conditions including neuronal and cardiac development and cell junction stability; it has also been implicated in pathological states such as cancer growth and leukocyte transmigration during inflammation. Read More

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin and apocynin alter the expression of airway remodeling factors in human rhinovirus-infected cells.
    Immunobiology 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Department of Immunopathology, Chair of Allergology, Immunology and Dermatology, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences and Postgraduate Training, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland. Electronic address:
    Airway remodeling is a characteristic of bronchial asthma. The process involves the expression of many genes, such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1), MMP and arginase. Human rhinovirus (HRV) is known to cause asthma exacerbations, and viral infections might be involved in the development of airway remodeling. Read More

    Knemometry Assessment of Short-Term Growth in Children With Asthma Receiving Fluticasone Furoate for 2 Weeks: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial.
    Clin Ther 2017 May 22. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Clinical Development, Respiratory Therapy Area Unit, GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, UK.
    Purpose: A dry powder inhaler formulation of the inhaled corticosteroid fluticasone furoate (FF) is being evaluated for use in children. An important potential risk associated with the use of inhaled corticosteroids in children is growth suppression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the short-term lower leg growth in children with asthma treated for 2 weeks with inhaled FF versus placebo from the ELLIPTA inhaler. Read More

    Youth secrets are associated with poorer sleep and asthma symptoms via negative affect.
    J Psychosom Res 2017 May 21;96:15-20. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Wayne State University, United States. Electronic address:
    Objective: Among older children and adolescents, keeping secrets from parents is consistently associated with lower levels of psychological well-being. Further, concealing one's thoughts and emotions has been associated with poor physical health outcomes in adults. However, it remains an open question whether secret-keeping is associated with poorer health and health-related behaviors (such as sleep) among youth and, if those hypothesized links exist, what the psychological mechanisms might be. Read More

    Community-level characteristics and environmental factors of child respiratory illnesses in Southern Arizona.
    BMC Public Health 2017 May 25;17(1):516. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, 1295 N. Martin Ave., PO 245210, Tucson, AZ, 85724, USA.
    Background: Lower respiratory illnesses (LRIs) and asthma are common diseases in children <5 years of age. Few studies have investigated the relationships between multiple, home-based social and environmental risk factors and asthma and LRIs in children. Of those that have, none have focused exclusively on children <5 years of age, who are more physiologically vulnerable and spend more time at home compared to older children. Read More

    Re-examining the association between residential exposure to magnetic fields from power lines and childhood asthma in the Danish National Birth Cohort.
    PLoS One 2017 17;12(5):e0177651. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of Epidemiology, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.
    Background: A study reported an increased risk of asthma in children whose mothers were exposed to magnetic field (MF) levels above 0.2 μT during pregnancy. We re-examined this association using data from mothers and children in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Read More

    The effect of allergen immunotherapy in the onset of new sensitizations: a meta-analysis.
    Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2017 May 23. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Dipartimento dell'Emergenza e dei Trapianti d'Organo (D.E.T.O.), Università di Bari "Aldo Moro", Bari, Italy.
    Background: Although the preventive efficacy of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) in the onset of new allergen sensitizations has been asserted by many reviews, position papers, and consensus conferences, the evidence available is from only 3 studies. The objective of this work was a systematic review to evaluate the preventive efficacy of AIT in the onset of new allergen sensitizations. The end-point was the risk difference (RD) in the onset of new allergen sensitizations between patients treated with AIT and pharmacotherapy. Read More

    The prevalence of asthma and related symptoms in Middle East countries.
    Clin Respir J 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Neurogeneeic Inflammation Research Centre, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
    Objectives: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease characterized by reversible airway constriction and airway hyperresponsiveness. Asthma is a worldwide problem and its prevalence varies among different parts of the world. There are insufficient data about the prevalence and risk factors of this disease in Middle East countries. Read More

    Investigation of bronchiectasis in severe uncontrolled asthma.
    Clin Respir J 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    6th Pulmonary Department, "Sotiria" Chest Diseases Hospital, Athens, Greece.
    Introduction: The presence of bronchiectasis in patients with asthma varies in different reports, while a clear etiological relation has not been precisely established.

    Objectives: To investigate the presence of bronchiectasis in patients with severe uncontrolled asthma and examine whether they contribute to the severity of asthma.

    Methods: Patients with severe asthma were prospectively recruited. Read More

    Severe asthma in children.
    Respirology 2017 May 25. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Paediatric Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College and Royal Brompton Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
    Most children with asthma have their disease easily controlled if low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are regularly and correctly administered. If a child presents with asthma which is apparently resistant to therapy with high-dose ICS and other controllers, then they have problematic severe asthma. However, in light of the UK National Review of Asthma Deaths, definitions of severe asthma based solely on the levels of prescribed treatment are too narrow. Read More

    PAI-1 gain-of-function genotype, factors increasing PAI-1 levels, and airway obstruction: the GALA II Cohort.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Division of Allergy-Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
    Background: PAI-1 gain of function variants promote airway fibrosis, and are associated with asthma and with worse lung function in subjects with asthma.

    Objective: We sought to determine if the association of a gain-of-function polymorphism in Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor -1 (PAI-1) with airway obstruction is modified by asthma status, and whether any genotype effect persists after accounting for common exposures that increase PAI-1 level.

    Methods: We studied 2070 Latino children (8-21y) with genotypic and pulmonary function data from the GALA II cohort. Read More

    Understanding the school experiences of children and adolescents with serious chronic illness: a systematic meta-review.
    Child Care Health Dev 2017 May 23. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Kids Cancer Centre, Sydney Children's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Background: Serious chronic illness can have a detrimental effect on school attendance, participation and engagement, leaving affected students at risk of failing to meet their developmental potential. An improved understanding of factors that help to explain or mitigate this risk can help educators and health professionals deliver the most effective support. This meta-review critiqued the available evidence examining the link between six chronic illnesses (asthma, cancer, chronic kidney diseases, heart diseases, cystic fibrosis and gastrointestinal diseases) and children's and adolescents' school experiences and outcomes, as well as investigating the medical, school, psychosocial and sociodemographic factors that are linked to poorer or better school outcomes. Read More

    Prenatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure increases allergic asthma risk with methylation changes in mice.
    Environ Mol Mutagen 2017 May 25. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana.
    Allergic asthma remains an inadequately understood disease. In utero exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been identified as an environmental exposure that can increase an individual's asthma risk. To improve our understanding of asthma onset and development, we examined the effect of in utero ETS exposure on allergic disease susceptibility in an asthmatic phenotype using a house dust mite (HDM) allergen-induced murine model. Read More

    Targeting PP2A and proteasome activity ameliorates features of allergic airway disease in mice.
    Allergy 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Priority Research Centres for Healthy Lungs, Grow up Well and Cancer Research, Innovation and Translation, University of Newcastle & Hunter Medical Research Institute, New South Wales, Australia.
    Background: Asthma is an allergic airway disease (AAD) caused by aberrant immune responses to allergens. Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) is an abundant serine/threonine phosphatase with anti-inflammatory activity. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) controls many cellular processes, including the initiation of inflammatory responses by protein degradation. Read More

    Allergen immunotherapy for allergic asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Allergy 2017 May 19. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Asthma UK Centre for Applied Research, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh.
    Background: To inform the development of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunonology's (EAACI) Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for allergic asthma, we assessed the evidence on the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT.

    Methods: We performed a systematic review, which involved searching nine databases. Studies were screened against pre-defined eligibility criteria and critically appraised using established instruments. Read More

    The Immune Response to Prevotella Bacteria in Chronic Inflammatory Disease.
    Immunology 2017 May 19. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Department of Technology, Faculty of Health and Technology, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The microbiota plays a central role in human health and disease by shaping immune development, immune responses, metabolism, and protecting from invading pathogens. Technical advances that allow comprehensive characterization of microbial communities by genetic sequencing have sparked the hunt for disease modulating bacteria. Emerging studies in humans have linked increased abundance of Prevotella species at mucosal sites to localized and systemic disease, including periodontitis, bacterial vaginosis, rheumatoid arthritis, metabolic disorders, and low-grade systemic inflammation. Read More

    WITHDRAWN: Infant formulas containing hydrolysed protein for prevention of allergic disease and food allergy.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 May 25;5:CD003664. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Central Clinical School, Discipline of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Neonatology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 2050.
    Background: Allergy is common and may be associated with foods, including cow's milk formula (CMF). Formulas containing hydrolysed proteins have been used to treat infants with allergy. However, it is unclear whether hydrolysed formulas can be advocated for prevention of allergy in infants. Read More

    Changes in hospitalizations for chronic respiratory diseases after two successive smoking bans in Spain.
    PLoS One 2017 24;12(5):e0177979. Epub 2017 May 24.
    National Centre for Epidemiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain.
    Background: Existing evidence on the effects of smoke-free policies on respiratory diseases is scarce and inconclusive. Spain enacted two consecutive smoke-free regulations: a partial ban in 2006 and a comprehensive ban in 2011. We estimated their impact on hospital admissions via emergency departments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Read More

    Assessment of asthma severity in adults with ever asthma: A continuous score.
    PLoS One 2017 18;12(5):e0177538. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.
    Background: In epidemiological studies, continuous measures of asthma severity should be used to catch the heterogeneity of phenotypes. This study aimed at developing and validating continuous measures of asthma severity in adult patients with ever asthma from the general population, to be used in epidemiological studies.

    Methods: Respiratory symptoms, anti-asthmatic treatment and lung function were measured on 520 patients with ever asthma aged 20-64 years from the general Italian population (GEIRD study; 2007/2010). Read More

    Subtypes of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death: Mapuche ancestry-specific associations with gallbladder cancer risk in Chile.
    PLoS Genet 2017 May 25;13(5):e1006756. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Instituto de Alta Investigación, Tarapacá University, Arica, Chile.
    Latin Americans are highly heterogeneous regarding the type of Native American ancestry. Consideration of specific associations with common diseases may lead to substantial advances in unraveling of disease etiology and disease prevention. Here we investigate possible associations between the type of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death. Read More

    Teaming Up for Asthma Control: EPR-3 Compliant School Program in Missouri Is Effective and Cost-Efficient.
    Prev Chronic Dis 2017 May 25;14:E40. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services, Missouri Asthma Prevention and Control Program and Office of Epidemiology, Division of Community and Public Health, 920 Wildwood Dr, Jefferson City, MO 65109. Email:
    Introduction: Teaming Up for Asthma Control (TUAC) is a work force development intervention to improve asthma control among children by increasing the competency of school nurses and delivering guideline-based education. We hypothesized that the knowledge and skills of participating school nurses would improve and that this change would positively affect students' asthma health and reduce health care utilization cost.

    Methods: Asthma education for school nurses was provided online in a pretest/posttest format or in instructor-led groups. Read More

    Associations Between Spontaneous Parental Perspective-Taking and Stimulated Cytokine Responses in Children With Asthma.
    Health Psychol 2017 May 25. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Objectives: Cognitive empathy in parents-reflecting the extent to which one considers the perspectives and emotions of others-is hypothesized to contribute to family social environments in ways that affect youths' physical health. Using a novel assessment technique for cognitive empathy, the current study examined associations between spontaneous parental perspective-taking and key inflammatory processes implicated in pediatric asthma.

    Method: One hundred thirty children (ages 9-17) with physician-diagnosed asthma, along with 1 parent, participated in the current study. Read More

    A 6-month safety and efficacy study of fluticasone propionate and fluticasone propionate/salmeterol multidose dry powder inhalers in persistent asthma.
    Allergy Asthma Proc 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Background: A novel multidose dry powder inhaler (MDPI) that is breath actuated, easy, and intuitive to use has beendeveloped for administering fluticasone propionate (Fp) and Fp/salmeterol (FS).

    Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of Fp MDPI versus Fp hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) and FS MDPI versus FS dry-powder inhaler (DPI).

    Methods: This phase III, 26-week, open-label, active drug-controlled study enrolled subjects 12 years old with persistentasthma. Read More

    Evaluation of Penicillin Allergy in the Hospitalized Patient: Opportunities for Antimicrobial Stewardship.
    Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2017 Jun;17(6):40
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Allergy & Immunology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX, 75390-8859, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: Penicillin allergy is often misdiagnosed and is associated with adverse consequences, but testing is infrequently done in the hospital setting. This article reviews historical and contemporary innovations in inpatient penicillin allergy testing and its impact on antimicrobial stewardship.

    Recent Findings: Adoption of the electronic medical record allows rapid identification of admitted patients carrying a penicillin allergy diagnosis. Read More

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