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    Molecular diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis and detection of azole resistance by a newly commercialized PCR kit.
    J Clin Microbiol 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Université Paris-Descartes, Faculté de Médecine, APHP, Hôpital Necker Enfants-Malades, Unité de Parasitologie-Mycologie, Service de Microbiologie, Paris, France
    Aspergillus fumigatus is the main species responsible for aspergillosis in humans. The diagnosis of aspergillosis remains difficult, and the rapid emergence of azole resistance in A. fumigatus, is worrisome. Read More

    Proteomic profiling of the antifungal drug response of Aspergillus fumigatus to voriconazole.
    Int J Med Microbiol 2017 Aug 5. Epub 2017 Aug 5.
    Department of Molecular and Applied Microbiology, Leibniz Institute of Natural Product Research and Infection Biology-Hans-Knoll Institute (HKI), Jena Germany; Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Institute of Microbiology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany. Electronic address:
    Antifungal resistance is an emerging problem and one of the reasons for treatment failure of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Voriconazole has become a standard therapeutic for the treatment of this often fatal infection. We studied the differentially expressed proteins as a response of Aspergillus fumigatus to voriconazole by employing the two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) technique. Read More

    A simple high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of isavuconazole and four other antifungal drugs in human plasma samples.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 2017 Aug 5;145:718-724. Epub 2017 Aug 5.
    Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacogenetics, University of Turin, Department of Medical Sciences, "Amedeo di Savoia" Hospital, 10149, Turin, Italy(2).
    Triazoles chanced the prevention and treatment of invasive fungal infections, but their pharmacokinetic properties are still unclear. In particular, isavuconazole (ISC) is a new broad-spectrum antifungal triazole approved in 2015 as first-line treatment for intravenous and oral use against invasive aspergillosis and for mucormycosis. Nowadays, the optimal management of the treatments with triazoles requires the use of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM), in order to prevent sub-therapeutic or toxic concentrations. Read More

    Abridged version of the AWMF guideline for the medical clinical diagnostics of indoor mould exposure: S2K Guideline of the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventive Medicine (GHUP) in collaboration with the German Association of Allergists (AeDA), the German Society of Dermatology (DDG), the German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI), the German Society for Occupational and Environmental Medicine (DGAUM), the German Society for Hospital Hygiene (DGKH), the German Society for Pneumology and Respiratory Medicine (DGP), the German Mycological Society (DMykG), the Society for Pediatric Allergology and Environmental Medicine (GPA), the German Federal Association of Pediatric Pneumology (BAPP), and the Austrian Society for Medical Mycology (ÖGMM).
    Allergo J Int 2017 28;26(5):168-193. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Department of Infection Control and Environmental Hygiene, Cologne Health Authority, Neumarkt 15-21, 50667 Cologne, Germany.
    This article is an abridged version of the AWMF mould guideline "Medical clinical diagnostics of indoor mould exposure" presented in April 2016 by the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventive Medicine (Gesellschaft für Hygiene, Umweltmedizin und Präventivmedizin, GHUP), in collaboration with the above-mentioned scientific medical societies, German and Austrian societies, medical associations and experts. Indoor mould growth is a potential health risk, even if a quantitative and/or causal relationship between the occurrence of individual mould species and health problems has yet to be established. Apart from allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and mould-caused mycoses, only sufficient evidence for an association between moisture/mould damage and the following health effects has been established: allergic respiratory disease, asthma (manifestation, progression and exacerbation), allergic rhinitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis), and increased likelihood of respiratory infections/bronchitis. Read More

    Repurposing antipsychotic drugs into antifungal agents: Synergistic combinations of azoles and bromperidol derivatives in the treatment of various fungal infections.
    Eur J Med Chem 2017 Jul 19;139:12-21. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kentucky, 789 South Limestone Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0596, USA. Electronic address:
    As the number of hospitalized and immunocompromised patients continues to rise, invasive fungal infections, such as invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis, threaten the life of millions of patients every year. The azole antifungals are currently the most prescribed drugs clinically that display broad-spectrum antifungal activity and excellent oral bioavailability. Yet, the azole antifungals have their own limitations and are unable to meet the challenges associated with increasing fungal infections and the accompanied development of resistance against azoles. Read More

    Cytomegalovirus Reactivation is Associated with Increased Risk of Late-Onset Invasive Fungal Disease Following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation; a Multi-Centre Study in the Current Era of Viral Load Monitoring.
    Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2017 Aug 7. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, The University of Melbourne and Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Australia; Victorian Infectious Diseases Service, Royal Melbourne Hospital at The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Australia.
    Opportunistic infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation and invasive fungal disease (IFD) cause significant morbidity and mortality to recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). We aimed to characterise the risk and relationship of CMV reactivation post-HSCT to IFD in the current era of CMV viral load monitoring using highly sensitive plasma DNA. A multi-centre retrospective cohort study was conducted of consecutive patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT from January 2006 to December 2010 in Melbourne, Australia. Read More

    Allergic and Noninvasive Infectious Pulmonary Aspergillosis Syndromes.
    Clin Chest Med 2017 Sep 12;38(3):521-534. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, 828 West Gates Building, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
    Aspergillus spp are ubiquitous in the environment, and inhalation of Aspergillus spores is unavoidable. An intact immune system, with normal airway function, protects most people from disease. Globally, however, the toll from aspergillosis is high. Read More

    Successful long-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2017 Aug 11;11(1):220. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan.
    Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is an established life-saving procedure for severe acute respiratory failure due to various causes. In general, the duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation ranges from 1 to 2 weeks, with withdrawal recommended if no improvement is noted. We report a successful case of long-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation management for respiratory failure due to invasive pulmonary Aspergillus infection. Read More

    Assessment of Carvacrol for control of avian aspergillosis in intratracheally-challenged chickens in comparison to Voriconazole with a reference on economic impact.
    J Appl Microbiol 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Animal Wealth Development Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Sharkia Province, Egypt.
    Aim: This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of essential oils (EOs) as an alternative prophylaxis and treatment for avian aspergillosis.

    Methods And Results: The in vitro susceptibility of A. fumigatus strains to antifungal drugs and carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, thymoquinone and cinnamon was determined using the macro-diffusion and microdilution methods. Read More

    Severe neurological disorders and refractory aspergillosis in an adolescent treated by vincristine and voriconazole.
    J Clin Pharm Ther 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Pharmacovigilance Regional Center, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Amiens University Medical Center, Amiens, France.
    What Is Known And Objective: Voriconazole and vincristine are major therapeutics in paediatric haematology. However, the risk-benefit ratio of the treatment of invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole in patients receiving vincristine-based chemotherapy remains unclear.

    Case Description: We report severe peripheral and central neurological disorders in a 14-year-old girl with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and pulmonary aspergillosis. Read More

    Liquid-based cytopathology test as a novel method to identify Aspergillus in patients with pulmonary aspergillosis.
    Sci Rep 2017 Aug 8;7(1):7528. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department of Pathology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China.
    Conventional cytopathology examination of respiratory samples can aid in identifying Aspergillus but with poor sensitivity, so this study aimed to assess the potential of the liquid-based cytopathology test (LCT) for improving the identification of Aspergillus in respiratory samples following Papanicolaou's or Special staining with Grocott's methenamine silver or periodic acid-Schiff staining. Paired bronchial brushing samples (n = 54) and sputum samples (n = 117) from 171 patients with pulmonary aspergillosis were prepared as slides using either conventional cytopathology or SurePath LCT. LCT slides were generally superior to conventional slides, showing smaller cell monolayer surface area, clearer background and more distinct stereoscopic cytological features. Read More

    [The expression of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells receptor-1 in Aspergillus infected mice].
    Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 2017 Aug;56(8):601-605
    Department of Critical Care Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China.
    Objective: To investigate the expression of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells receptor-1 (TREM-1) in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and its correlation with Galactomannan, IFNγ, IL-6 and IL-10 in Aspergillus infected mice. Methods: Cyclophosphamide(CTX) was intraperitoneally injected and fumigatus spore suspension was inhaled by nose to establish the immunocompromised invasive pulmonary aspergillosis(IPA) mouse model.Healthy controls, immunocompromised only and IPA only groups were also established. Read More

    Intra- and inter-individual variability of Aspergillus fumigatus reactive T-cell frequencies in healthy volunteers in dependency of mould exposure in residential and working environment.
    Mycoses 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany.
    Invasive aspergillosis remains a deadly disease in immunocompromised patients, whereas the combination of an exaggerated immune response and continuous exposure lead to various hyperinflammatory diseases. This pilot study aimed to gain an overview of the intra- and inter-individual variability in Aspergillus fumigatus reactive T-helper cells in healthy adults and the correlation with environmental mould exposure. In this flow cytometric study, the frequencies of CD154(+) A. Read More

    Postsurgical mediastinal aspergilloma masquerading as malignancy.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Aug 7;2017. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Infectious Diseases, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
    A 70-year-old man with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy presented with symptoms of fatigue, chills and unintentional weight loss over the past 2 months. Initial evaluation revealed anaemia, peripheral leucocytosis and elevated inflammatory markers. Results of an oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, blood bacterial and fungal cultures and bone marrow biopsy were negative. Read More

    2016 guidelines for the use of antifungal agents in patients with invasive fungal diseases in Taiwan.
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2017 Jul 25. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Departments of Medical Research and Medicine, Chi Mei Medical Center, Taiwan.
    The Infectious Diseases Society of Taiwan, Medical Foundation in Memory of Dr. Deh-Lin Cheng, Foundation of Professor Wei-Chuan Hsieh for Infectious Diseases Research and Education, and CY Lee's Research Foundation for Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Vaccines have updated the guidelines for the use of antifungal agents in adult patients with invasive fungal diseases in Taiwan. This guideline replaces the 2009 version. Read More

    Estimated burden of fungal infections in Italy.
    J Infect 2017 Aug 3. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections (GAFFI), Rue de l'Ancien-Port 14, Geneva 1, 1211, Geneva, Switzerland; National Aspergillosis Centre, University Hospital of South Manchester, The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, M23 9LT, UK.

    Aspergillus Secondary Metabolite Database, a resource to understand the Secondary metabolome of Aspergillus genus.
    Sci Rep 2017 Aug 4;7(1):7325. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Division of Pharmacology & Toxicology, CSIR-IICT (Indian Institute of Chemical Technology), Ministry of Science & Technology (GOI), Uppal Road, Tarnaka, Hyderabad, Telangana, 500017, India.
    Aspergillus is a genus of ubiquitous fungi that are pathologically & therapeutically important. Aspergillus Secondary Metabolites Database (A2MDB) is a curated compendium of information on Aspergillus & its secondary metabolome. A2MDB catalogs 807 unique non-redundantsecondary metabolites derived from 675 Aspergillus species. Read More

    ADAMTS-13 regulates neutrophil recruitment in a mouse model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.
    Sci Rep 2017 Aug 3;7(1):7184. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    IIIrd Dept. of Medicine, Johannes Gutenberg-University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany.
    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is secreted as an acute phase protein during inflammation. ADAMTS-13 regulates the size and prothrombotic activity of VWF by it's specific proteolytic activity. To determine the relevance of this regulatory pathway for the innate inflammatory response by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), we employed a mouse model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) where PMN functionality is crucial for fungal clearance and survival. Read More

    Candida and invasive mould diseases in non-neutropenic critically ill patients and patients with haematological cancer.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Jul 31. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney and Westmead Institute for Medical Research, Westmead, NSW, Australia.
    Critically ill patients and patients with haematological cancer are HIV-negative populations at high risk of invasive fungal infections. In intensive-care units, candidaemia and intra-abdominal candidiasis predominate, but aspergillosis has emerged as a lethal, under-recognised cause of pneumonia. In patients with haematological malignancies or who have undergone stem-cell transplantations, pulmonary disease due to aspergillus and other mould diseases predominate. Read More

    Pulmonary and sinus fungal diseases in non-immunocompromised patients.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Jul 31. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India.
    The human respiratory tract is exposed daily to airborne fungi, fungal enzymes, and secondary metabolites. The endemic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and occasionally Aspergillus fumigatus, are primary pulmonary pathogens of otherwise healthy people. Such infections resolve in most people, and only a few infections lead to disease. Read More

    Improvement of fungal disease identification and management: combined health systems and public health approaches.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Jul 31. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections, Geneva, Switzerland; Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; The National Aspergillosis Centre, University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    More than 1·6 million people are estimated to die of fungal diseases each year, and about a billion people have cutaneous fungal infections. Fungal disease diagnosis requires a high level of clinical suspicion and specialised laboratory testing, in addition to culture, histopathology, and imaging expertise. Physicians with varied specialist training might see patients with fungal disease, yet it might remain unrecognised. Read More

    An Autopsy Case of Epstein-Barr Virus‒Associated Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Central Nervous System in an Immunocompromised Host.
    J Pathol Transl Med 2017 Aug 4. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Lymphomas arising in the central nervous system (CNS) of immunocompromised hosts represent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas exclusively associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Here we report an autopsy case of EBV-associated CNS diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in a host suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus who underwent immunosuppressive therapy. After autopsy, EBV-associated CNS DLBCL as well as pulmonary mixed aspergillosis and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia were added to the clinical impressions of complicated pneumonia and cerebral hemorrhage in this immunocompromised patient. Read More

    Fatal Mycotic Aneurysm of the Basilar Artery Caused by Aspergillus fumigatus in a Patient with Pituitary Adenoma and Meningitis.
    Front Med (Lausanne) 2017 18;4:113. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Mikrobiologisches Institut-Klinische Mikrobiologie, Immunologie und Hygiene, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität (FAU) Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) frequently occur in immunosuppressed patients. Here, we describe the case of an immunocompetent 64-year-old man who presented with diplopia, right-sided hemiparesis, and a mild headache after cleaning and replacing nesting boxes of wild birds during the preceding months. Lumbar puncture revealed pleocytosis, elevated protein, and lactate levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Read More

    Simultaneous primary invasive cutaneous aspergillosis in two preterm twins: case report and review of the literature.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Aug 2;17(1):535. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Laboratoire de Parasitologie et de Mycologie Médicale, Plateau Technique de Microbiologie ; Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg. 1 Place de l'Hôpital, F-67000, Strasbourg, France.
    Background: Primary invasive cutaneous aspergillosis is a rare fungal infection that occurs mostly in immunocompromised patients. Newborns of very low birth weight present a high risk for this type of infection due to an immaturity of the cutaneous barrier and of the immune system.

    Case Presentation: We describe here a case of simultaneous invasive cutaneous aspergillosis in two preterm twins. Read More

    A review of 42 asthmatic children with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.
    Asia Pac Allergy 2017 Jul 19;7(3):148-155. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India.
    Background: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in children with asthma, not associated with cystic fibrosis, is yet to receive the recognition it deserves.

    Objective: To highlight the presentation of ABPA in children with asthma.

    Methods: This retrospective review documents the occurrence of pediatric ABPA over a period of 31 years in one unit. Read More

    The in vitro effects of interferon-gamma, alone or in combination with amphotericin B, tested against the pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus.
    BMC Res Notes 2017 Aug 1;10(1):364. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    School of Science and Health, Western Sydney University, Building 21 Campbelltown Campus, Narellan Road, Campbelltown, NSW, 2560, Australia.
    Objective: Recent studies into the antifungal activity of NK-cells against the Aspergillus fumigatus have presented differing accounts on their mode of antifungal activity. One of these mechanisms proposed that NK-cells may kill the fungus via the direct effects of exposure to Interferon gamma (IFN-γ).

    Results: In this study we investigated the direct antifungal effects of recombinant human IFN-γ against a range of pathogenic fungi by measuring cellular damage using an XTT-based assay and cell viability through plate counts. Read More

    Invasive aspergillosis in a patient with end stage renal disease.
    Med Mycol Case Rep 2017 Dec 11;18:12-14. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Marmara University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Invasive aspergillosis caused by A. Fumigatus, almost occurs in immunocompromised hosts and has a poor prognosis. We report a case of invasive Aspergillosis in a 15-year-old boy with ESRD. Read More

    Caspofungin-Mediated Growth Inhibition and Paradoxical Growth in Aspergillus fumigatus involve Fungicidal Hyphal Tip Lysis Coupled with Regenerative Intrahyphal Growth and Dynamic Changes in β-1,3-Glucan Synthase Localization.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 Jul 31. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Manchester Fungal Infection Group, Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, University of Manchester, CTF Building, 46 Grafton Street, Manchester M13 9NT, UK
    Caspofungin targets cell wall β-1,3-glucan synthesis and is guideline-recommended to treat invasive aspergillosis as salvage therapy. Although caspofungin is inhibitory at low concentrations, it exhibits a 'paradoxical effect' (reversal of growth inhibition) at high concentrations by an undetermined mechanism. Treatment with either growth inhibitory (0. Read More

    Single tracheal inoculation of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia induced aspergillosis in juvenile falcons (Falco spp.).
    Avian Pathol 2017 Jul 31:1-40. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    a Clinic for Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians and Fish , Justus Liebig University Giessen , 35392 Giessen , Germany.
    Aspergillosis is a common and life-threatening respiratory disease in raptors with acute and chronic courses. Among raptors, gyr falcons (Falco rusticolus) and their hybrids are often declared to be highly susceptible with juvenile individuals being the most susceptible. However, species and age specific experimental studies are lacking and minimal infective doses for Aspergillus spp. Read More

    [Pulmonary mucormycosis in a patient with kidney transplant and uncontrolled haemoptysis].
    Rev Iberoam Micol 2017 Jul 27. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Ciudad de México, México.
    Background: Pulmonary mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic infection with high mortality that is caused by species of Mucorales. The most common species involved are Rhizopus, Mucor, Lichtheimia, and Rhizomucor.

    Case Report: A 56 year-old woman presented with a clinical history of diabetes mellitus type 2 and chronic renal disease. Read More

    Aspergillus fumigatus protein phosphatase PpzA is involved in iron assimilation, secondary metabolite production, and virulence.
    Cell Microbiol 2017 Jul 28. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.
    Metal restriction imposed by mammalian hosts during an infection is a common mechanism of defense to reduce or avoid the pathogen infection. Metals are essential for organism survival due to its involvement in several biological processes. Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive aspergillosis (IA), a disease that typically manifests in immunocompromised patients. Read More

    J Zoo Wildl Med 2017 Jun;48(2):352-362
    Aspergillosis is a common respiratory fungal disease in African penguins ( Spheniscus demersus ) under managed care, and treatment failures with itraconazole due to drug resistance are increasingly common, leading to recent use of voriconazole. Empirical dosing with voriconazole based on other avian studies has resulted in adverse clinical drug effects in penguins. The objective of this study was to determine oral voriconazole pharmacokinetics (PK) in African penguins (n = 18). Read More

    Surgical treatment for pulmonary aspergilloma - early and long-term results.
    Kardiochir Torakochirurgia Pol 2017 Jun 30;14(2):99-103. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Department of Thoracic Surgery, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland.
    Introduction: Pulmonary aspergilloma is a difficult therapeutic problem due to the low effectiveness of conservative treatment and high surgical morbidity.

    Aim: To analyze the early and late results of surgical treatment for pulmonary aspergilloma.

    Material And Methods: From 2005 to 2015, 49 patients were treated surgically for pulmonary aspergilloma. Read More

    Echinocandins in antifungal pharmacotherapy.
    J Pharm Pharmacol 2017 Jul 26. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS, USA.
    Objectives: Echinocandins are the newest addition of the last decade to the antifungal armamentarium, which, owing to their unique mechanism of action, selectively target the fungal cells without affecting mammalian cells. Since the time of their introduction, they have come to occupy an important niche in the antifungal pharmacotherapy, due to their efficacy, safety, tolerability and favourable pharmacokinetic profiles. This review deals with the varying facets of echinocandins such as their chemistry, in-vitro and in-vivo evaluations, clinical utility and indications, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, and pharmacoeconomic considerations. Read More

    Progressive Dispersion of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus: Fatal Invasive Aspergillosis in a Patient with Acute Myeloid Leukemia Infected with an A. fumigatus Strain with a cyp51A TR46 Y121F M172I T289A Allele.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 Aug 25;61(8). Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Laboratory of Mycology Research, Center for Antimicrobial Resistance and Microbial Genomics, McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas, USA
    Patients with hematologic malignancies as well as allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients are at high risk for invasive aspergillosis. Here, we report a culture- and autopsy-proven fatal invasive aspergillosis in an allogeneic HSTC patient which he developed despite posaconazole prophylaxis. The agent was determined to be an azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus strain bearing the cyp51A mutation combination TR46 Y121F M172I T289A. Read More

    Addition of 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin to a suboptimal caspofungin treatment regimen in neutropenic rats with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis delays the time to death but does not enhance the overall therapeutic efficacy.
    PLoS One 2017 24;12(7):e0180961. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Caspofungin (CAS) which is used as salvage therapy in patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) inhibits the 1,3-β-D-glucan synthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus. Inhibiting 1,3-β-D-glucan synthesis induces a stress response and in an invertebrate model it was demonstrated that inhibiting this response with geldamycin enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of CAS. Since geldamycin itself is toxic to mammalians, the therapeutic efficacy of combining geldamycin with CAS was not studied in rodent models. Read More

    Aspergillus calidoustus case series and review of the literature.
    Transpl Infect Dis 2017 Jul 25. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Loyola University Medical Center Maywood, IL, USA.
    Aspergillus calidoustus, previously classified as Aspergillus ustus, is an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised persons. We describe four recent cases of A. calidoustus and review 37 additional cases of A. Read More

    CD56 Is a Pathogen Recognition Receptor on Human Natural Killer Cells.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jul 21;7(1):6138. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Department of Internal Medicine II, WÜ4i, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany.
    Aspergillus (A.) fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal mold inducing invasive aspergillosis (IA) in immunocompromised patients. Although antifungal activity of human natural killer (NK) cells was shown in previous studies, the underlying cellular mechanisms and pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) are still unknown. Read More

    Evidence of unique genetic diversity in Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from Cameroon.
    Mycoses 2017 Jul 20. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic fungus that can cause lethal invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Recent studies have shown that Eurasian and North American populations of A. fumigatus often consist of genetically diverse strains. Read More

    Drug-drug interactions between triazole antifungal agents used to treat invasive aspergillosis and immunosuppressants metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4.
    Transpl Infect Dis 2017 Jul 19. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Department of Pharmacy, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre and Centre of Expertise in Mycology Radboud UMC/CWZ, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Patients undergoing treatment with immunosuppressant drugs following solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are at particular risk for development of serious infections such as invasive aspergillosis. Four triazole antifungal drugs, voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, and isavuconazole, are approved to treat invasive aspergillosis either as first- or second-line therapy. All of these agents are inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A4, which plays a key role in metabolizing immunosuppressant drugs such as cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and sirolimus. Read More

    Spatial Patterns and Impacts of Environmental and Climatic Factors on Canine Sinonasal Aspergillosis in Northern California.
    Front Vet Sci 2017 3;4:104. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Center for Animal Disease Modeling and Surveillance (CADMS), Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, United States.
    Sinonasal aspergillosis (SNA) causes chronic nasal discharge in dogs and has a worldwide distribution, although most reports of SNA in North America originate from the western USA. SNA is mainly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, a ubiquitous saprophytic filamentous fungus. Infection is thought to follow inhalation of spores. Read More

    Flucloxacillin results in suboptimal voriconazole plasma concentrations.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 Jul 17. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Department of Pharmacy, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen
    Combining voriconazole and flucloxacillin is indicated in patient cohorts experiencing both invasive aspergillosis and gram-positive infections (e.g. patients with chronic granulomatous disease or post-influenza pulmonary aspergillosis). Read More

    Amphotericin B releasing topical nanoemulsion for the treatment of candidiasis and aspergillosis.
    Nanomedicine 2017 Jul 13;13(7):2303-2312. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology and Physical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (IN2UB), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    The present study was designed to develop a nanoemulsion formulation of Amphotericin B (AmB) for the treatment of skin candidiasis and aspergillosis. Several ingredients were selected on the basis of AmB solubility and compatibility with skin. The formulation that exhibited the best properties was selected from the pseudo-ternary phase diagram. Read More

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