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    2267 results match your criteria Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition [Journal]

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    Rehabilitation nutrition in pressure ulcer management with type 2 diabetes: a case report.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):728-734
    Department of Surgery, Japan Community Healthcare Organization Yokohama Central Hospital, Yokohama, Japan.
    Background And Objectives: Severe infection, inadequate food intake, and pressure ulcers in patients with type 2 diabetes can result in malnutrition. We describe a case in which rehabilitation nutrition was effective for treat-ing a pressure ulcer in a malnourished patient with type 2 diabetes.

    Methods And Results: A 58-year-old man with type 2 diabetes was diagnosed with hidradenitis suppurativa on the left buttock and thigh and a severe pres-sure ulcer on his left kneecap. Read More

    Effects of MTHFR A1298C polymorphism on peripheral blood folate concentration in healthy populations: a meta-analysis of observational studies.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):718-727
    Beijing Municipal Key Laboratory of Child Development and Nutriomics, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing, China.
    Background And Objectives: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) irreversibly converts 5,10- methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, which is the main form of folate used in the body. Previous studies suggest that MTHFR polymorphism influences folate metabolism, but conflicting results are reported. We performed a meta-analysis to accurately characterize the association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and peripheral blood folate concentration in healthy populations. Read More

    Association of dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) Taq1 polymorphisms with eating behaviors and obesity among Chinese and Indian Malaysian university students.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):707-717
    Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), Kampar Campus, Kampar, Perak, Malaysia.
    Background And Objectives: This study investigated the association of DRD2 Taq1A, Taq1B and Taq1D gene polymorphisms with eating behavior, the preference/intake frequency/craving of high-fat foods and obesity in 394 Malaysian adults (161 males, 233 females; 308 Chinese, 86 Indians; 67 obese, 327 non-obese).

    Methods And Study Design: Eating behaviors namely Cognitive Restraint, Uncontrolled Eating and Emotional Eating scores were assessed by the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18. The preference/intake frequency/craving of 26 common high-fat Malaysian foods was assessed using a 7-point hedonic scale. Read More

    Habitual tea drinking associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in Vietnamese adults.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):701-706
    School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Background And Objectives: The association between tea consumption and type 2 diabetes risk remains inconsistent in Asian populations. This case-control study investigated the association between habitual tea consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes among Vietnamese adults.

    Methods And Study Design: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted during 2013-2015 in Vietnam. Read More

    Eating disorders and body image concerns as influenced by family and media among university students in Sharjah, UAE.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):695-700
    Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, College of Health Sciences/ Research Institute of Medical & Health Sciences (RIMHS), University of Sharjah, Sharjah, UAE.
    Background And Objectives: Eating disorders (ED) can be influenced by psychological and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental and media influences and body image concerns as factors in the onset of ED.

    Methods And Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 662 students (407 women and 255 men) attending one of three universities in United Arab Emirates (UAE). Read More

    Combined effect of eating alone and a poor nutritional status on cognitive decline among older adults in Taiwan.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):686-694
    Nutrition Program, Hunter College, City University of New York, New York, USA.
    Background And Objectives: Nutritional status is not only associated with older individuals' physical health but also has an impact on their cognitive functioning. Evidence indicates that a socially integrated lifestyle in the later stages of life protects against cognitive decline and dementia. This study tested the combined effect of two hazards, the risk of malnutrition and eating meals alone, on the cognitive changes among a representative sample of older Taiwanese individuals over an 8-year period. Read More

    Taste sensitivities and diet of Chinese and Indians in Singapore.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):681-685
    Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore.
    Background And Objectives: Taste perception plays a key role in consumer acceptance and food choice, which has an important impact on human health. Our aim was to examine the relationship between recognition thresholds for five basic tastes (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami) in Chinese and Indians in relation to their dietary intake.

    Methods And Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 114 subjects (60 Chinese, 54 Indians). Read More

    Oral health behavior as a risk factor for high urinary sodium among Korean women.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):671-680
    Department of Periodontics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Background And Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between urinary sodium, urinary sodium/creatinine, and urinary sodium/urine specific gravity and oral health behavior using nationally representative data.

    Methods And Study Design: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used; the sample analyzed in this study consisted a total of 15,013 respondents over 19 years old who had no missing values for the urinalysis or outcome variables. Urinary sodium was significantly lower in fem ales (p<0. Read More

    Food Guide Pagoda and the food safety of women: one-year follow-up study on the effects of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):662-670
    School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.
    Background And Objectives: Women are a dominant force in the family's diet and nutrition in China. The shortterm effects of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake were found. However, the long-term effects of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake on the food safety, energy, and intake frequency of women remain unclear. Read More

    Glycemic load is associated with diabetes and prediabetes among middle-aged and elderly adults in Guangzhou, China.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):655-661
    Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Background And Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding the possible associations between glycemic load (GL) indices and diabetes. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between several GL indices, including the total dietary GL, the energy-adjusted GL, and the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism, including prediabetes and diabetes.

    Methods And Study Design: This study was conducted in Guangzhou, China from July 2011 to December 2011. Read More

    Age and CD4 count are dominant factors in the prediction of anaemia in Javanese HIV patients.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):649-654
    Department of Tropical and Infectious Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia.
    Background And Objectives: Anaemia in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is multifactorial and an increasingly important variable to consider in the management. This is the first study of anaemia in HIV infection in the Javanese population, which constitutes the largest ethnic group in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to determine the factors which are associated with anaemia in Javanese patients with HIV infection. Read More

    Is high sodium intake associated with hearing impairment? The association between spot urine sodium concentration and hearing threshold in Korean adolescents.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):646-648
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju, Korea.
    Background And Objectives: High sodium intake is a well-known risk factor for diseases such as cardiovascular and renal disease. There may also be links between sodium intake and inner ear symptoms. However, the available data are limited, and clinicians remain suspicious about sodium intake and hearing threshold. Read More

    Validation study of a self-administered diet history questionnaire for estimating amino acid intake among Japanese adults.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):638-645
    Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Human Science and Environment, University of Hyogo, Hyogo, Japan.
    Background And Objectives: Despite growing interest in the association between dietary amino acid intake and optimal health, validated dietary questionnaires that can estimate amino acid intake have been scarce. We examined the validity of amino acid intakes estimated using a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ) comparing with 16-day semi-weighed dietary records (DR).

    Methods And Study Design: A total of 184 Japanese men and women completed a four-day DR and a DHQ four times, once in each season. Read More

    Pre-earthquake national patterns of preschool child undernutrition and household food insecurity in Nepal in 2013 and 2014.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):624-637
    Center for Human Nutrition, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Background And Objectives: Preschool undernutrition remains a burden in Nepal. This paper reports results of surveys in 2013 and 2014, examining patterns of child nutritional status across the country, associations with household food insecurity and antecedent comparative national data for subsequent evaluations of nutritional status following the earthquake in Nepal in 2015.

    Methods And Study Design: A multi-stage sample was drawn comprising 21 sites in 75 districts of the country, representing the mountains, hills and Terai zones, providing proportionate to zonal samples of 4286 and 4947 households and 5401 and 5474 preschool children in each year, respectively. Read More

    Associations between socioeconomic status and overweight among urban children aged 7-12 years in Chengdu, southwest China.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):617-623
    Department of Nutrition, Food Safety and Toxicology, West China School of Public Health, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.
    Background And Objectives: Income inequality in China has risen steadily over the past decades. This study explored the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and overweight among urban children aged 7-12 years in Chengdu, a comparatively prosperous metropolis city located in "the West China", the backward, less developed region of China.

    Methods And Study Design: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among urban children aged 7-12 years old in Chengdu city. Read More

    Effect of individualised dietary education at medical check-ups on maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant Japanese women.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):607-616
    Department of Comprehensive Reproductive Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background And Objectives: An increased prevalence of low maternal weight and insufficient pregnancy weight gain may be responsible for an increase in low birthweight infants in Japan. We aimed to examine the effects of individualised dietary education at medical check-ups on maternal/fetal outcomes in Japanese women.

    Methods And Study Design: Four hundred and six underweight and normal weight singleton pregnant women, who attended check-ups at an obstetric facility until ≥30 weeks gestation and delivered at 36-41 weeks gestation, were selected for analyses. Read More

    Association of vitamin D deficiency with diabetic peripheral neuropathy and diabetic nephropathy in Tianjin, China.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):599-606
    Department of Endocrinology, Tianjin Union Medical Center, Tianjin, China. 13207628978
    Background And Objectives: To evaluate the association of vitamin D deficiency with type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and diabetic nephropathy (DN).

    Methods And Study Design: A total of 287 type 2 diabetic patients were categorized in two ways, and each divided into two groups: DPN (n=164) and non-DPN (NDPN) groups (n=123); and DN (n=148) and non-DN (NDN) groups (n=139). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D3] level. Read More

    Anthropometry to assess body fat in Indonesian adults.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):592-598
    School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Background And Objectives: Anthropometric equations are widely used to estimate body composition however, are only appropriate for use in populations in which they have been developed and validated. The present study developed anthropometric prediction equations for Indonesian adults and cross-validated them with selected equations used in this population.

    Methods And Study Design: Six hundred Indonesian adults aged between 18- 65 years (292 males and 308 females) were divided equally into development and validation groups. Read More

    Effect of probiotic supplements in women with gestational diabetes mellitus on inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers: a randomized clinical trial.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):581-591
    Aging Research Institute, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Background And Objectives: Very little is known about the use of probiotics among pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) especially its effect on oxidative stress and inflammatory indices. The aim of present study was to measure the effect of a probiotic supplement capsule on inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers in women with newly-diagnosed GDM.

    Methods And Study Design: 64 pregnant women with GDM were enrolled in a double-blind placebo controlled randomized clinical trial in the spring and summer of 2014. Read More

    Effects of palm olein and olive oil on serum lipids in a Chinese population: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):572-580
    Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Engineering of Ministry of Education, and Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Background And Objectives: As the most widely produced edible vegetable oil, palm oil is known as to contain a high level of saturated fatty acid, which was thought to adversely affect serum lipid profiles. However, recent studies have shown no influence or benefits of palm oil on serum lipids. The potential nutritional value of palm oil is attributed to the high mono-unsaturation at the crucial sn2-position of the oil's triacylglycerols, as with the so-called 'healthy' olive oil (OO). Read More

    Efficacy of actinidin-containing kiwifruit extract Zyactinase on constipation: a randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):564-571
    Kaixian Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Chongqing Province, PR China.
    Background And Objectives: Zyactinase® is an extract of green kiwifruit, formulated into the consumer healthcare products marketed as Phloe® and Kivia, used to assist in the relief of the symptoms associated with a range of digestive system dysfunction, including constipation and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS).

    Methods And Study Design: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was undertaken to determine the ef-fects of the kiwifruit extract on bowel movement, stool formation and IBS associated symptoms amongst a sub-ject group of generally healthy individuals experiencing a period of moderate constipation. Fifty-eight partici-pants were randomized to the kiwifruit extract (28) or placebo (30). Read More

    Cinnamon improves metabolic factors without detectable effects on adiponectin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):556-563
    Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Background And Objectives: The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of cinnamon supplementation on glycemic indices, serum lipids and adiponectin in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Methods And Study Design: This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 84 overweight or obese PCOS patients. Subjects in cinnamon (n=42) and placebo (n=42) groups were given 3 cinnamon capsules (each one contained 500 mg cinnamon) or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Read More

    The impact of self-efficacy education based on the health belief model in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled intervention study.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):546-555
    Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Para Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
    Background And Objectives: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic illness which can be managed by patients' commitment to self-care and self-efficacy behaviors.

    Methods And Study Design: A randomized controlled intervention study was carried out to determine the impact of self-efficacy education based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) in 240 patients with type 2 diabetes at the Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran between October 2014 and August 2015. The education duration was three months followed by a 24-week follow-up visit to determine the progress of the subjects. Read More

    Prognostic value of preoperative prognostic nutritional index in stage III gastric cancer after curative resection: a retrospective cohort study.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):540-545
    Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.
    Background And Objectives: Nutrition and inflammation play a crucial role in the development of cancer. The prognostic value of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) has been confirmed in some types of human cancers. This study analyzed the prognostic significance of the preoperative PNI in patients with stage III gastric cancer after curative surgery. Read More

    Identifying errors in meals provided to and sourced by patients on therapeutic diets in hospital.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):533-539
    School of Allied Health Sciences, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, QLD, Australia.
    Background And Objectives: Patients requiring therapeutic diets in hospital are at risk of exposer to dietary errors that may pose an acute threat to their safety. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of meal-related errors among hospitalised patients prescribed therapeutic diets, following the implementation of an electronic foodservice system (EFS).

    Methods And Study Design: This observational study involved six wards in a tertiary metropolitan hospital that used an EFS for meal ordering and plating. Read More

    Malnutrition and chronic inflammation as risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly patients with hip fracture.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):527-532
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju, Korea.
    Background And Objectives: To evaluate malnutrition and chronic inflammation as risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly patients with hip fractures, as defined by the criteria of the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia (AWGS).

    Methods And Study Design: A total of 327 elderly patients with hip fractures were enrolled in this retrospective observational study. The main outcome measure was the nutritional status and nutritional risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly patients. Read More

    Thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies among anemic individuals in Metro Manila, Philippines and their intake of iron supplements.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):519-526
    ILSI Southeast Asia Region, Singapore, Singapore.
    Background And Objectives: Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia worldwide. In Southeast Asia, studies showed that genetic hemoglobin disorders also contribute significantly to the burden of anemia. The study aimed to estimate the proportion of thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies versus iron deficiency and other causes in a sample of anemic individuals; describe the characteristics of thalassemic subjects in terms of severity of anemia, adequacy of iron stores, and hematological profile; examine the intake of iron supplements among individuals with varying causes of anemia. Read More

    Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) in children with persistent diarrhea: avoidance of elemental diet need, accessibility and costs.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):512-518
    Gastrohepatology Division, Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia/Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.
    Background And Objectives: Persistent diarrhea has been proven to cause pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, due to decreased stimulation to the pancreas caused by prolonged mucosal injury. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) given in conjunction to regular treatment is thought to be beneficial in replacing this pancreatic enzyme deficiency, avoiding the need of elemental diet. This study aims to evaluate the benefit of PERT in chil-dren with persistent diarrhea. Read More

    The anti-wasting effects of L-carnitine supplementation on cancer: experimental data and clinical studies.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):503-511
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of pharmacy, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
    Background And Objectives: Cachexia is a paraneoplastic syndrome that affects the large majority of patients with end-stage cancer. No known therapy exists to effectively overcome the severe symptoms of cachexia, which include anorexia, weight loss and fatigue. This study considered the results of both experimental and clinical studies to evaluate the suitability of L-carnitine and its derivatives as potential therapies for cachexia in patients with cancer. Read More

    Nutritional composition of breast milk in Chinese women: a systematic review.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(3):491-502
    Department of Public Health School, Wuhan University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, China.
    Background And Objectives: As breast milk is considered nature's best food for infant growth and development, understanding its nutritional composition is crucial for optimising the components of infant formula milk. In this study, we aimed to summarise the available evidence on the nutritional composition of breast milk from Chinese women, in particular, the macronutrients, fatty acids and minerals.

    Methods And Study Design: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Chinese databases for articles about human breast milk from Chinese women published in English or Chinese between 1999 and 2015. Read More

    Ambient temperature-related exaggerated post-prandial insulin response in a young athlete: a case report and implications for climate change.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(2):487-489
    Adaptation to Tropical Climate and Exercise Laboratory, University of the French West Indies, Guadeloupe, France. Email: ;
    The objective is to present the case of a 21-yr-old athlete observed with non-physiological immediate postprandial insulin response (1162 pmol/l; normal glucose excursion: 6.6 mmol/l), in a warm environment. No suspicion or evidence of any underlying pathology was found in this well-trained Afro-Caribbean male runner. Read More

    Taste perception and diet in people of Chinese ancestry.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(2):478-486
    Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences. Email:
    Background And Objectives: Taste perception plays a key role in consumer acceptance and food choice, which has an important impact on human health. Our aim was to examine the relationship between taste intensities and preferences of sweet (sucrose), salty (sodium chloride and potassium chloride), sour (citric acid), and bitter (quinine and phenylthiocarbamide) in relation to dietary intake and dietary patterns in people of Chinese ancestry.

    Methods And Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 100 adult Singaporean Chinese (50 women). Read More

    Nutritional quality and patterns of lunch menus at child care centers in South Korea and Japan.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(2):473-477
    Department of Food and Nutrition, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Background And Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the nutritional quality and patterns of lunch menus provided by child care centers in South Korea and Japan.

    Methods And Study Design: The weekly lunch menus from Monday to Saturday that child care centers provided in November 2014 in South Korea and Japan were analyzed. For Korea, a total of 72 meals provided by 12 centers in Seoul were analyzed by referring to the homepage of the Center for Children's Foodservice Management, which serviced menus for child care centers. Read More

    Role of behavioural feedback in nutrition education for enhancing nutrition knowledge and improving nutritional behaviour among adolescents.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(2):466-472
    School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Background And Objectives: The integration of nutrition knowledge into nutritional behaviour can help children to develop a healthy lifestyle that may be carried forward into adulthood. E-learning enables students to take ownership of recording their dietary intake and modify their diets by making their own decisions regarding food choices and portion sizes through reflective feedback. This study investigated the role of behavioural feedback in nutrition education in modifying students' nutrition knowledge and behaviour. Read More

    Assessing self-reported green tea and coffee consumption by food frequency questionnaire and food record and their association with polyphenol biomarkers in Japanese women.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(2):460-465
    School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Western Australia, Australia.
    Background And Objectives: Despite the demonstrated protective effects of green tea and coffee intake against several chronic diseases, finding between studies have not been consistent. One potential reason of this discrepancy is the imprecision in the measurement of tea or coffee consumption using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and food record (FR) in epidemiological studies.

    Methods And Study Design: In a sample of 57 healthy Japanese women, intake of green tea and coffee was estimated by a validated FFQ and a 3-day FR, while their plasma and urine concentrations of polyphenol biomarkers were measured by HPLC. Read More

    Dietary patterns, dietary lead exposure and hypertension in the older Chinese population.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(2):451-459
    Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine and Public Health, Hunter Medical Research Institute, The University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Background And Objectives: With rapid population ageing and an increasing rate of hypertension in China, this study aims to examine the association between dietary patterns, dietary lead and hypertension among older Chinese population.

    Methods And Study Design: We analysed the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey data (2,634 individuals with dietary and hypertension measurement data, aged ≥60 years). Dietary data were obtained using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Read More

    Prevalence and characteristics of misreporting of energy intake in Japanese adults: the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(2):441-450
    Department of Social and Preventive Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background And Objectives: Information on a whole array of characteristics associated with dietary misreporting in a representative sample in each country is still limited. Using data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan, we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of under- and over-reporting of energy intake among 19,986 Japanese adults aged >=20 years.

    Methods And Study Design: Each individual's energy intake was calculated based on a 1-day semi-weighed dietary record. Read More

    Intake ratio and major food sources of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in Korea: a study based on the sixth Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (2013-2014).
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(2):433-440
    Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dankook University, Chungnam, Korea. Email:
    Background And Objectives: In addition to the intake ratio of omega 6 (n-6) to omega 3 (n-3) fatty acids, their intake amount has an effect on health. This study evaluated the n-6:n-3 intake ratio as well as the food sources and association of these fatty acids with demographic characteristics based on sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data.

    Methods And Study Design: This study included 13,937 participants from the survey. Read More

    Breakfast consumption among Malaysian primary and secondary school children and relationship with body weight status - Findings from the MyBreakfast Study.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(2):421-432
    Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Background And Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between breakfast consumption and body weight status among primary and secondary school children in Malaysia.

    Methods And Study Design: This nationwide cross-sectional study involved 5,332 primary school children aged 6 to 12 years and 3,000 secondary school children aged 13 to 17 years. Height and weight were measured and BMI-for-age was determined. Read More

    Factors which may limit the value of dietary diversity and its association with nutritional outcomes in preschool children in high burden districts of India.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(2):413-420
    Leveraging Agriculture for Nutrition in South Asia, M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Background And Objectives: Dietary diversity plays a critical role in infants as they need energy and nutrient dense foods for both physical and mental development. This study examines whether three dietary diversity indices validate against Nutrient Adequacy Ratio (NAR) and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR) and studies the relationship of dietary diversity with nutritional status of preschool children, in two districts of India: Wardha district in Maharashtra state and Koraput district in Odisha state.

    Methods And Study Design: Dietary diversity was calculated using: individual food scores calculated using 24 hour diet recall (FS24hr) data; household dietary diversity using Berry's index (DDI) and food scores calculated using food frequency data (FSFFQ). Read More

    Dietary patterns and obesity in preschool children in Australia: a cross-sectional study.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(2):406-412
    Women's and Children's Health Research Institute, North Adelaide, SA, Australia. Email:
    Background And Objectives: Dietary patterns have been linked to the risk of obesity in adults but little is known about such a link in young children. To examine the association between dietary patterns, nutrient intake and obesity in a representative population of preschool children in Australia.

    Methods And Study Design: Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day weighed food diary. Read More

    Childhood overweight and obesity amongst primary school children in Hai Phong City, Vietnam.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(2):399-405
    Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Queensland, Australia.
    Background And Objectives: Childhood obesity is a rising health concern in Vietnam, however, research in this area is not extensive. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, and to study associations between weight status and selected lifestyle factors, such as diet and physical activity levels, among children aged 6-10 years in Hai Phong City, Vietnam.

    Methods And Study Design: Two hundred and seventy-six children from an urban and a rural primary school participated in this cross-sectional study. Read More

    Breast milk and infant iodine status during the first 12 weeks of lactation in Tianjin City, China.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(2):393-398
    Department of Nutrition & Food Science, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China. Email:
    Background And Objectives: The present study investigated the iodine status of breast milk and breast-fed infants during the first 12 weeks postpartum in Tianjin, China.

    Methods And Study Design: A total of 175 pregnant women were recruited before delivery. Their breastmilk and 24-h urine samples were collected at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postpartum; spot urine samples were simultaneously collected from their infants. Read More

    Differences in brain-derived neurotrophic factor between neonates born to mothers with normal and low ferritin.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(2):389-392
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Andalas University, Padang, Indonesia.
    Background And Objectives: Maternal iron deficiency in late pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period has an indirect impact to decrease neurotrophin concentration in the fetal hippocampus, namely brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). It plays an important role in the development of learning, memory, and behavior. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in BDNF between neonates born to mothers with normal and low ferritin. Read More

    Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors in pregnant Chinese women: a cross-sectional study in Huangdao, Qingdao, China.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(2):383-388
    School of Public Health, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, China.
    Background And Objectives: This study explored the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chinese pregnant women and identified risk factors for GDM after the implementation of the universal two-child policy.

    Methods And Study Design: On the basis of income and population, we randomly selected three hospitals through stratified and cluster sampling. From January 1 to July 31, 2016, 4959 women who had been registered within 12 weeks of gestation received a 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24-28 gestational weeks. Read More

    Dietary glycemic load and metabolic status in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in southeastern China.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(2):375-382
    Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Background And Objectives: Large-scale epidemiological investigations worldwide have shown that dietary glycemic load is associated with metabolic diseases, including diabetes. However, only a few studies have examined the correlations between glycemic load and blood glucose and lipids in Chinese diabetic patients. Therefore, this study aimed to determine these correlations in southeastern China. Read More

    Dietary patterns, dietary biomarkers, and kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: a repeated-measure study in Taiwan.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(2):366-374
    Departmentof Nutrition and Dietetics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Email:
    Background And Objectives: Western dietary patterns have been linked with kidney disease. This study investigated the association between Chinese dietary patterns and kidney disease in a Taiwanese population with type 2 diabetes and evaluated dietary fatty acid patterns, a kidney-related dietary biomarker.

    Methods And Study Design: We recruited 838 patients with type 2 diabetes and used their dietary and renal data obtained from three repeated measures in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Read More

    Regular egg consumption at breakfast by Japanese woman university students improves daily nutrient intakes: open-labeled observations.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(2):359-365
    Endowed Research Department "Food for Health", Ochanomizu University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background And Objectives: Eggs, an important source of high-quality protein, contain a variety of key nutrients and antioxidants. Here we conducted an intervention study to evaluate whether the additional consumption of one egg per day would affect the daily nutritional intakes and blood antioxidant status in Japanese woman university students.

    Methods And Study Design: For 4 weeks, the 14 subjects were provided a nutritious breakfast including one boiled egg, and they were asked to keep a daily dietary record. Read More

    The effects of green kiwifruit combined with isoflavones on equol production, bone turnover and gut microflora in healthy postmenopausal women.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(2):347-358
    Department of Food Function and Labelling, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background And Objectives: Isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) interventions in postmenopausal women have produced inconsistent skeletal benefits, partly due to population heterogeneity in daidzein metabolism to equol by enteric bacteria. This study assessed changes in microflora and bone turnover in response to isoflavone and ki-wifruit supplementation in New Zealand postmenopausal women.

    Methods And Study Design: Healthy women 1-10 years post-menopause were randomly allocated to group A (n=16) or B (n=17) for a 16-week crossover trial. Read More

    Astaxanthin improves glucose metabolism and reduces blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018 ;27(2):341-346
    Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
    Background And Objectives: This randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed for 8 weeks to investigate the potential effects of astaxanthin (AST) supplementation on the adiponectin concentration, lipid peroxidation, glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and anthropometric indices in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Methods And Study Design: We enrolled 44 participants with type 2 diabetes who met our inclusion criteria. Eight milligrams of AST supplementation or a placebo were randomly administered once daily for 8 weeks to these participants. Read More

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