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    Role of Bi-Weekly Serum Galactomannan Screening for the Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis in Hematologic Cancer Patients.
    Mycoses 2018 Feb 17. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Infectious Diseases Service Department of Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening infection affecting hematologic cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. The diagnosis of IA often relies on the detection of galactomannan (GM) in serum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). Bi-weekly serum GM screening has been proposed for a preemptive therapeutic approach of IA in patients not receiving mold-active prophylaxis. Read More

    Elastin increases biofilm and extracellular matrix production of Aspergillus fumigatus.
    Braz J Microbiol 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Micologia, Cidade Universitária, PE, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic saprobe fungus that accounts for 90% of cases of pulmonary aspergillosis in immunosuppressed patients and is known for its angiotropism. When it reaches the respiratory tract, A. fumigatus interacts with structural components and blood vessels of the lungs, such as elastin. Read More

    Differential role of gpaB and sidA gene expressions in relation to virulence in Aspergillus species from patients with invasive aspergillosis.
    Braz J Microbiol 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Iran University of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Tehran, Iran.
    The virulence genes in invasive aspergillosis (IA) have not been analyzed adequately. The present study was designed to evaluate the expression of gpaB and sidA genes, which are important virulence genes in Aspergillus spp. from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. Read More

    Pulmonary Cavity Fromin an HIV-Infected Patient: Complicated by Bronchopleural Fistula.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Feb 24;5(2):ofy023. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Sleep, and Critical Care Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.
    We present a case ofand HIV co-infection complicated by aspergilloma leading to bronchopleural fistula with intractable pneumothorax and pleural aspergillosis, ultimately requiring surgical intervention. Treatment guidelines forare reviewed, literature regardingand HIV co-infection is reviewed, and the epidemiology ofin North America is discussed. Read More

    Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of pulmonary invasive fungal infection among adult patients with hematological malignancy in a medical centre in Taiwan, 2008-2013.
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Background/purpose: This study was aimed to investigate clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of pulmonary invasive fungal infection (IFI) among patients with hematological malignancy.

    Methods: All patients with hematological malignancy who were treated at a medical centre from 2008 to 2013 were evaluated. Pulmonary IFI was classified according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer 2008 consensus. Read More

    Low sensitivity of Lateral Flow Device-in patients with probable and proven aspergillosis: results from a multicentre evaluation.
    J Clin Microbiol 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Special Mycology Laboratory, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients.…. Read More

    Antifungal susceptibility of thecomplex: comparison of twomethods.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Feb 5. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Olomouc, Hnevotinska 3, 775 15 Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Cryptic species ofincluding thespecies complex, are increasingly reported as a cause of invasive aspergillosis. Their identification is clinically relevant as these species frequently have intrinsic resistance to common antifungals. We evaluated susceptibilities of 90 environmental and clinical isolates from thespecies complex, identified by DNA sequencing of the calmodulin gene, to seven antifungals (voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, anidulafungin, micafungin and caspofungin) using the reference European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing (EUCAST) method. Read More

    Early-onset invasive aspergillosis and other fungal infections in patients treated with ibrutinib.
    Blood 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Service d'Hematologie, IUCT-Oncopole, Toulouse, France.
    Ibrutinib has revolutionized the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and is now being increasingly used. Although considered to be less immunosuppressive than conventional immunochemotherapy, the observation a few cases of invasive fungal infections in patients treated with ibrutinib prompted us to conduct a retrospective survey. We identified 33 cases of invasive fungal infections in patients receiving ibrutinib alone or in combination. Read More

    [A clinican linical analysis of 29 cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis].
    Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2018 Feb;41(2):100-104
    Department of Respiration, Affiliate Fuzhou City First Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350009, China.
    To improve the understanding of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) by analyzing the clinical manifestations, imaging and pathological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this disease.Cases of CPA, proven by microbiological evidence based on pathological study in Fuzhou General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army and Affiliated Fuzhou City First Hospital of Fijian Medical University from January 2006 to October 2016 were retrospectively analyzed.The patients consisted of 17 males and 12 females, aged 24 to 75 years, mean (42±16) years. Read More

    Clinical features of fatal severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome that is complicated by invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.
    J Infect Chemother 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Critical Care Medicine, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, No. 321 Zhongshan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) has been prevalent in parts of Asia during recent years. However, SFTS with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is rare, and it is important to understand its clinical features.

    Materials And Methods: Total four cases of SFTS with IPA are reviewed and detailing the disease progression, treatment options, and prognosis were summarized and analyzed. Read More

    Correlation of aspergillus skin hypersensitivity with the duration and severity of asthma.
    Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2017 Sep 25;87(3):826. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Government Medical College, Department of Pulmonary Medicine.
    Asthma is a significant health problem worldwide and Allergic Bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) complicates the course of 1-2% of patients of asthma. Aspergillus skin hypersensitivity (AH) is the first step for diagnosis of ABPA. This study was conducted to know the correlation of AH with severity and duration of asthma. Read More

    Murine model to follow hyphal development in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Department of Biotechnology and Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Debrecen, 1 Egyetem Square, Debrecen, H-4002, Hungary.
    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic pathogen, the leading cause of invasive and disseminated aspergillosis in systemic immunocompromised patients, and an important cause of mortality. The aim of the present study was to adapt a pulmonary aspergillosis murine model, to determine pathodynamical parameters quantitatively, and to follow the progression of fungal infection in vivo. The nasal inoculation of Aspergillus conidia in mice previously subjected to immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide (CP) turned out to be a more suitable model than that of immunosuppressed with hydrocortisone (HC). Read More

    Deletion of Aspergillus nidulans GDP-mannose transporters affects hyphal morphometry, cell wall architecture, spore surface character, cell adhesion, and biofilm formation.
    Med Mycol 2017 Oct 9. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Biology Department, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Systemic human fungal infections are increasingly common. Aspergillus species cause most of the airborne fungal infections. Life-threatening invasive aspergillosis was formerly found only in immune-suppressed patients, but recently some strains of A. Read More

    Can Controlling Endoplasmic Reticulum Dysfunction Treat Allergic Inflammation in Severe Asthma With Fungal Sensitization?
    Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2018 Mar;10(2):106-120
    Department of Internal Medicine, Research Center for Pulmonary Disorders, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Korea.
    Severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease entity to which diverse cellular components and pathogenetic mechanisms contribute. Current asthma therapies, including new biologic agents, are mainly targeting T helper type 2 cell-dominant inflammation, so that they are often unsatisfactory in the treatment of severe asthma. Respiratory fungal exposure has long been regarded as a precipitating factor for severe asthma phenotype. Read More

    Predominance of non-fumigatus Aspergillus species among patients suspected to pulmonary aspergillosis in a tropical and subtropical region of the Middle East.
    Microb Pathog 2018 Feb 1;116:296-300. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboudumc and Center of Expertise in Mycology Radboudumc/CWZ, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Invasive Fungi Research Center (IFRC), School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center of Excellence for Infection Biology and Antimicrobial Pharmacology, Tehran, Iran.
    Non-fumigatus Aspergillus species are the leading cause of Aspergillus infections in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In a prospective study between 2015 and 2016, a total of 150 bronchoalveolar (BAL) specimens was collected from patients suspected to pulmonary aspergillosis (PA) underlying immunodeficiencies in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran, located in the Middle East. All Aspergillus strains were phylogenetically identified at the species level by PCR-sequencing of partial β-tubulin gene. Read More

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis mimicking organizing pneumonia after mTOR inhibitor therapy: a case report.
    Int J Infect Dis 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Lung Cancer and Respiratory Disease Center, Yamanashi Central Hospital, 1-1-1 Fujimi, Kofu City, Yamanashi 400-8506, Japan.
    A 67-year old man visited our hospital with complaints of fever and cough. He had a past medical history of renal cell carcinoma and had just started treatment with temsirolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor. A 1-week course of antibiotics did not have any effect on his symptoms. Read More

    A Multifaceted Role of Tryptophan Metabolism and Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Activity in-Host Interactions.
    Front Immunol 2017 22;8:1996. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States.
    is the most prevalent filamentous fungal pathogen of humans, causing either severe allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or often fatal invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in individuals with hyper- or hypo-immune deficiencies, respectively. Disease is primarily initiated upon the inhalation of the ubiquitous airborne conidia-the initial inoculum produced by-which are complete developmental units with an ability to exploit diverse environments, ranging from agricultural composts to animal lungs. Upon infection, conidia initially rely on their own metabolic processes for survival in the host's lungs, a nutritionally limiting environment. Read More

    TheSialidase (Kdnase) Contributes to Cell Wall Integrity and Virulence in Amphotericin B-Treated Mice.
    Front Microbiol 2017 18;8:2706. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Department of Biological Sciences and the Centre for Cell Biology, Development and Disease, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    is a filamentous fungus that can cause a life-threatening invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in immunocompromised individuals. We previously characterized an-sialidase fromthat prefers the sialic acid substrate, 2-keto-3-deoxy-D--D--nononic acid (Kdn); hence it is a Kdnase. Sialidases are known virulence factors in other pathogens; therefore, the goal of our study was to evaluate the importance of Kdnase in. Read More

    Cerebral aspergillosis: An emerging opportunistic infection in patients receiving ibrutinib for chronic lymphocytic leukemia?
    Med Mal Infect 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Service des maladies infectieuses et réanimation médicale, CHU de Pontchaillou, 35033 Rennes cedex, France; CIC-Inserm 0203, IFR140, faculté de médecine, université Rennes 1, 35000 Rennes, France. Electronic address:

    Differential susceptibility of Dectin-1 isoforms to functional inactivation by neutrophil and fungal proteases.
    FASEB J 2018 Jan 22:fj201701145R. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Centre for Medical Education, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) experience chronic or recurrent bacterial and fungal lung infections. Many patients with CF cannot effectively clear Aspergillus from their lungs. This may result in IgE sensitization and the development of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, or invasive infections, such as Aspergillus bronchitis. Read More

    Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of four Aspergillus-specific IgG assays for the diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis.
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Jan 6. Epub 2018 Jan 6.
    National Aspergillosis Center, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, UK; Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester, UK.
    Measurement of Aspergillus-specific IgG is central to the diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), but manufacturers' guidance on test interpretation is based on unpublished data. We performed the first receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) analysis to identify optimal cut-offs for this test in relation to European controls. Aspergillus-specific IgG levels were measured in sera from British adults with CPA and European healthy controls by ImmunoCAP, Immulite, Serion and Bio-Rad assays. Read More

    Epidemiology of invasive aspergillosis and triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus in patients with haematological malignancies: a single-centre retrospective cohort study.
    J Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Haematology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Objectives: To investigate the epidemiology and clinical relevance of triazole resistance among patients undergoing treatment for haematological malignancies who are at risk of invasive aspergillosis (IA).

    Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study for which the records of consecutive patients given chemotherapy for AML or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or who had received an allogeneic HSCT from 2006 to 2012 were reviewed for IA. Triazole resistance was detected by the VIPcheck™ screening method and confirmed by determining the MIC by EUCAST methodology. Read More

    [Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis].
    Ugeskr Laeger 2018 Jan;180(5)
    Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is an overlooked disease category in which delay of diagnosis and treatment is associated with increased mortality. A prerequisite for prognostic optimization of CPA is an increased focus on predisposing factors and patients at risk. Diagnosis of CPA is challenging and requires a systematic approach to assessment and interpretation of findings, both of which are necessary for correct disease classification and selection of targeted antifungal treatment and duration. Read More

    Evaluation of a commercial quantitative Aspergillus fumigatus-specific IgM assay for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Dec;96(51):e9436
    Department of Respiratory.
    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a common fungal infection with high mortality rates in immunocompromised patients. Early diagnosis of IPA is still challenging because of its nonspecific clinical symptoms and radiological presentations.To evaluate the clinical value of a commercial Aspergillus fumigates-specific IgM antibody assay in diagnosis of IPA, a multicenter prospective study was performed in 12 hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China, from January 1 to December 31, 2016. Read More

    Resolution of esophageal dysmotility following treatment of nasal disease in a dog.
    Can Vet J 2018 Feb;59(2):147-151
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, 601 Vernon L Tharp Street, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.
    A 2-year-old Rottweiler dog was evaluated for cough, regurgitation, and nasal discharge, and was subsequently diagnosed with sinonasal aspergillosis and secondary esophageal disease. Following treatment of sinonasal aspergillosis, all clinical signs resolved. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of resolution of esophageal dysfunction following treatment of sinonasal aspergillosis. Read More

    Efficacy and safety of micafungin for the treatment of patients with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis: A non-comparative, multicenter, phase IV, open-label study.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Dec;96(52):e9443
    Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing.
    Introduction: Few studies have assessed the efficacy and safety of micafungin in patients with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis (IA). This was the aim of the current study, which was conducted in 22 hospitals in China, where micafungin was approved for treatment of IA in 2006.

    Methods: This was a non-comparative, phase IV open-label study (NCT02646774). Read More

    Occlusive mycotic tracheobronchitis and systemic Alphaherpesvirus coinfection in a free-living striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba in Italy.
    Dis Aquat Organ 2018 Jan;127(2):137-144
    C.Re.Di.Ma., Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d'Aosta, 10154 Torino, Italy.
    A juvenile female striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba live stranded on 4 March 2016 at Alassio, western Ligurian Sea coast, Italy. The dolphin died shortly after stranding, and a complete postmortem examination was performed. Necropsy revealed severe tracheal occlusion and unilateral bronchial stenosis with luminal accumulation of abundant green-yellow mucous-gelatinous material. Read More

    Complications of surgery for infectious lung cavities.
    Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2018 Jan 1:218492318754740. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
    National Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Background Infectious lung cavities are a common entity for the respiratory physician. Sometimes these lesions require surgical treatment, but surgery is challenging, and complications are common. Methods Patients with infectious lung cavities amenable to surgical treatment were included in a case-control study. Read More

    [Disseminated aspergillosis due to Aspergillus flavus in a pediatric patient with a recent diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia].
    Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex 2017 Sep - Oct;74(5):370-381. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Departamento de Infectología, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, Ciudad de México, México.

    Infant Central Nervous System Aspergillosis with First-episode of Intracranial Hemorrhage: A case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Nov;96(47):e8893
    Department of Radiology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University.
    Rationale: Central nervous system (CNS) aspergillosis has the characteristics of multifocality, polymorphism, and coexistence of pathological types, and missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis frequently occur at the initial stage. The thesis reports a rare case of infant infection of CNS aspergillosis with the first-episode of intracranial hemorrhage.

    Patient Concerns: An 11-month-old female infant suffered convulsion and coma two days after the onset of fever and emesis. Read More

    Mesenchymal stem cells transplantation in hematological patients with acute graft-versus-host disease: characteristics and risk factors for infectious complications.
    Ann Hematol 2018 Jan 29. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    City Clinical Hospital №9, Semashko Str., 8, 220045, Minsk, Belarus.
    The role of MSCs in infection prevention and treatment is still discussed in transplant and hematological patients. The spectrum and risk factors for infections after MSCs transplantation in patients with acute GVHD have not been studied before. To determine the risk factors and spectrum of infectious complications in patients received mesenchymal stem cell transplantation as a treatment for acute GVHD. Read More

    A systematic review of fluconazole resistance in clinical isolates of Cryptococcus species.
    Mycoses 2018 Jan 29. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Fluconazole is the most commonly used antifungal agent for both the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis, and for prophylaxis against the disease. However, its prolonged use has the potential to exert selection pressure in favour of fluconazole-resistant strains. We evaluated the prevalence of fluconazole resistance in Cryptococcus spp. Read More

    EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis complicated by severe coagulation disorders and opportunistic infections: case report of a survivor.
    Clin Case Rep 2018 Jan 29;6(1):115-118. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Department of HematologyAntwerp University HospitalEdegemBelgium.
    The possibility of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis should always be kept in mind when examining/treating a patient with fever of unknown origin and sepsis-like symptoms. Early diagnosis leading to prompt initiation of immunosuppressive therapy as well as aggressive supportive care, including correction of coagulation abnormalities and treatment of opportunistic infections, can decrease mortality. Read More

    Host-Derived Leukotriene BIs Critical for Resistance against Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis.
    Front Immunol 2017 11;8:1984. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH, United States.
    is a mold that causes severe pulmonary infections. Our knowledge of how immune competent hosts maintain control of fungal infections while constantly being exposed to fungi is rapidly emerging. It is known that timely neutrophil recruitment to and activation in the lungs is critical to the host defense against development of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, but the inflammatory sequelae necessary remains to be fully defined. Read More

    Prevention of Invasive Aspergillus Fungal Infections with the Suspension and Delayed-Release Tablet Formulations of Posaconazole in Patients with Haematologic Malignancies.
    Sci Rep 2018 Jan 26;8(1):1681. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Department of Pharmacology and CIC-1421, AP-HP, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, F-75013, Paris, France.
    Posaconazole is a triazole antifungal used to prevent invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in patients receiving chemotherapy or haemotopoietic stem cell transplantation. Due to highly variable bioavailability of the oral suspension formulation, a delayed-release tablet was developed which showed improved bioavailability. A minimal target posaconazole plasma concentration of 0. Read More

    [In vitro susceptibility of Cuban Aspergillus spp. strains of clinical and environmental origin].
    Biomedica 2017 Dec 1;37(4):451-459. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Micología, Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kourí", La Habana, Cuba.
    Introduction: The behavior of antifungal susceptibility of Aspergillus spp. in Cuba remains unknown. The antifungals recommended to treat aspergillosis are amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole and echinocandins. Read More

    Treatment of Sinonasal Aspergillosis by Debridement and Sinonasal Deposition Therapy with Clotrimazole Under Rhinoscopic Guidance.
    J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2018 Jan 26. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    From the Clinique Vétérinaire Seinevet, 5 Place Cauchoise, 76000 Rouen, France.
    Rhinoscopy was performed on 10 dogs with sinonasal aspergillosis (SNA). Direct access to the sinus via the nasal ostium was possible with a flexible endoscope to allow sinuscopy. Debridement of fungal plaques in the frontal sinus and the nasal cavity was performed, and a sinus and nasal deposition therapy with clotrimazole (1%) cream was made under rhinoscopic guidance. Read More

    as a Model for Studying.
    Mycobiology 2017 Dec 31;45(4):233-239. Epub 2017 Dec 31.
    Department of Plant Biology, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8520, USA.
    is a useful model organism that offers essential insights into developmental and cellular processes shared with humans, which has been adapted for large scale analysis of medically important microbes and to test the toxicity of heavy metals, industrial solvents and other poisonous substances. We here give a brief review of the use of themodel in medical mycology, discuss the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the opportunistic human pathogen,, and give a brief summary of what is known about the toxicity of some common fungal VOCs. Further, we discuss the use of VOC detection as an indirect indicator of fungal growth, including for early diagnosis of aspergillosis. Read More

    HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Disease in Resource-Limited Settings: A Case for "Prevention Is Better Than Cure"?
    J Fungi (Basel) 2017 Dec 2;3(4). Epub 2017 Dec 2.
    Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.
    Cryptococcal disease remains a significant source of global morbidity and mortality for people living with HIV, especially in resource-limited settings. The recently updated estimate of cryptococcal disease revealed a global incidence of 223,100 cases annually with 73% of these cases being diagnosed in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, 75% of the estimated 181,100 deaths associated with cryptococcal disease occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

    Global and Multi-National Prevalence of Fungal Diseases-Estimate Precision.
    J Fungi (Basel) 2017 Oct 18;3(4). Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    The National Aspergillosis Center, Education and Research Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M23 9LT, UK.
    Fungal diseases kill more than 1.5 million and affect over a billion people. However, they are still a neglected topic by public health authorities even though most deaths from fungal diseases are avoidable. Read More

    The Multifaceted Role of T-Helper Responses in Host Defense against Aspergillus fumigatus.
    J Fungi (Basel) 2017 Oct 4;3(4). Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Department of Experimental Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious diseases (RCI), Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 10, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    The ubiquitous opportunistic fungal pathogenrarely causes infections in immunocompetent individuals. A healthy functional innate immune system plays a crucial role in preventing-infection. This pivotal role for the innate immune system makes it a main research focus in studying the pathogenesis of aspergillosis. Read More

    Innate and Adaptive Immune Defects in Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis.
    J Fungi (Basel) 2017 May 29;3(2). Epub 2017 May 29.
    Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.
    We evaluated the expression of biomarkers of innate and adaptive immune response in correlation with underlying conditions in 144 patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). Patients with complete medical and radiological records, white cell counts, and a complete panel of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, and CD56 lymphocyte subsets were included. Eighty-four (58%) patients had lymphopenia. Read More

    Global Aspects of Triazole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus with Focus on Latin American Countries.
    J Fungi (Basel) 2017 Feb 10;3(1). Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Center for Research in Medical Mycology, Department of Pathology, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo-UFES, Av. Marechal Campos, 1468, Maruípe CEP 29.040-090, Vitória-ES, Brazil.
    Azole resistance inhas emerged as an escalating problem in health care, and it has been detected in patients exposed, or not, to these drugs. It is known that azole antifungals are widely applied not only in clinical treatments for fungal infections, but also as agricultural fungicides, resulting in a significant threat for human health. Although the number of cases of azole-resistant aspergillosis is still limited, various resistance mechanisms are described from clinical and environmental isolates. Read More

    Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Jordan.
    J Fungi (Basel) 2018 Jan 18;4(1). Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester M23 9LT, UK.
    Objective: To estimate the burden of fungal infections in Jordan for the first time.

    Material And Methods: Population data was from UN 2011 statistics and TB cases from WHO in 2012. Fewer than 100 patients with HIV were recorded in Jordan in 2013. Read More

    Anti-Aspergillus Activities of the Respiratory Epithelium in Health and Disease.
    J Fungi (Basel) 2018 Jan 8;4(1). Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Manchester Fungal Infection Group, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9NT, UK.
    Respiratory epithelia fulfil multiple roles beyond that of gaseous exchange, also acting as primary custodians of lung sterility and inflammatory homeostasis. Inhaled fungal spores pose a continual antigenic, and potentially pathogenic, challenge to lung integrity against which the human respiratory mucosa has developed various tolerance and defence strategies. However, respiratory disease and immune dysfunction frequently render the human lung susceptible to fungal diseases, the most common of which are the aspergilloses, a group of syndromes caused by inhaled spores of. Read More

    Host Soluble Mediators: Defying the Immunological Inertness ofConidia.
    J Fungi (Basel) 2017 Dec 24;4(1). Epub 2017 Dec 24.
    Unité des Aspergillus, Department of Mycology, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France.
    produce airborne spores (conidia), which are inhaled in abundant quantity. In an immunocompromised population, the host immune system fails to clear the inhaled conidia, which then germinate and invade, leading to pulmonary aspergillosis. In an immunocompetent population, the inhaled conidia are efficiently cleared by the host immune system. Read More

    Applying host disease status biomarkers to therapeutic response monitoring in invasive aspergillosis patients.
    Med Mycol 2018 Jan 22. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Public Health Research Institute, New Jersey Medical School-Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, Newark, New Jersey.
    One critical factor impeding successful management of invasive aspergillosis (IA) is the lack of reliable biomarkers to assess therapeutic response. We hypothesized that changes in certain host biomarkers reflect the nature of infection status and disease progression. Upon primary IA diagnosis, these disease status biomarkers can be monitored to track response to antifungal therapy and provide early markers that prognosticate likelihood of response. Read More

    Fucose-specific lectin of Aspergillus fumigatus: binding properties and effects on immune response stimulation.
    Med Mycol 2018 Jan 22. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University, Japan.
    Aspergillus fumigatus is the major causative fungus of aspergillosis, and many studies have explored the relationship between A. fumigatus and pathogenicity. In the current study, we focused on a fucose-specific lectin, FleA, as a novel molecule which related to the pathogenicity of A. Read More

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