1,265 results match your criteria Assisted Ventilation of the Newborn


Multidrug resistant Gram-negative infections in neonatology.

Arch Argent Pediatr 2019 02;117(1):6-11

Servicio de Neonatología, Hospital de Pediatría J. P. Garrahan, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Introduction: Multidrug resistant Gramnegative (MDRGN) infections are an increasing problem in neonatal intensive care units. The objective of this study was to establish the epidemiological, clinical, microbiological, and evolutionary characteristics of carbapenem-resistant MDRGN infections and the risk factors for them at the Division of Neonatology of a tertiary care hospital.

Population And Method: A retrospective cohort study was done in this Division in patients with a documented MDRGN infection between 4/24/2013 and 4/29/2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5546/aap.2019.eng.6DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: An Update of Current Pharmacologic Therapies and New Approaches.

Clin Med Insights Pediatr 2018 11;12:1179556518817322. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pediatric Newborn Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains the most prevalent long-term morbidity of surviving extremely preterm infants and is associated with significant health care utilization in infancy and beyond. Recent advances in neonatal care have resulted in improved survival of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants; however, the incidence of BPD has not been substantially impacted by novel interventions in this vulnerable population. The multifactorial cause of BPD requires a multi-pronged approach for prevention and treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1179556518817322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6295761PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Peer-assisted learning after onsite, low-dose, high-frequency training and practice on simulators to prevent and treat postpartum hemorrhage and neonatal asphyxia: A pragmatic trial in 12 districts in Uganda.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0207909. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

An urgent need exists to improve and maintain intrapartum skills of providers in sub-Saharan Africa. Peer-assisted learning may address this need, but few rigorous evaluations have been conducted in real-world settings. A pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial in 12 Ugandan districts provided facility-based, team training for prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage and birth asphyxia at 125 facilities. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207909PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296740PMC
December 2018
4 Reads

Non-Contact, Simple Neonatal Monitoring by Photoplethysmography.

Sensors (Basel) 2018 Dec 10;18(12). Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Neonatology, San Carlos Clinical Hospital, Madrid 28040, Spain.

This paper presents non-contact vital sign monitoring in neonates, based on image processing, where a standard color camera captures the plethysmographic signal and the heart and breathing rates are processed and estimated online. It is important that the measurements are taken in a non-invasive manner, which is imperceptible to the patient. Currently, many methods have been proposed for non-contact measurement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s18124362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6308706PMC
December 2018
2.245 Impact Factor

What to do if A + B doesn't work.

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2018 10 27;23(5):355-360. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Division of Neonatology, Center for Maternal Fetal Neonatal and Reproductive Medicine, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

The majority of newborn resuscitations require very little beyond simple airway management and assisted ventilation. If cardiovascular collapse is serious enough to warrant additional support, resuscitation algorithms recommend moving to chest compressions and then on to medications and possibly volume replacement if vital signs remain marginal or absent. The evidence base upon which this part of the neonatal resuscitation algorithm is structured is sparse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.siny.2018.09.005DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Evidence-based clinical guidelines on analgesia and sedation in newborn infants undergoing assisted ventilation and endotracheal intubation.

Acta Paediatr 2019 Feb 6;108(2):208-217. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

NICU, Rho Hospital, ASST Rhodense, Garbagnate Milanese, Milano, Italy.

Aim: This review informed pain control guidelines for clinicians performing mechanical ventilation, nasal continuous positive airway pressure and endotracheal intubation on term and preterm newborn infants.

Methods: We reviewed literature published between 1986 and June 2017 on analgesia and sedation during assisted ventilation and before endotracheal intubation in newborn infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. The subsequent guidelines were developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/apa.14606
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.14606DOI Listing
February 2019
9 Reads

Variation in Use by NICU Types in the United States.

Pediatrics 2018 Nov 3;142(5). Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Vermont Oxford Network, Burlington, Vermont; and.

: media-1vid110.1542/5828370139001PEDS-VA_2018-0457 BACKGROUND: Increased admissions of higher birth weight and less acutely ill infants to NICUs suggests that intensive care may be used inappropriately in these populations. We describe variation in use of NICU services by gestational age and NICU type. Read More

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http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/lookup/doi/10.1542/ped
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-0457DOI Listing
November 2018
20 Reads

[Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy].

Authors:
Oscar Papazian

Medicina (B Aires) 2018;78 Suppl 2:36-41

Departamento de Neurología, Nicklaus Children's Hospital, Departamento de Pediatría, Escuela de Medicina Herbert Wertheim, Universidad Internacional de la Florida, Miami, Florida. E-mail:

Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is a clearly recognizable clinical syndrome of in term newborns due to fetal asphyxia at birth. The incidence is 1.5 (95% CI 1. Read More

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March 2019
4 Reads

Trends in Hospital Treatment of Empyema in Children in the United States.

J Pediatr 2018 11 28;202:245-251.e1. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI.

Objective: To evaluate trends in procedures used to treat children hospitalized in the US with empyema during a period that included the release of guidelines endorsing chest tube placement as an acceptable first-line alternative to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery.

Study Design: We used National Inpatient Samples to describe empyema-related discharges of children ages 0-17 years during 2008-2014. We evaluated trends using inverse variance weighted linear regression and characterized treatment failure using multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with having more than 1 procedure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.07.004DOI Listing
November 2018
7 Reads

[Outcomes of severe primary fetal hydrothorax treated by prenatal intervention].

Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 2018 Aug;53(8):522-527

Department of Fetal Medicine, Guangdong Women and Children Hospital, Guangzhou 511440, China.

To investigate the effect of intrauterine intervention on severe primary fetal hydrothorax. Twelve cases with severe fetal primary hydrothorax who underwent prenatal intervention from January 2014 to December 2017 in Guangdong Women and Children Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The median gestational age of prenatal diagnosis was 30. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0529-567x.2018.08.003DOI Listing
August 2018
21 Reads

Improved 4D cardiac functional assessment for pediatric patients using motion-weighted image reconstruction.

MAGMA 2018 Dec 24;31(6):747-756. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Objective: Our aim was to develop and evaluate a motion-weighted reconstruction technique for improved cardiac function assessment in 4D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Materials And Methods: A flat-topped, two-sided Gaussian kernel was used to weigh k-space data in each target cardiac phase and adjacent two temporal phases during the proposed phase-by-phase reconstruction algorithm. The proposed method (Strategy 3) was used to reconstruct 18 cardiac phases based on data acquired using a previously proposed technique [4D multiphase steady-state imaging with contrast enhancement (MUSIC) technique and its self-gated extension using rotating Cartesian k-space (ROCK-MUSIC) from 12 pediatric patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10334-018-0694-8DOI Listing
December 2018
10 Reads

The phenotype, genotype, and outcome of infantile-onset Pompe disease in 18 Saudi patients.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2018 Jun 7;15:50-54. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Department of Medical Genetics, KFSH&RC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Infantile-Onset Pompe Disease (IOPD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of glycogen metabolism resulting from deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase acid α-glucosidase encoded by gene. Affected infants present before the age of 12 months with hypotonia, muscle weakness, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been shown to improve survival, cardiac mass, and motor skills. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2018.02.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6047460PMC
June 2018
8 Reads

Diode Laser-Assisted Surgical Therapy for Early Treatment of Oral Mucocele in a Newborn Patient: Case Report and Procedures Checklist.

Case Rep Dent 2018 24;2018:3048429. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Unit of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Section of Dentistry, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Mucocele (also known as ranula or salivary gland mucous cyst) of the newborn is a lesion present on the intraoral cavity, with the potential to interfere with respiration and feeding. In the present report, a case of mucocele in a 4-month female patient has been described. As conventional surgery can be followed by several complications such as intraoperative bleeding, difficulties in wound healing, and maintenance of sterility during surgery, in the present case, the use of diode laser has been planned. Read More

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https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2018/3048429/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/3048429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5941754PMC
April 2018
7 Reads

When Helping Babies Breathe Is Not Enough: Designing a Novel, Mid-Level Neonatal Resuscitation Algorithm for Médecins Sans Frontières Field Teams Working in Low-Resource Hospital Settings.

Neonatology 2018 25;114(2):112-123. Epub 2018 May 25.

Department of Neonatology, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Neonatal resuscitation (NR) combines a set of life-saving interventions in order to stabilize compromised newborns at birth or when critically ill. Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders (MSF), as an international medical-humanitarian organization working particularly in low-resource settings (LRS), assisted over 250,000 births in obstetric and newborn care aid projects in 2016 and provides thousands of newborn resuscitations annually. The Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) program has been used as formal guidance for basic resuscitation since 2012. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000486705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6159832PMC
May 2018
1 Read

Trends in the incidence and associated factors of late-onset sepsis associated with improved survival in extremely preterm infants born at 23-26 weeks' gestation: a retrospective study.

BMC Pediatr 2018 05 23;18(1):172. Epub 2018 May 23.

Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, 06351, Korea.

Background: To investigate the trends in the incidence and associated factors of late-onset sepsis (LOS) associated with improved survival in extremely preterm infants.

Methods: Medical records of 364 infants who were born at 23-26 weeks' gestation from 2000 to 2005 (period I, n = 124) and from 2006 to 2011 (period II, n = 240) were retrospectively reviewed. The infants were stratified into subgroups of 23-24 and 25-26 weeks' gestation within each period, and survival, LOS rate, and clinical characteristics were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-018-1130-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5966853PMC
May 2018
15 Reads

Relationship between Epigenetic Maturity and Respiratory Morbidity in Preterm Infants.

J Pediatr 2018 07 25;198:168-173.e2. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Neonatal Research, The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: To assess associations between epigenetic maturity of extremely preterm babies (born at less than 28 weeks of gestation), neonatal interventions, and respiratory outcomes, including the administration of surfactant and postnatal corticosteroids, duration of assisted ventilation, and development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).

Study Design: DNA was extracted from neonatal blood spots collected after birth from 143 extremely preterm infants born 1991-1992 in Victoria, Australia and used to determined DNA methylation (DNAm). A DNAm based gestational age was determined using our previously published method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.02.074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6261285PMC
July 2018
2 Reads

CT features of diffuse lung disease in infancy.

Radiol Med 2018 Aug 22;123(8):577-585. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Department of Pediatric Radiology, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.

Diffuse lung disease in infancy includes a wide range of very rare and peculiar pulmonary conditions usually not seen in older children, in whom diffuse lung disease has much greater overlap with adult disorders. The acronym chILD (childhood Interstitial Lung Disease) commonly defines these disorders, although air spaces, airways, alveolar epithelium, vasculature, pleura, and pleural spaces can also be involved, besides the pulmonary interstitium. chILD can be caused by diffuse developmental disorders, alveolar growth abnormalities, surfactant dysfunction disorders, and other specific conditions of poorly understood etiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11547-018-0878-3DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

Effect of pre-pregnancy body mass index on respiratory-related neonatal outcomes in women undergoing elective cesarean prior to 39 weeks.

J Perinat Med 2018 Oct;46(8):905-912

Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Community Studies, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Objective To examine the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and neonatal respiratory-related outcomes among women who underwent an elective cesarean section (CS). Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s 2009-2013 period linked birth/infant death dataset. Women who had elective CSs at term were categorized by their pre-pregnancy BMI as normal, overweight, obese or morbidly obese. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2017-0384DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

[Risk factors for elevated serum total bile acid in preterm infants].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2018 Mar;20(3):174-177

Teaching and Research Section of Pediatrics, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong 261042, China.

Objective: To study the risk factors for elevated serum total bile acid (TBA) in preterm infants.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 216 preterm infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. According to the presence or absence of elevated TBA (TBA >24. Read More

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March 2018
6 Reads

Provision of respiratory support compared to no respiratory support before cord clamping for preterm infants.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Mar 8;3:CD012491. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Middlemore Hospital/CMDHB, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: Placental transfusion (by means of delayed cord clamping (DCC), cord milking, or cord stripping) confers benefits for preterm infants. It is not known if providing respiratory support to preterm infants before cord clamping improves outcomes.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of respiratory support provided during DCC compared with no respiratory support during placental transfusion (in the form of DCC, milking, or stripping) in preterm infants immediately after delivery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012491.pub2DOI Listing
March 2018
2 Reads

Free-breathing 320-row computed tomographic angiography with low-tube voltage and hybrid iterative reconstruction in infants with complex congenital heart disease.

Clin Imaging 2018 Jul - Aug;50:147-156. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Japan.

We explored the clinical value of low-tube voltage prospective second-generation ECG-triggered 320-row CT angiography in infants with complex CHD (37 male, 23 female, aged 0-2 years). The diagnostic accuracy of 320-row CT in complex CHD was 99.4% for intracardiac cardiovascular malformations, 99. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2018.02.008DOI Listing
October 2018
6 Reads

Case of paediatric neuromuscular disease with a surprising clinical outcome: time to challenge the dogma?

Thorax 2018 08 30;73(8):788-790. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Paediatric Respiratory Medicine, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2017-211058DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

A full-term healthy neonate with respiratory distress.

Cardiol Young 2018 Mar 10;28(3):500-501. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

1Department of Paediatrics,Groene Hart Hospital,Gouda,the Netherlands.

Pneumopericardium, defined as air in the pericardial cavity, is a rare condition with potentially severe complications and mortality. In the neonatal period, pneumopericardium is associated with prematurity, very low birth weight, and assisted ventilation. We report the occurrence of spontaneous pneumopericardium in a healthy full-term neonate who did not receive any supportive ventilation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1047951117002657DOI Listing
March 2018
3 Reads

The comparison of umbilical cord arterial blood lactate and pH values for predicting short-term neonatal outcomes.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Dec;56(6):745-749

Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, Centre of Hepatology, Gastroenterology and Dietetics, Vilnius 08661, Lithuania; Vilnius University Hospital Santara Clinics, Vilnius 08661, Lithuania.

Objective: Current clinical practice of assessing neonatal condition is based on evaluation of umbilical cord arterial blood pH value rather than lactate. However, evidence shows that lactate is direct and more predictive measurement than pH or at least of equal importance. This study is to assess and compare umbilical cord arterial lactate and pH values for predicting short-term neonatal outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2017.10.007DOI Listing
December 2017
10 Reads

Minimally Invasive Patent Ductus Arteriosus Ligation.

Clin Perinatol 2017 12 20;44(4):763-771. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, 1800 Orleans Street, Bloomberg Building Suite 7310, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

A patent ductus arteriosus is a common condition, particularly in premature infants. Many spontaneously resolve but those that lead to clinical instability require closure. Conservative measures can be highly successful in selected groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clp.2017.08.010DOI Listing
December 2017
5 Reads

Inhaled versus systemic corticosteroids for preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia in ventilated very low birth weight preterm neonates.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 10 17;10:CD002058. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Surya Hospital for Women and Children, Pune, India.

Background: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants and inflammation plays a significant role in its pathogenesis. The use of inhaled corticosteroids may modulate the inflammatory process without concomitant high systemic steroid concentrations and less risk of adverse effects. This is an update of a review published in 2012 (Shah 2012). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002058.pub3DOI Listing
October 2017
12 Reads

Is gestational diabetes an independent risk factor of neonatal severe respiratory distress syndrome after 34 weeks of gestation? A prospective study.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2017 Dec 25;296(6):1071-1077. Epub 2017 Sep 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hôpital Nord, APHM, chemin des Bourrely, 13015, Marseille, France.

Purpose: To evaluate if neonates delivered after 34 weeks from mothers diagnosed with gestational diabetes (GD) are exposed to an increased risk of neonatal severe respiratory distress syndrome (SRDS).

Methods: Women with singleton pregnancy in labour after 34 weeks of gestation or admitted for planned caesarean section and who had been systematically screened for GD were eligible to participate to this prospective cohort study. Diagnosis of SRDS was defined by the association of clinical signs of early neonatal respiratory distress, with consistent radiologic features and requiring mechanical ventilation with a fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO) >0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-017-4505-7DOI Listing
December 2017
4 Reads

Heat and moisture exchangers versus heated humidifiers for mechanically ventilated adults and children.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 09 14;9:CD004711. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

Western Sydney Local Health District - Mental Health, Cumberland Hospital, Locked Bag 7118, Parramatta, NSW, Australia, 2124.

Background: Invasive ventilation is used to assist or replace breathing when a person is unable to breathe adequately on their own. Because the upper airway is bypassed during mechanical ventilation, the respiratory system is no longer able to warm and moisten inhaled gases, potentially causing additional breathing problems in people who already require assisted breathing. To prevent these problems, gases are artificially warmed and humidified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004711.pub3DOI Listing
September 2017
6 Reads

B-type natriuretic peptide: Usefulness in the management of critically-ill neonates.

Arch Argent Pediatr 2017 Oct;115(5):483-489

Área de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal, Hospital Nacional de Pediatría SAMIC "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan", Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Introduction: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is responsible for changes in the heart organogenesis and is associated with transition to extrauterine life. In the first week of life, BNP levels are high and return to normal with the physiological loss in weight. High BNP levels are associated with different conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5546/aap.2017.eng.483DOI Listing
October 2017
4 Reads

Optimal Classification of Respiratory Patterns From Manual Analyses Using Expectation-Maximization.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2018 07 24;22(4):1026-1035. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Manual scoring (MS) of cardiorespiratory signals is the gold standard method for the analysis of respiratory data in sleep laboratories. In MS, trained, expert scorers characterize respiratory patterns by scrolling through a data record and visually identifying patterns. However, MS is limited by high intra- and inter-scorer variability and subjectivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JBHI.2017.2741501DOI Listing
July 2018
5 Reads

Management of congenital tracheal stenosis in the neonatal period.

Pediatr Surg Int 2017 Oct 11;33(10):1059-1063. Epub 2017 Aug 11.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Kobe Children's Hospital, Kobe, Japan.

Purpose: Few reports have focused on the management of congenital tracheal stenosis (CTS) in the neonatal period. The aim of this study was to determine appropriate management strategies for CTS in the neonatal period.

Methods: The medical records of eight neonatal patients with CTS at a single institution between January 2007 and December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00383-017-4137-9DOI Listing
October 2017
16 Reads

Sildenafil for pulmonary hypertension in neonates.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 08 4;8:CD005494. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

Department of Paediatrics, University of Toronto Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Persistent pulmonary hypertension in the neonate (PPHN) is associated with high mortality. Currently, the therapeutic mainstay for PPHN consists of assisted ventilation and administration of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). However, nitric oxide is costly, and its use may not be appropriate in resource-poor settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005494.pub4DOI Listing
August 2017
29 Reads

Ventilation in Extremely Preterm Infants and Respiratory Function at 8 Years.

N Engl J Med 2017 07;377(4):329-337

From Neonatal Services, Royal Women's Hospital (L.W.D., J.L.Y.C.), the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (L.W.D., J.L.Y.C.) and Paediatrics (L.W.D., S.R.), University of Melbourne, Clinical Sciences (L.W.D., J.L.Y.C.) and Infection and Immunity (A.-M.A., S.R.), Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Newborn Services, Monash Medical Centre (E.C.), Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Royal Children's Hospital (A.-M.A., S.R.), and Neonatal Services, Mercy Hospital for Women (G.O.) - all in Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background: Assisted ventilation for extremely preterm infants (<28 weeks of gestation) has become less invasive, but it is unclear whether such developments in care are associated with improvements in short-term or long-term lung function. We compared changes over time in the use of assisted ventilation and oxygen therapy during the newborn period and in lung function at 8 years of age in children whose birth was extremely premature.

Methods: We conducted longitudinal follow-up of all survivors of extremely preterm birth who were born in Victoria, Australia, in three periods - the years 1991 and 1992 (225 infants), 1997 (151 infants), and 2005 (170 infants). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1700827DOI Listing
July 2017
33 Reads

Neonatal Caffeine Treatment and Respiratory Function at 11 Years in Children under 1,251 g at Birth.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 11;196(10):1318-1324

1 Neonatal Services, Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Rationale: Caffeine in the newborn period shortens the duration of assisted ventilation and reduces the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, but its effects on respiratory function in later childhood are unknown.

Objectives: To determine if children born with birth weight less than 1,251 g who were treated with neonatal caffeine had improved respiratory function at 11 years of age compared with children treated with placebo.

Methods: Children enrolled in the CAP (Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity) randomized controlled trial and assessed at the Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne at 11 years of age had expiratory flow rates measured according to the standards of the American Thoracic Society. Read More

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http://www.atsjournals.org/doi/10.1164/rccm.201704-0767OC
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201704-0767OCDOI Listing
November 2017
27 Reads

Australian and New Zealand Committee on Resuscitation Neonatal Resuscitation guidelines 2016.

J Paediatr Child Health 2017 Jul;53(7):621-627

Australian and New Zealand Committee on Resuscitation, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

New Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Resuscitation guidelines reflect recent advances in neonatal resuscitation science, as critically appraised by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. Substantial changes since the 2010 guidelines include: (i) updates to the Newborn Resuscitation Flowchart to include a greater emphasis on maintaining normal body temperature, and to emphasise the importance of beginning assisted ventilation by 1 min in infants who have absent or ineffective spontaneous breathing; (ii) updates to the physiology of the normal perinatal transition that resuscitation is trying to restore; (iii) recommendations for more frequent reinforcement of training, and for structured feedback for resuscitation training instructors; (iv) new guidance in relation to the timing of cord clamping for preterm newborn infants; (v) recommendation to monitor body temperature on admission to newborn units as a resuscitation quality indicator; (vi) suggestion to consider electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring (as an adjunct to oximetry) to obtain more rapid and accurate estimation of heart rate during resuscitation; (vii) removal of previous suggestions to intubate meconium-exposed, non-vigorous term infants to suction the trachea; and (viii) suggestion to establish vascular access to enable administration of intravenous adrenaline (epinephrine) as soon as chest compressions are deemed to be needed. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/jpc.13522
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpc.13522DOI Listing
July 2017
28 Reads

Perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality after attempted operative vaginal delivery at midpelvic station.

CMAJ 2017 Jun;189(22):E764-E772

School of Population and Public Health (Muraca, Lisonkova, Joseph); Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology (Muraca, Sabr, Lisonkova, Skoll, Cundiff, Joseph); Department of Statistics (Brant), The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (Sabr), King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Increased use of operative vaginal delivery (i.e., forceps or vacuum application), of which 20% occurs at midpelvic station, has been advocated to reduce the rate of cesarean delivery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.161156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5461125PMC
June 2017
21 Reads

Neonatal outcomes following a trial of labor after Caesarean delivery: a population-based study.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2018 Aug 10;31(16):2148-2154. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Jewish General Hospital, McGill University , Montreal , Canada.

Purpose: To evaluate the neonatal effects of trial of labor after Caesarean (TOLAC) births.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using the CDC's Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Public Use File (2011-2013) on women with a live singleton pregnancy and prior Caesarean delivery. Multivariate logistic regression compared neonatal outcomes between women who underwent a TOLAC with women who did not. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2017.1337740DOI Listing
August 2018
29 Reads

Prenatal detection of megacystis: not always an adverse prognostic factor. Experience in 25 consecutive cases in a tertiary referral center, with complete neonatal outcome and follow-up.

J Pediatr Urol 2017 Oct 14;13(5):486.e1-486.e10. Epub 2017 Apr 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy Unit, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policlinico A. Gemelli Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: Megacystis is a condition of abnormal enlarged fetal bladder for gestational age, which is usually associated with urological malformations that may constitute a life-threatening condition for the baby.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic and etiological criteria of fetal megacystis and to describe the neonatal outcome in a large series collected in a single tertiary center.

Study Design: A retrospective observational study was conducted between 2008 and 2012. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2017.04.001DOI Listing
October 2017
36 Reads

Pediatric In-Hospital Acute Respiratory Compromise: A Report From the American Heart Association's Get With the Guidelines-Resuscitation Registry.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2017 09;18(9):838-849

1Department of Emergency Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA. 2Department of Anesthesiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. 3Research Center for Emergency Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. 4Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA. 5Department of Emergency Medicine, Hasbro Children's Hospital, Providence, RI. 6Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA.

Objectives: The main objectives of this study were to describe in-hospital acute respiratory compromise among children (< 18 yr old), and its association with cardiac arrest and in-hospital mortality.

Design: Observational study using prospectively collected data.

Setting: U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000001204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5581225PMC
September 2017
30 Reads

Epidemiology of Candida albicans and non-C.albicans of neonatal candidemia at a tertiary care hospital in western China.

BMC Infect Dis 2017 05 6;17(1):329. Epub 2017 May 6.

Department of Laboratory, Liuzhou Worker's Hospital, No 1 Liushi Rd, Liuzhou, 545005, China.

Background: Although the majority of Candida infections occur in the developing world, candidemia epidemiology is poorly understood in these countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of non-Candida albicans (non-C. albicans) candidemia among neonates at Liuzhou Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital in China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-017-2423-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5420153PMC
May 2017
38 Reads

Neuromuscular disorders and chronic ventilation.

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2017 08 24;22(4):256-259. Epub 2017 Apr 24.

Division of Pulmonary Medicine & Center for Pediatric Airway Disorders, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Morbidity and mortality have decreased in patients with neuromuscular disease due to implementation of therapies to augment cough and improve ventilation. Infants with progressive neuromuscular disease will eventually develop respiratory complications as a result of muscle weakness and their inability to compensate during periods of increased respiratory loads. The finding of nocturnal hypercapnia is often the trigger for initiating non-invasive ventilation and studies have shown that its use not only may improve sleep-disordered breathing, but also that it may have an effect on daytime function, symptoms related to hypercapnia, and partial pressure of CO. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.siny.2017.04.001DOI Listing
August 2017
1 Read

The placental factor in spontaneous preterm birth in twin vs. singleton pregnancies.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2017 Jul 22;214:1-5. Epub 2017 Apr 22.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, The Edith Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel(1).

Objective: The association between infection and inflammatory response in singleton preterm birth (PTB) is well established, yet, less is known about PTB in twins. We aimed to compare the placental component and pregnancy outcome in pregnancies complicated with PTB of singletons vs. twin deliveries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2017.04.035DOI Listing
July 2017
23 Reads

The utility of an obesity-specific small for gestational age standard for pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2018 Jun 5;31(12):1602-1606. Epub 2017 May 5.

c Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Oregon Health & Science University , Portland , OR , USA.

Introduction: An obesity-specific standard for small for gestational age (SGA) pregnancies may help identify additional at risk pregnancies.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of all non-anomalous singleton neonates born in Texas from 2006-2011. Analysis was limited to births between 34 and 42 weeks gestation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2017.1321629DOI Listing
June 2018
1 Read

Risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates: a systematic review of prognostic studies.

BMC Pediatr 2017 04 14;17(1):105. Epub 2017 Apr 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Erasmus MC, Room SH-3005, P.O. Box 2060, 3015, CN, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe multifactorial disease in preterm neonates associated with high morbidity and mortality. Better insight into prognostic values of the many reported factors associated with NEC is needed to enable identification of neonates at risk for NEC. The aim was to systematically review the literature to identify independent risk factors for NEC from the literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-017-0847-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5391569PMC
April 2017
6 Reads

Resuscitation with Intact Placental Circulation in a Preterm Infant with Hydrops Fetalis.

AJP Rep 2017 Jan;7(1):e28-e30

Neonatology and Intensive Care Unit, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy.

A preterm infant with prenatal diagnosis of hydrops fetalis was spontaneously delivered at 30 weeks of gestational age in a tertiary level hospital. Prenatal echography pointed out severe bilateral pleural effusions and diffused subcutaneous edema. A neonatologist team, alerted at the expulsion stage of labor, assisted the neonate immediately after birth and bilateral hydrothorax was drained with intact placental circulation to avoid a nonrespiratory period and its possible detrimental hemodynamic effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0037-1598200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5374276PMC
January 2017
6 Reads

4D MUSIC CMR: value-based imaging of neonates and infants with congenital heart disease.

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2017 Apr 3;19(1):40. Epub 2017 Apr 3.

Diagnostic Cardiovascular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: 4D Multiphase Steady State Imaging with Contrast (MUSIC) acquires high-resolution volumetric images of the beating heart during uninterrupted ventilation. We aim to evaluate the diagnostic performance and clinical impact of 4D MUSIC in a cohort of neonates and infants with congenital heart disease (CHD).

Methods: Forty consecutive neonates and infants with CHD (age range 2 days to 2 years, weight 1 to 13 kg) underwent 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12968-017-0352-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5376692PMC
April 2017
31 Reads

A new infant hybrid respiratory simulator: preliminary evaluation based on clinical data.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2017 Nov 25;55(11):1937-1948. Epub 2017 Mar 25.

Department of Biomedical Systems and Technologies, Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, 4 Trojdena Street, Warsaw, Poland.

A new hybrid (numerical-physical) simulator of the respiratory system, designed to simulate spontaneous and artificial/assisted ventilation of preterm and full-term infants underwent preliminary evaluation. A numerical, seven-compartmental model of the respiratory system mechanics allows the operator to simulate global and peripheral obstruction and restriction of the lungs. The physical part of the simulator is a piston-based construction of impedance transformer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11517-017-1635-9DOI Listing
November 2017
6 Reads

Impact of maternal obesity on very preterm infants.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2017 05 22;25(5):945-949. Epub 2017 Mar 22.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York, USA.

Objective: Infants born at less than  34 weeks' gestational age are at higher risk for morbidity and mortality. Data are limited on the impact of maternal obesity on the very preterm infant. This study reviewed whether maternal obesity further increases the intensive care needs of very preterm infants of less than 34 weeks' gestation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.21812DOI Listing
May 2017
5 Reads

Evaluation of Initial Respiratory Support Strategies in VLBW Neonates with RDS.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Mar;20(3):158-164

Mehdieh Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has brought about a significant change in care and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. The present study was designed and conducted to evaluate different strategies of initial respiratory support (IRS) in VLBW neonates hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

Methods: This prospective study was conducted over three years (March 21, 2011 to March 20, 2014). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/0172003/AIM.008DOI Listing
March 2017
21 Reads

Association of Maternal Obesity With Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Cases of Uterine Rupture.

Obstet Gynecol 2017 04;129(4):683-688

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Objective: To describe the risk of adverse outcomes associated with uterine rupture in the setting of maternal obesity.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of singleton nonanomalous neonates born after uterine rupture between 34 and 42 weeks of gestation. We derived data from the U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000001930DOI Listing
April 2017
11 Reads