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    Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis in Cystic Fibrosis: MR Imaging of Airway Mucus Contrasts as a Tool for Diagnosis.
    Radiology 2017 May 22:162350. Epub 2017 May 22.
    From the Center for Cardiothoracic Research of Bordeaux, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France (G.D., P.B., L.D., M.M., J.F.C., R.M., M.F., F.L.); Inserm, Center for Cardiothoracic Research of Bordeaux, U1045, CIC 1401, F-33000, 146 rue Léo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux, France (G.D., P.B., L.D., M.M., R.M., M.F., F.L.); Thoracic and Cardiovascular Imaging Service, Service for Respiratory Diseases, Service for Exploration of Respiratory Function, CHU of Bordeaux, Pessac, France (G.D., P.B., J.R., J.M., M.M., O.C., R.M., F.L.); and Service for Imaging in Women and Children, Pediatric Pneumonology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology, CHU of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France (S.B., L.D., J.F.C., M.F.).
    Purpose To assess the diagnostic accuracy of mucus contrast characterization by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to discriminate allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis (CF). Materials and Methods The study was approved by the local Ethics Committee, and all patients or their parents gave written informed consent. One hundred ten consecutive patients with CF were screened between January 2014 and July 2015. Read More

    Nosocomial legionellosis and invasive aspergillosis in a child with T-lymphoblastic leukemia.
    Int J Hyg Environ Health 2017 May 13. Epub 2017 May 13.
    Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Children's Hospital, Saarland University and Saarland University Medical Centre, Homburg, Germany. Electronic address:
    Invasive aspergillosis of the lungs and the central nervous system and Legionella pneumophilia serotype 1 infection of the lungs were diagnosed in a 22-month old child during inpatient induction treatment for T-lymphoblastic leukemia. Environmental investigations i.e. Read More

    Coexistence of aspergilloma and pulmonary hydatid cyst in an immunocompetent individual.
    J Mycol Med 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:
    Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. The liver and lungs are the most commonly sites of infections, but involvements of other organs were also observed. Recently, the coinfection of pulmonary hydatid cyst with aspergilloma has been reported in the literature. Read More

    Increasing Total Serum IgE, Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis, and Lung Function in Cystic Fibrosis.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Dr von Haunersches Kinderspital, University of Munich, German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Munich, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity disorder contributing to lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) and challenging to diagnose.

    Objective: This study analyzed the predictive value of increasing total IgE (t-IgE) levels in a CF cohort alongside with clinical and serologic data.

    Methods: A total of 387 children and young adults were followed from 2000 to 2006 and retrospectively classified into 6 groups. Read More

    Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of invasive mould infections: A multicenter, retrospective analysis in five Asian countries.
    Med Mycol 2017 May 19. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Department of Infectious Disease, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.
    Formal, large-scale, multicenter studies of invasive mould infection (IMI) in Asia are rare. This 1-year, retrospective study was designed to assess the incidence and clinical determinants of IMI in centers in five countries (Thailand, Taiwan, Singapore, China, India). Patients treated in a single year (2012) were identified through discharge diagnoses, microbiology, and histopathology logs, and entered based on published definitions of IMI. Read More

    Profiling of volatile organic compounds produced by clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
    Med Mycol 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Academic Medical Center - University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath may identify the presence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We aimed to detect VOC profiles emitted by in vitro cultured, clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three clinical Aspergillus isolates and a reference strain were cultured while conidiation was prevented. Read More

    Aspergillus Species in Bronchiectasis: Challenges in the Cystic Fibrosis and Non-cystic Fibrosis Airways.
    Mycopathologia 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of Microbiology, Vall D'Hebron University Hospital, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Bronchiectasis is a chronic irreversible airway abnormality associated with infectious agents that either cause or superinfect the airways. While the role of bacteria is well studied, much remains to be determined about fungi in both cystic fibrosis- and non-cystic fibrosis-related bronchiectasis. The airway is constantly exposed to inhaled ambient moulds of which Aspergillus represent the most ubiquitous. Read More

    An analytical and clinical evaluation of the PathoNostics AsperGenius® Assay for the detection of invasive aspergillosis and resistance to azole antifungal drugs direct from plasma samples.
    J Clin Microbiol 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Infection, Immunity and Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, UK.
    With the proposal to include Aspergillus PCR in the revised EORTC/MSG definitions for fungal disease, commercially manufactured assays may be required to provide standardisation and accessibility. The PathoNostics AsperGenius® assay represents one such test that has the ability to detect a range of Aspergillus species and azole-resistance in A. fumigatus Performance has been validated when testing BAL and serum specimens, but recent evidence suggests that testing plasma may enhance sensitivity over serum. Read More

    Aspergillus fumigatus in cystic fibrosis: an update on immune interactions and molecular diagnostics in ABPA.
    Allergy 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR INSERM 1067 CNRS 7333, Marseille, France.
    A wide spectrum of pathological conditions may result from the interaction of Aspergillus fumigatus and the immune system of its human host. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is one of the most severe Aspergillus fumigatus-related diseases due to possible evolution towards pleuropulmonary fibrosis and respiratory failure. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis occurs almost exclusively in cystic fibrosis or asthmatic patients. Read More

    Chronic Invasive Fungal Sinusitis Presenting as Inferior Altitudinal Visual Field Defect.
    Neuroophthalmology 2017 Jun 16;41(3):144-148. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research Department of Otolaryngology and Head Neck Surgery, Chandigarh, India.
    A young male with acute blurring of vision (6/9) complained of an inferior altitudinal field defect in right eye. Clinical ophthalmological examination was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed the expansion and mucosal thickening of right posterior ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses and opacified right maxillary sinus. Read More

    Immune responses to invasive aspergillosis: new understanding and therapeutic opportunities.
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 2017 May 13. Epub 2017 May 13.
    Infectious Disease Service, Department of Medicine and Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York City, New York, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: Invasive aspergillosis is a worldwide disease that primarily affects immune-compromised patients, agricultural workers with corneal abrasions, individuals with structural lung disease, and patients with primary immune deficiency. The critical function of the immune system is to prevent the germination of airborne conidia into tissue-invasive hyphae. This review covers recent advances that shape our understanding of anti-Aspergillus immunity at the molecular and cellular level. Read More

    The Utilization of RNA Silencing Technology to Mitigate the Voriconazole Resistance of Aspergillus Flavus; Lipofectamine-Based Delivery.
    Adv Pharm Bull 2017 Apr 13;7(1):53-59. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Department of Medical Mycology and Parasitology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Purpose: Introducing the effect of RNAi in fungi to downregulate essential genes has made it a powerful tool to investigate gene function, with potential strategies for novel disease treatments. Thus, this study is an endeavor to delve into the silencing potentials of siRNA on cyp51A and MDR1 in voriconazole-resistant Aspergillus flavus as the target genes. Methods: In this study, we designed three cyp51A-specific siRNAs and three MDR1-specific siRNAs and after the co-transfection of siRNA into Aspergillus flavus, using lipofectamine, we investigated the effect of different siRNA concentrations (5, 15, 25, 50nM) on cyp51A and MDR1 expressions by qRT-PCR. Read More

    The misleading effect of serum galactomannan testing in high-risk hematology patients receiving prophylaxis with micafungin.
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2017 May 12. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain; CIBER Enfermedades Respiratorias-CIBERES (CB06/06/0058), Madrid Spain; Medicine Department, School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:
    Objectives: To investigate the performance of the routine serum galactomannan (sGM) assay in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in high-risk hematology patients receiving prophylaxis with micafungin.

    Methods: Retrospective study including all hematological patients who received prophylaxis with micafungin during high-risk IA episodes (neutropenic patients after chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia/myelodysplastic syndrome; allogeneic HSCT during early neutropenic phase or graft-versus-host disease requiring high prednisone doses). and for whom at least 1 sGM result was available. Read More

    A new time-dependent approach for assessment of the impact of invasive aspergillosis shows effect on short- but not on long-term survival of patients with AML or high-risk MDS.
    Bone Marrow Transplant 2017 May 15. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) has been reported to yield high mortality rates. Patients with an unfavourable prognostic haematological disease not only have a higher probability of developing IA but are also more likely to die due to causes directly related to the underlying disease. This complexity of risk mechanisms confounds the causal interpretation of IA occurrence and mortality. Read More

    Endovascular Repair As A Bridge To Open Repair Of A Ruptured Descending Thoracic Aspergilus Aortitis.
    Ann Thorac Surg 2017 May 9. Epub 2017 May 9.
    Service de Chirurgie Vasculaire et Thoracique, Hôpital Bichat, Université Diderot, Paris, France. Electronic address:
    Invasive aspergillosis rarely involves the thoracic aorta, and is associated with a poor prognosis. A heart-transplanted 56-year old patient presented with invasive aspergillosis, primary aspergillus aortitis, and ruptured thoracic aorta pseudoaneurysm. Open surgery was not possible due to severe sepsis. Read More

    Endomyocardial and pericardial aspergillosis in critically ill patients.
    Mycoses 2017 May 12. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Deparment of Internal Medicine, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Invasive aspergillosis(IA) is a potentially lethal complication of Aspergillus infection affecting mainly immunocompromised hosts; however, during the last two decades its incidence was increasingly observed in critically ill immunocompetent patients. The objective of this study is to describe the clinical characteristics of histologically proven endomyocardial and pericardial invasion, in the context of IA, in critically ill patients. Eight critically ill patients with histopathological confirmation of endomyocardial/pericardial aspergillosis were evaluated. Read More

    Implementation of Isavuconazole in a Fluorescence-Based High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Kit Allowing Simultaneous Detection of All Four Currently Licensed Mold-Active Triazoles.
    mSphere 2017 May-Jun;2(3). Epub 2017 May 10.
    Unit of Mycology, Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Isavuconazole (ISZ) is a newly available broad-spectrum triazole agent recently approved for the treatment of both invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable method for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of ISZ in human plasma samples. The method involves using a kit from ChromSystems intended for TDM of itraconazole (ITZ), posaconazole (PSZ), and voriconazole (VRZ) in serum/plasma for sample preparation and high-performance liquid chromatography, using fluorescence detection with emission and excitation wavelengths set to 261 and 366 nm, respectively. Read More

    Consideration of difficulties and exit strategies in a case of face allotransplantation resulting in failure.
    Microsurgery 2017 May 11. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey.
    We describe the first rescue procedure in a case of total face allotransplantation. The recipient was a 54-year-old man with severe disfigurement of the entire face following an accidental gunshot injury 5 years previously. The large defect included the maxilla, mandible, and mid-face. Read More

    Successful Treatment of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis With Isavuconazole: Case Report and Review of the Literature.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2017 5;4(2):ofx040. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York.
    Isavuconazole is a new triazole that is approved for primary therapy of invasive aspergillosis. We provide the first report of a patient with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) who was successfully treated with isavuconazole with marked improvement and minimal adverse effects. We further review the literature on antifungal management of ABPA. Read More

    Sinonasal aspergillosis in a British Shorthair cat in the UK.
    JFMS Open Rep 2016 Jan-Jun;2(1):2055116916653775. Epub 2016 Jun 12.
    Faculty of Veterinary Science, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia.
    Case summary A 13-year-old, castrated male, British Shorthair cat presented for investigation of chronic, intermittent, bilateral epistaxis and stertor. CT revealed severe asymmetric bilateral intranasal involvement with extensive turbinate lysis, increased soft tissue attenuation and lysis of the sphenopalatine bone and cribriform plate. On retroflexed pharyngoscopy, a plaque-like mass occluded the choanae. Read More

    The Aspergillus fumigatus Farnesyltransferase β-subunit, RamA, Mediates Growth, Virulence, and Antifungal Susceptibility.
    Virulence 2017 May 10. Epub 2017 May 10.
    b Department of Clinical Pharmacy , University of Tennessee Health Science Center , Memphis , TN USA.
    Post-translational prenylation mechanisms, including farnesylation and geranylgeranylation, mediate both subcellular localization and protein-protein interaction in eukaryotes. The prenyltransferase complex is an αβ heterodimer in which the essential α-subunit is common to both the farnesyltransferase and the geranylgeranyltransferase type-I enzymes. The β-subunit is unique to each enzyme. Read More

    Pentraxin 3 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of lung transplant recipients with invasive aspergillosis.
    J Heart Lung Transplant 2017 Apr 19. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Multi-Organ Transplant Program, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background: Invasive aspergillosis is the most common invasive fungal infection in lung transplant recipients. The use of galactomannan testing in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has improved diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis; however, false-positive results can lead to overdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment. The use of proinflammatory markers such as pentraxin 3 (PTX3) may help differentiate between Aspergillus colonization and disease. Read More

    Treatment of refractory sino-nasal aspergillosis with posaconazole and terbinafine in 10 dogs.
    J Small Anim Pract 2017 May 9. Epub 2017 May 9.
    Advanced Critical Care Emergency and Specialty Services, 20051 Ventura Blvd., Woodland Hills, CA 91364, USA.
    Objectives: To determine the safety and efficacy of posaconazole and terbinafine for the treatment of naturally occurring sino-nasal aspergillosis in dogs refractory to conventional topical and systemic treatment.

    Materials And Methods: Ten client-owned dogs with sino-nasal aspergillosis and not responsive to conventional treatments were prospectively enrolled to receive a dose of 5 mg/kg posaconazole orally every 12 hours for six months. All dogs were concurrently treated with doses of 30 mg/kg terbinafine orally every 12 hours and 5 mg/kg doxycycline orally every 12 hours for 6 to 18 months. Read More

    Role of Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cell-1 Expression in Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Modulation of CD8(+) T-cell Differentiation during the Immune Response to Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis.
    Chin Med J (Engl) 2017 May;130(10):1211-1217
    Department of Critical Care Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China.
    Background: Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-1 (TREM-1) may play a vital role in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) modulation of CD8+ T-cell differentiation through the transcription factors T-box expressed in T-cells and eomesodermin during the immune response to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). This study aimed to investigate whether the mTOR signaling pathway modulates the proliferation and differentiation of CD8+ T-cells during the immune response to IPA and the role TREM-1 plays in this process.

    Methods: Cyclophosphamide (CTX) was injected intraperitoneally, and Aspergillus fumigatus spore suspension was inoculated intranasally to establish the immunosuppressed IPA mouse model. Read More

    Does agricultural use of azole fungicides contribute to resistance in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus?
    Pest Manag Sci 2017 May 8. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Orchard House, Bristol road, Chew Stoke, Bristol, BS40 8UB, UK.
    Azole resistance in human fungal pathogens has increased over the past twenty years, especially in immunocompromised patients. Similarities between medical and agricultural azoles, and extensive azole (DMI) use in crop protection, prompted speculation that resistance in patients with aspergillosis originated in the environment. Aspergillus species, and especially Aspergillus fumigatus are the largest cause of patient deaths from fungi. Read More

    Invasive aspergillus sinusitis with orbitocranial extension.
    Asian J Neurosurg 2017 Apr-Jun;12(2):172-179
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Context: Invasive sinonasal aspergillosis is a silently progressive disease that, left untreated, may invade the adjacent intracranial and intra-orbital compartments incurring serious morbidity.

    Aim: To evaluate our results of a collaborative surgical management plans for patients with invasive sinonasal aspergillosis with orbitocranial extension.

    Setting And Design: Retrospective study. Read More

    Luliconazole, an alternative antifungal agent against Aspergillus terreus.
    J Mycol Med 2017 May 5. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Department of medical mycology, school of medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur university of medical sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
    Aspergillus terreus is the fourth leading cause of invasive and non-invasive aspergillosis and one of the causative agents of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised and high-risk patients. A. terreus appears to have increased as a cause of opportunistic fungal infections from superficial to serious invasive infections. Read More

    Global burden of disease of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: an updated analysis.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2017 May 5. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Division of Infectious Diseases and International Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
    Background: Cryptococcus is the most common cause of meningitis in adults living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Global burden estimates are crucial to guide prevention strategies and to determine treatment needs, and we aimed to provide an updated estimate of global incidence of HIV-associated cryptococcal disease.

    Methods: We used 2014 Joint UN Programme on HIV and AIDS estimates of adults (aged >15 years) with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage. Read More

    Comparative aspects of blood coagulation measurements in various wild and captive bird species.
    Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2017 May 8. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Vanessa Guddorf, Klinik für Heimtiere, Reptilien, Zier- und Wildvögel, Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover, Bünteweg 9, 30559 Hannover, Germany, Email:
    Objective: Information about the influence of species variety or diseases on coagulation values in avian blood is rare. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of species on measurements of coagulation parameters in avian plasma samples using commercially available reagents and to investigate potential influences of selected diseases on clotting times.

    Material And Methods: Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and thrombin time (TT) were measured in citrated plasma of healthy individuals collected from eight different wild and captive avian species applying currently commercially available reagents prepared for use in humans, which were preselected in preliminary studies. Read More

    Trends in Hospitalizations Related to Invasive Aspergillosis and Mucormycosis in the United States, 2000-2013.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2017 13;4(1):ofw268. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
    Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division for Food, Water, and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Background: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) and mucormycosis contribute to substantial mortality, especially among immunocompromised persons, including those with hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), hematologic malignancy (HM), and solid organ transplant (SOT).

    Methods: Using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes available in the National Inpatient Sample, a hospital discharge database, we estimated IA-related hospitalizations (IA-RH), mucormycosis-RH (M-RH), HSCT-RH, HM-RH, and SOT-RH during 2000-2013. United States census data were used to calculate overall M-RH and IA-RH rates and present trends; estimated annual numbers of HSCT-RH, HM-RH, and SOT-RH served as denominators to calculate M-RH and IA-RH rates occurring with these conditions. Read More

    Multiple cavities with halo sign in a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis during therapy for drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome.
    Respir Med Case Rep 2017 19;21:124-128. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Center for Respiratory Diseases, JCHO Hokkaido Hospital, Japan.
    A 67-year-old female with rheumatoid arthritis and asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome was admitted for drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) caused by salazosulfapyridine. Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) variant B was strongly positive on peripheral blood. Multiple cavities with ground grass opacities rapidly emerged predominantly in the upper and middle lobes. Read More

    Necrotizing fasciitis resulting in fatal lung aspergillosis: Uncommon pathogenesis. A case report.
    J Mycol Med 2017 May 4. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand Surgery and Burn Center, Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany.
    We present a fatal case of Aspergillus-associated lung failure in a patient with necrotizing fasciitis. The cause of the fasciitis was a retroperitoneal perforation of a colon carcinoma. Being already a rare condition, the fasciitis did not manifest as Fournier's gangrene like similar described cases illustrate, but instead travelled along the fasciae and subcutaneous fat tissue cranially into the thoracic cavity, ultimately leading to a disseminated infection of the lungs. Read More

    Fungal Pneumonia in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.
    Clin Chest Med 2017 Jun;38(2):279-294
    Vaccine & Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, E4-100, Seattle, WA 98109, USA; Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, E4-100, Seattle, WA 98109, USA; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; Infection Prevention, Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, 825 Eastlake Avenue East, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. Electronic address:
    Invasive fungal infections, which occur primarily as a consequence of prolonged neutropenia and immunosuppression, are a life-threatening complication seen among patients with hematologic malignancies. The routine use of triazole antifungal prophylaxis, enhanced diagnostics, and newer antifungal agents have led to improvements in the care of fungal pneumonias, but invasive fungal infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality. This article covers risk factors for major fungal infections, diagnostic approaches, and treatment options for specific fungal pathogens, including Aspergillus and Mucorales species, and discusses current approved strategies for prevention of common and uncommon fungal pneumonias. Read More

    Pharmacodynamics of Isavuconazole for Invasive Mold Disease: Role of Galactomannan for Real-Time Monitoring of Therapeutic Response.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Jun;64(11):1557-1563
    Antimicrobial Pharmacodynamics and Therapeutics, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Background.: The ability to make early therapeutic decisions when treating invasive aspergillosis using changes in biomarkers as a surrogate for therapeutic response could significantly improve patient outcome.

    Methods. Read More

    Angioinvasive Aspergillus-associated Stroke in an Immunocompetent Host Following Cardiac Surgery and ECMO.
    Neurologist 2017 May;22(3):92-94
    Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.
    Introduction: Invasive cerebral aspergillosis is an uncommon cause of stroke among immunocompetent patients and has not been reported in association with cardiac surgery or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We report the case of an immunocompetent host who developed aspergillus-associated stroke following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and ECMO.

    Case Report: A 59-year-old woman developed cardiogenic shock after 3-vessel-CABG requiring intra-aortic balloon pump placement and subsequent veno-arterial ECMO. Read More

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with cystic fibrosis.
    Ann Thorac Med 2017 Apr-Jun;12(2):74-82
    Department of Clinical Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College-Qtar, Doha, Qatar.
    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a pulmonary disorder that often occurs in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis (CF) and is characterized by a hypersensitivity response to the allergens of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. In patients with CF, growth of A. fumigatus hyphae within the bronchial lumen triggers an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity response that results in airway inflammation, bronchospasm, and bronchiectasis. Read More

    Aspergillus fumigatus Copper Export Machinery and Reactive Oxygen Intermediate Defense Counter Host Copper-Mediated Oxidative Antimicrobial Offense.
    Cell Rep 2017 May;19(5):1008-1021
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA; Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA. Electronic address:
    The Fenton-chemistry-generating properties of copper ions are considered a potent phagolysosome defense against pathogenic microbes, yet our understanding of underlying host/microbe dynamics remains unclear. We address this issue in invasive aspergillosis and demonstrate that host and fungal responses inextricably connect copper and reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) mechanisms. Loss of the copper-binding transcription factor AceA yields an Aspergillus fumigatus strain displaying increased sensitivity to copper and ROI in vitro, increased intracellular copper concentrations, decreased survival in challenge with murine alveolar macrophages (AMΦs), and reduced virulence in a non-neutropenic murine model. Read More

    Combination therapy for the treatment of pulmonary mold infections.
    Expert Rev Respir Med 2017 Jun 9;11(6):481-489. Epub 2017 May 9.
    c Transplantation-Oncology Infectious Diseases Program , Weill Cornell Medical Center , New York , NY , USA.
    Introduction: Pulmonary mold infections are caused by ubiquitous organisms found in soil, water, and decaying vegetation, including Aspergillus spp., the Mucormycetes, hyaline molds, and dematiaceous (black) molds. Areas covered: These infections are often a challenge to diagnose and even more difficult to treat. Read More

    Evaluating the use of PCR for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis.
    Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2017 Jun 10;17(6):603-610. Epub 2017 May 10.
    a Department of Internal Medicine -Hematology and Oncology , Mannheim University Hospital, University of Heidelberg , Mannheim , Germany.
    Introduction: Aspergillus species, primarily Aspergillus fumigatus, are still the most emerging fungal pathogens. Within recent years, novel molecular methods have been developed to improve the diagnosis of life-threatening invasive aspergillosis in high risk patients. Especially patients with malignant hematological diseases undergoing intensive chemotherapy are at risk and mortality rates are exceptionally high, in part due to difficulties and delays in establishing a microbiologic diagnosis. Read More

    rtfA controls development, secondary metabolism, and virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus.
    PLoS One 2017 28;12(4):e0176702. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Illinois University, Dekalb, Illinois, United States of America.
    Invasive aspergillosis by Aspergillus fumigatus is a leading cause of infection-related mortality in immune-compromised patients. In order to discover potential genetic targets to control A. fumigatus infections we characterized rtfA, a gene encoding a putative RNA polymerase II transcription elongation factor-like protein. Read More

    Clinical presentation and characteristics of 25 adult cases of pulmonary sequestration.
    J Thorac Dis 2017 Mar;9(3):762-767
    Third Department of Lung Diseases, National Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland.
    Background: Pulmonary sequestration (PS) is a rare congenital abnormality of lung tissue. Only few series of adult cases are reported. The aim was to describe clinical characteristics in adult cases of PS and to compare outcomes in different clinical situations. Read More

    Diagnostic Value of the Galactomannan Antigen Test in Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Samples from Patients with Non-neutropenic Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis.
    J Clin Microbiol 2017 Apr 26. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
    Objective: To compare the diagnostic value of galactomannan (GM) detection in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum samples from non-neutropenic patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), and determine the optimal BALF GM cut-off value for pulmonary aspergillosis.Methods: GM detection in BALF and serum samples was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 128 patients with clinically suspected non-neutropenic pulmonary aspergillosis between June 2014 and June 2016. On the basis of the clinical and pathological diagnoses, 8 patients were excluded because their diagnosis was uncertain. Read More

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a case report and review of the literature.
    Oncotarget 2017 Apr 8. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.
    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an infection that often occurs in immunocompromised patients and has a high mortality rate. In recent years, the reported incidence of IPA in the context of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has seemingly increased. The combination of factors such as long-term corticosteroid use, increasing rate of bacterial exacerbations over time, lung immune imbalance, and malnutrition are responsible for the emergence of IPA in COPD patients. Read More

    Aspergillus fumigatus Trehalose-Regulatory Subunit Homolog Moonlights To Mediate Cell Wall Homeostasis through Modulation of Chitin Synthase Activity.
    MBio 2017 Apr 25;8(2). Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA
    Trehalose biosynthesis is found in fungi but not humans. Proteins involved in trehalose biosynthesis are essential for fungal pathogen virulence in humans and plants through multiple mechanisms. Loss of canonical trehalose biosynthesis genes in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus significantly alters cell wall structure and integrity, though the mechanistic link between these virulence-associated pathways remains enigmatic. Read More

    PU.1 serves a critical role in the innate defense against Aspergillus fumigatus via dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin receptor-1 and toll-like receptors-2 and 4 in THP-1-derived macrophages.
    Mol Med Rep 2017 Jun 24;15(6):4084-4092. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Graduate School, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, P.R. China.
    Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) is one of the most common fungal pathogens of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), which may be life threatening in immunocompromised individuals. The dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin receptor (Dectin-1), toll‑like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 are major pattern recognition receptors in alveolar macrophages that recognize A. Read More

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