328,586 results match your criteria Artificial cells nanomedicine and biotechnology[Journal]


Effect of artificial urinary sphincter implantation on erectile function and sexual satisfaction.

Andrologia 2019 Apr 17:e13295. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Deparment of Urology, University of Health Sciences, Haydarpasa Numune Research & Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) implantation is the gold standard treatment in total stress urinary incontinence (SIU). Our aim is to evaluate the effect of AUS implantation on erectile function and sexual satisfaction (SS). Fourteen patients aged 58-73 years (mean: 66. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/and.13295DOI Listing

How to Check the Reliability of Artificial Intelligence Solutions-Ensuring Client Expectations are Met.

Authors:
Jon Patrick

Appl Clin Inform 2019 Mar 17;10(2):269-271. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Health Language Analytics Global, Eveleigh, Australia.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1685220DOI Listing

Flow field perception based on the fish lateral line system.

Bioinspir Biomim 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Beihang University, Beijing, CHINA.

Fish are able to perceive the surrounding weak flow and pressure variations with their mechanosensory lateral line system, which consists of a superficial lateral line for flow velocity detection and a canal lateral line for flow pressure gradient perception. Achieving a better understanding of the flow field perception algorithms of the lateral line can contribute not only to the design of highly sensitive flow sensors, but also to the development of underwater smart skin with good hydrodynamic imaging properties. In this review, we discuss highly sensitive flow-sensing mechanisms for superficial and canal neuromasts and flow field perception algorithms. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-3190/ab1a8dDOI Listing

Using Hydrogel to Diversify the Adaptability and Applicability of Functional Nanoparticles: from Nanotech-Flavored Jellies to Artificial Enzymes.

Langmuir 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

The use of hydrogel to accommodate nanoparticles is generally aimed at synergetic integration of the peculiar electronic, photonic, magnetic, mechanical, and chemical properties of the nanoparticles with the stimuli-response of the hydrogels into unprecedented, smart, collective functions. The intrinsic water-borne nature of hydrogels further endorses the significant implications of such nanocomposites in biology and medicine. This article will be an account with accent on how to introduce nanoparticles within a hydrogel and to utilize the hydrogel to assist the nanoparticles to adapt themselves into different environments with a large span of polarity ranging from orthodox aqueous media to unorthodox organic ones. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.9b00254DOI Listing

In-Plane Nanowires with Arbitrary Shapes on Amorphous Substrates by Artificial Epitaxy.

ACS Nano 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

The challenge of nanowire assembly is still one of the major obstacles towards their efficient integration into functional systems. One strategy to overcome this obstacle is the guided growth approach, in which the growth of in-plane nanowires is guided by epitaxial and graphoepitaxial relations with the substrate to yield dense arrays of aligned nanowires. This method relies on crystalline substrates which are generally expensive and incompatible with silicon-based technologies. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.9b00538DOI Listing

Coverage of ethics within the artificial intelligence and machine learning academic literature: The case of disabled people.

Assist Technol 2019 Apr 17:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

a Community Rehabilitation and Disability Studies, Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine , University of Calgary , Calgary , Alberta , Canada.

Disabled people are often the anticipated users of scientific and technological products and processes advanced and enabled by artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML). Disabled people are also impacted by societal impacts of AI/ML. Many ethical issues are identified within AI/ML as fields and within individual applications of AI/ML. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10400435.2019.1593259DOI Listing

Incidence of Knee Injuries on Artificial Turf Versus Natural Grass in National Collegiate Athletic Association American Football: 2004-2005 Through 2013-2014 Seasons.

Am J Sports Med 2019 Apr 17:363546519833925. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

School of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA.

Background: The use of artificial turf in American football continues to grow in popularity, and the effect of these playing surfaces on athletic injuries remains controversial. Knee injuries account for a significant portion of injuries in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football league; however, the effect of artificial surfaces on knee injuries remains ill-defined.

Hypothesis: There is no difference in the rate or mechanism of knee ligament and meniscal injuries during NCAA football events on natural grass and artificial turf playing surfaces. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546519833925DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Cyclic fatigue resistance of novel Genius and Edgefile nickel-titanium reciprocating instruments.

Braz Oral Res 2019 11;33:e028. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Universidade Estadual Paulista- UNESP, Araçatuba School of Dentistry, Department of Endodontics, Araçatuba, SP, Brazil.

This study aimed to assess the cyclic fatigue resistance of Genius and EdgeFile X1 reciprocating instruments compared with WaveOne Gold Primary. Twenty Genius (Ultradent) 25.04, 20 Genius 30. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1807-3107bor-2019.vol33.0028DOI Listing

Artificial muscle with reversible and controllable deformation based on stiffness-variable carbon nanotube spring-like nanocomposite yarn.

Nanoscale 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Composites in Special Environments, Center for Composite Materials and Structures, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080, P. R. China. and Shenzhen STRONG Advanced Materials Research Institute Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518000, P. R. China.

Carbon nanotube yarn actuators are in great demand for flexible devices or intelligent applications. Artificial muscles based on carbon nanotube yarn have achieved great progress over past decades. However, uncontrollable, small deformations and relatively slow deformation recovery are still great challenges for carbon nanotube yarn artificial muscles. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9nr00611gDOI Listing

[Analysis of flowmetric parameters of blood flow through coronary bypass grafts in high-risk surgical patients].

Angiol Sosud Khir 2019 ;25(1):53-57

Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.

Coronary artery bypass grafting is a widely used cardiosurgical intervention which may be performed either on the arrested heart in conditions of artificial circulation or on the beating heart without artificial circulation. However, in a series of works, the results of bypass grafting using both techniques had no significant differences. In our article, we analyse the flowmetric parameters of blood flow through the coronary bypass grafts in high-surgical risk patients presenting with ischaemic heart disease and undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in conditions of artificial circulation and on the beating heart. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.33529/angio2019107DOI Listing
January 2019

The Artificial Pancreas: Coming to an OR Near You?

Anesth Analg 2019 May;128(5):836

Vanderbilt University School of Medicine Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000004162DOI Listing

Casing microbiome dynamics during button mushroom cultivation: implications for dry and wet bubble diseases.

Microbiology 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1​Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1, UK.

The casing material required in mushroom cultivation presents a very rich ecological niche, which is inhabited by a diverse population of bacteria and fungi. In this work three different casing materials, blonde peat, black peat and a 50 : 50 mixture of both, were compared for their capacity to show a natural suppressive response against dry bubble, Lecanicillium fungicola (Preuss) Zare and Gams, and wet bubble, Mycogone perniciosa (Magnus) Delacroix. The highest mushroom production was collected from crops cultivated using the mixed casing and black peat, which were not significantly different in yield. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.000792DOI Listing

Controlled Release of Therapeutic Agents with NIR Laser for Synergistic Photo-Chemotherapy towards Cervical Cancer.

Anal Chem 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Different kinds of artificial drug delivery systems (DDS) have been widely exploited and utilized towards effective tumor therapy. Establishing a biocompatible DDS with a flexible release of the therapeutic agents has been one of the challenges and impetus to the development of tumor diagnosis and therapy fields. Herein, the chemotherapeutic agents doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and photosensitizer indocyanine green (ICG) were simultaneously packaged into the cavity of Microvesicles (MVs) through electroporation technique. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.8b05982DOI Listing

Prediction analysis for microbiome sequencing data.

Biometrics 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

SJTU-Yale Joint Center for Biostatistics and Data Science, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

One goal of human microbiome studies is to relate host traits with human microbiome compositions. The analysis of microbial community sequencing data presents great statistical challenges, especially when the samples have different library sizes and the data are overdispersed with many zeros. To address these challenges, we introduce a new statistical framework, called predictive analysis in metagenomics via inverse regression (PAMIR), to analyze microbiome sequencing data. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/biom.13061
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/biom.13061DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Oxidative Effects of Gemifloxacin on Some Biological Traits of Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

Environ Entomol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Biology Department, Zonguldak Bülent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey.

In recent times, several studies have been undertaken on the artificial mass-rearing of insects in which clinical antibacterial antibiotics, including gemifloxacin, which is a DNA gyrase and topoisomerases inhibitor, are amended into the diet to control microbial contamination and preserve diet. The findings of these studies have suggested the possibility that these antibiotics influence the biological traits of insects in relation to their oxidative effects. This study investigated the effects of gemifloxacin on Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) survival rates, development times, and male-female adult longevity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvz039DOI Listing

A flexible self-cleaning broadband antireflective film inspired by the transparent cicada wings.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Cicada wings, covered with arranged nanostructure, were widely studied owing to their highly transparency and low reflection. However, limited by technologies, its exquisite surface structures and multifunctional features were not inherited and applied by most artificial materials adequately. Here, the excellent optical properties of cicada wing were investigated in details experimentally and theoretically. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsami.9b01948
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b01948DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Cell Encapsulation in Soft, Anisometric Poly(ethylene) Glycol Microgels Using a Novel Radical-Free Microfluidic System.

Small 2019 Apr 16:e1900692. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

DWI-Leibniz Institute for Interactive Materials, Forckenbeckstrasse 50, 52074, Aachen, Germany.

Complex 3D artificial tissue constructs are extensively investigated for tissue regeneration. Frequently, materials and cells are delivered separately without benefitting from the synergistic effect of combined administration. Cell delivery inside a material construct provides the cells with a supportive environment by presenting biochemical, mechanical, and structural signals to direct cell behavior. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201900692DOI Listing

Aging, Disease, and Therapeutic Apheresis.

Authors:
Paul S Malchesky

Ther Apher Dial 2018 Aug;22(4):312-316

International Center for Artificial Organs & Transplantation, Painesville, OH, USA.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-9987.12706DOI Listing

Artificial Microbial Arenas: Materials for Observing and Manipulating Microbial Consortia.

Adv Mater 2019 Apr 16:e1900284. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Microverse Cluster, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Neugasse 23, 07743, Jena, Germany.

From the smallest ecological niche to global scale, communities of microbial life present a major factor in system regulation and stability. As long as laboratory studies remain restricted to single or few species assemblies, however, very little is known about the interaction patterns and exogenous factors controlling the dynamics of natural microbial communities. In combination with microfluidic technologies, progress in the manufacture of functional and stimuli-responsive materials makes artificial microbial arenas accessible. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/adma.2019002
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201900284DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Electrophoretic transport and dynamic deformation of bio-vesicles.

Electrophoresis 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX.

Study of the deformation dynamics of cells and other sub-micron vesicles, such as virus and neurotransmitter vesicles are necessary to understand their functional properties. This mechanical characterization can be done by submerging the vesicle in a fluid medium and deforming it with a controlled electric field, which is known as electrodeformation. Electrodeformation of biological and artificial lipid vesicles is directly influenced by the vesicle and surrounding media properties and geometric factors. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201900025DOI Listing

Can we reduce the workload of mammographic screening by automatic identification of normal exams with artificial intelligence? A feasibility study.

Eur Radiol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To study the feasibility of automatically identifying normal digital mammography (DM) exams with artificial intelligence (AI) to reduce the breast cancer screening reading workload.

Methods And Materials: A total of 2652 DM exams (653 cancer) and interpretations by 101 radiologists were gathered from nine previously performed multi-reader multi-case receiver operating characteristic (MRMC ROC) studies. An AI system was used to obtain a score between 1 and 10 for each exam, representing the likelihood of cancer present. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00330-019-06186-9
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-019-06186-9DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Discovering novel mutation signatures by latent Dirichlet allocation with variational Bayes inference.

Bioinformatics 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University.

Background: A cancer genome includes many mutations derived from various mutagens and mutational processes, leading to specific mutation patterns. It is known that each mutational process leads to characteristic mutations, and when a mutational process has preferences for mutations, this situation is called a "mutation signature." Identification of mutation signatures is an important task for elucidation of carcinogenic mechanisms. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btz266DOI Listing

Novel Method of Specifying Low and High Threshold Temperatures Using Thermodynamic SSI Model of Insect Development.

Environ Entomol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Kannondai, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki, Japan (retired).

For ectotherms such as insects, their low- and/or high-temperature tolerance is one of the most important traits not only for their physiological as well as ecological and evolutional processes. Here, we review the temperature tolerance of insects in relation to their development and suggest a novel method of specifying low and high threshold temperatures. To date, the upper and lower critical thermal threshold for development as Tmin and Tmax, respectively, which are derived from nonlinear empirical models, has been extensively used. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvz031DOI Listing

The human embryo, subjectivity and legal capacity. Notes in the light of art. 1 of the Italian law on "medically assisted procreation".

Clin Ter 2019 Mar-Apr;170(2):e102-e107

School of Law, University of Camerino.

Aim: This paper aims to examine the legal status of the human embryo taking into consideration Article 1 of the Italian law on medically assisted procreation, which protects the human embryo, which is recognised as an individual holding the same rights as already born children. The progressive increase in legal decisions regarding reproductive technologies requires a re-examination of the traditional legal categories of "subjectivity" and legal capacity, and a deeper understanding of the status of the human embryo as a subject, or individua.

Materials And Methods: The following sources were searched: Institutional websites, Research Centre for Social Investments reports, updated jurisprudence and Rulings of Italian Constitutional Court and European Court of Human Rights. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7417/CT.2019.2118DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Artificial intelligence-Developments in medicine in the last two years.

Chronic Dis Transl Med 2019 Mar 9;5(1):64-68. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Ufa State Aviation Technical University Institute of Aviation Technological Systems, Ufa 450077, Russia.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cdtm.2018.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449768PMC

Training of feedforward neural networks for data classification using hybrid particle swarm optimization, Mantegna Lévy flight and neighborhood search.

Heliyon 2019 Apr 3;5(4):e01275. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Peter Faber Business School, Australian Catholic University, Australia.

Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) are often applied to data classification problems. However, training ANNs remains a challenging task due to the large and high dimensional nature of search space particularly in the process of fine-tuning the best set of control parameters in terms of weight and bias. Evolutionary algorithms are proved to be a reliable optimization method for training the parameters. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449775PMC

Endovascular Repair of an Iliac Artery Pseudoaneurysm Using a Surgeon-Reconstructed Prosthetic Graft and a Bare Metal Stent.

Vasc Specialist Int 2019 Mar;35(1):34-38

Department of Surgery, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Iliac artery aneurysms are usually asymptomatic. Herein, we report a novel strategy for the repair of a pseudoaneurysm involving the external iliac artery using a conventional artificial graft and bare metal stent. A 76-year-old male patient presented with severe resting pain and right foot discoloration. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5758/vsi.2019.35.1.34DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453594PMC

Decoupling species richness variation and spatial turnover in beta diversity across a fragmented landscape.

PeerJ 2019 10;7:e6714. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: How habitat fragmentation affects the relationship between local richness and the variation in community composition across space is important to both ecology and conservation biology, but this effect remains poorly understood.

Methods: Here, we present an empirical study to address this topic in a fragmented landscape, the Thousand Island Lake (TIL), an artificial land-bridge island system with more than 1,000 islands, which provides an "experimental" fragmented landscape with a homogeneous matrix and similar successional history. We measured species composition and plant functional type (PFT) on 29 islands, and tested the effects of island area and isolation on the relationship between α- and β-diversity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462183PMC

Nodal rings and drumhead surface states in phononic crystals.

Nat Commun 2019 Apr 16;10(1):1769. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nanostructures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, 430072, Wuhan, China.

Three-dimensional topological nodal lines, the touching curves of two bands in momentum space, which give rise to drumhead surface states, provide an opportunity to explore a variety of exotic phenomena. However, solid evidence for a flat drumhead surface state remains elusive. In this paper, we report a realization of three-dimensional nodal line dispersions and drumhead surface states in phononic crystal. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-09820-8
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09820-8DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Home parenteral nutrition provision modalities for chronic intestinal failure in adult patients: An international survey.

Clin Nutr 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Salford, United Kingdom.

Background & Aims: The safety and effectiveness of a home parenteral nutrition (HPN) program depends both on the expertise and the management approach of the HPN center. We aimed to evaluate both the approaches of different international HPN-centers in their provision of HPN and the types of intravenous supplementation (IVS)-admixtures prescribed to patients with chronic intestinal failure (CIF).

Methods: In March 2015, 65 centers from 22 countries enrolled 3239 patients (benign disease 90. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02615614193012
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2019.03.010DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Parents' Preferences and Perceptions of Their Children's Consumption of Sugar and Non-nutritive Sugar Substitutes.

Pediatr Dent 2019 Mar;41(2):119-128

Dr. Woods is a professor and a director, Division of Oral Diagnosis, Department of Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis.

The purpose of this study was to investigate opinions and preferences of parents from various sociodemographics regarding sugar and both natural and artificial non-nutritive sugar substitutes (NNS). Oral interview surveys were conducted in dental practice settings. Parents were asked about demographics, their consumption of and feelings about sugar and NNS for themselves and their children, and their concerns regarding NNS. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

Mutations in ATP13A2 (PARK9) are associated with an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-like phenotype, implicating this locus in further phenotypic expansion.

Hum Genomics 2019 Apr 16;13(1):19. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Center for Human Disease Modeling, Duke University Medical Center, Carmichael Building, 300 North Duke Street, Suite 48-118, Durham, NC, 27701, USA.

Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [1] is a genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by late-onset degeneration of motor neurons leading to progressive limb and bulbar weakness, as well as of the respiratory muscles, which is the primary cause of disease fatality. To date, over 25 genes have been implicated as causative in ALS with C9orf72, SOD1, FUS, and TARDBP accounting for the majority of genetically positive cases.

Results: We identified two patients of Italian and French ancestry with a clinical diagnosis of juvenile-onset ALS who were mutation-negative in any of the known ALS causative genes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40246-019-0203-9DOI Listing

Phylogenetic mapping of scale nanostructure diversity in snakes.

BMC Evol Biol 2019 Apr 16;19(1):91. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Laboratory of Artificial & Natural Evolution (LANE), Department of Genetics & Evolution, University of Geneva, Sciences III, 30, Quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211, Geneva 4, Switzerland.

Background: Many species of snakes exhibit epidermal surface nanostructures that form complex motifs conferring self-cleaning properties, and sometimes structural iridescence, to their skin.

Results: Using confocal microscopy, we show that these specialised cells can be greatly elongated along their left-right axis and that different types of nanostructures are generated by cell borders and cell surface. To characterise the complexity and diversity of these surface gratings, we analysed scanning electron microscopy images of skin sheds from 353 species spanning 19 of the 26 families of snakes and characterised the observed nanostructures with four characters. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-019-1411-6DOI Listing

Fluctuating selection strength and intense male competition underlie variation and exaggeration of a water strider's male weapon.

Proc Biol Sci 2019 Apr;286(1901):20182400

Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS UMR 5242 , Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46, allée d'Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 , France.

Sexually selected traits can reach high degrees of phenotypic expression and variation under directional selection. A growing number of studies suggest that such selection can vary in space, time and form within and between populations. However, the impact of these fluctuations on sexual trait evolution is poorly understood. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.2400DOI Listing

Tin oxide artificial synapses for low power temporal information processing.

Nanotechnology 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, AUSTRALIA.

Lateral memristors configured with inert Pt contacts and mixed phase tin oxide layers have exhibited immediate, forming-free, low-power bidirectional resistance switching. Activity dependent conductance and relaxation in the low resistance state resembled short term potentiation in biological synapses. After scanning probe microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrical measurements, the device characteristics were attributed to Joule heating induced decomposition of the minority SnO phase and formation of a SnO2 conducting filament with higher effective n-type doping. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6528/ab19c9
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ab19c9DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Engineering an artificial membrane vesicle trafficking system (AMVTS) for the excretion of β-carotene in Escherichia coli.

ACS Synth Biol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Large hydrophobic molecules, such as carotenoids, cannot be effectively excreted from cells by natural transportation systems. These products accumulate inside cells and affect normal cellular physiological functions, which hinders further improvement of carotenoid production by microbial cell factories. In this study, we proposed to construct a novel artificial transport system utilize membrane lipids to carry and transport hydrophobic molecules. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssynbio.8b00472DOI Listing

Multifunctional Gene Carriers Labeled by Perylene Diimide Derivative as Fluorescent Probe for Tracking Gene Delivery.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2019 Apr 16:e1800916. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Yaguan Road 135, Tianjin, 300350, China.

Multifunctional carriers with both gene transfection property and fluorescent tracking function have attracted significant attention in recent years. Herein, a kind of perylene diimide derivative (PDI-C10C8) is conjugated onto the polyethylenimine-g-poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-g-polyethylenimine (PLGA-PEI) polymer to obtain fluorescent multifunctional polymer and micelles (abbreviated as MP). Then, the REDV-G-TAT-G-NLS (TP-G) peptide sequence is grafted onto this MP to obtain multifunctional micelles labeled by perylene diimide derivative (MP-TP-G). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/marc.2018009
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.201800916DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

ANCHOR: A 16S rRNA gene amplicon pipeline for microbial analysis of multiple environmental samples.

Environ Microbiol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Institut de Recherche en Biologie Végétale, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC H1X 2B2, Canada.

Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplification data for microbial barcoding can be inaccurate across complex environmental samples. A method is presented, ANCHOR, designed for improved species level microbial identification using paired-end sequences directly, multiple high-complexity samples and multiple reference databases. An SOP is reported alongside benchmarking against artificial, single sample and replicated mock datasets. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.14632DOI Listing

Hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma after perioperative management of portal hypertension.

Br J Surg 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

National Centre for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Indications for hepatectomy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have portal hypertension (PH) have been controversial. Some studies have concluded that PH is a contraindication to hepatectomy, whereas others have suggested that perioperative prophylactic management (PPM) can help overcome complications after hepatectomy associated with PH. The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the short- and long-term outcomes after hepatectomy for HCC in patients with PH, with or without PPM. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/bjs.11153
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bjs.11153DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Machine Learning Approaches for Further Developing the Understanding of the Property Trends Observed in Protic Ionic Liquid Containing Solvents.

J Phys Chem B 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Ionic liquid containing solvent systems are candidates for very large compositional space exploration due to the immensity of the possible combination of ions and molecular species. The prediction of key properties of such multicomponent solvent systems plays a vital role in the design and optimization of their structures for specific applications. In this study we have explored two machine learning algorithms for predicting surface tension and liquid nanostructure of solvents containing a protic ionic liquid (PIL) with water and excess acid or base present. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.9b02072DOI Listing

Bio-inspired photo-detachable dry self-cleaning surface.

Langmuir 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Geckos have adapted to the complicated natural environment with its excellent climbing ability. Current artificial Gecko-inspired Synthetic Adhesives (GSAs) mimic gecko's attach-detach mechanism by creating anisotropic and hierarchical structures. Easy detachment and high self-cleaning capability are still the unsolved problems in GSAs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b04310
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b04310DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Highly tunable nonlinear response of Au@WS hybrids with plasmon resonance and anti-Stokes effect.

Nanoscale 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of the Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, P. R. China. and The Institute for Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, P. R. China.

We synthesize Au@WS2 hybrid nanobelts and investigate their third-order nonlinear responses mediated by a strong anti-Stokes effect. By using the femtosecond Z-scan technique and tuning the excitation photon energy (Eexc), we find the sign reversals of both nonlinear absorption coefficient β and nonlinear refractive index γ to be around 1.60 eV, which is prominently higher than the bandgap (1. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C8NR09946D
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8nr09946dDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Usable Mobile App for Community Education on Colorectal Cancer: Development Process and Usability Study.

JMIR Hum Factors 2019 Apr 16;6(2):e12103. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Non-Communicable Disease Unit, Kedah State Health Department, Alor Setar, Malaysia.

Background: Participation in colorectal cancer screening is still low among Malaysians despite the increasing trend of incidence, with more than half of the new cases being detected in the advanced stages. Knowledge improvement might increase screening participation and thus improve the chances of disease detection. With the advancement of communication technology, people nowadays prefer to read from their mobile phone using a Web browser or mobile apps compared with the traditional printed material. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/12103DOI Listing

Learning to Compose and Reason with Language Tree Structures for Visual Grounding.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Grounding natural language in images, such as localizing "the black dog on the left of the tree", is one of the core problems in artificial intelligence, as it needs to comprehend the fine-grained and compositional language space. However, existing solutions rely on the association between the holistic language features and visual features, while neglect the nature of compositional reasoning implied in the language. In this paper, we propose a natural language grounding model that can automatically compose a binary tree structure for parsing the language and then perform visual reasoning along the tree in a bottom-up fashion. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2019.2911066DOI Listing

A Roadmap for Foundational Research on Artificial Intelligence in Medical Imaging: From the 2018 NIH/RSNA/ACR/The Academy Workshop.

Radiology 2019 Apr 16:190613. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

From the Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (C.P.L., M.P.L.); Department of Radiology, Grandview Medical Center, Birmingham, Ala (B.A.); Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn (B.J.E.); Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass (J.K.C.); GE Healthcare, Chicago, Ill (K.B.); Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa (T.S.C., J.D.R.); Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa (A.E.F.); Department of Radiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (D.S.M.); Biomedical Imaging Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (G.W.); and National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Washington, DC (K.K.).

Imaging research laboratories are rapidly creating machine learning systems that achieve expert human performance using open-source methods and tools. These artificial intelligence systems are being developed to improve medical image reconstruction, noise reduction, quality assurance, triage, segmentation, computer-aided detection, computer-aided classification, and radiogenomics. In August 2018, a meeting was held in Bethesda, Maryland, at the National Institutes of Health to discuss the current state of the art and knowledge gaps and to develop a roadmap for future research initiatives. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2019190613DOI Listing

How sequence variants of a plastid-replicating viroid with one single nucleotide change initiate disease in its natural host.

RNA Biol 2019 Apr 16:1-12. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

a Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas (CSIC-UPV) , Valencia , Spain.

Understanding how viruses and subviral agents initiate disease is central to plant pathology. Whether RNA silencing mediates the primary lesion triggered by viroids (small non-protein-coding RNAs), or just intermediate-late steps of a signaling cascade, remains unsolved. While most variants of the plastid-replicating peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) are asymptomatic, some incite peach mosaics or albinism (peach calico, PC). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15476286.2019.1600396DOI Listing

PCNN Mechanism and Its Parameter Settings.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

The pulse-coupled neural network (PCNN) model is a third-generation artificial neural network without training that uses the synchronous pulse bursts of neurons to process digital images, but the lack of in-depth theoretical research limits its extensive application. By analyzing the working mechanism of the PCNN, we present an expression for the fire-extinguishing time of neurons that fire in the second iteration and an expression for the firing time of neurons that extinguish in the second iteration. In addition, we find a phenomenon of the PCNN and name it mathematically coupled fire extinguishing. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2019.2905113DOI Listing

Real-Time Performance of a Tactile Neuroprosthesis on Awake Behaving Rats.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

With the advancement of electrode and equipment technology, neuroprosthetics have become a promising alternative to partially compensate for the loss of sensorimotor function in amputees and patients with neurological diseases. Cortical neural interfaces are suitable especially for spinal cord injuries and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Although considerable success has been achieved in the literature by spike decoding of motor signáis from the human brain, somatosensory feedback is essential for better motor control, interaction with objects, and the embodiment of prosthetic devices. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8688479/
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2019.2910320DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Hand Extension Robot Orthosis (HERO) Glove: Development and Testing with Stroke Survivors with Severe Hand Impairment.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

The Hand Extension Robot Orthosis (HERO) Glove was iteratively designed with occupational therapists and stroke survivors to enable stroke survivors with severe hand impairment to grasp and stabilize everyday objects, while being portable, lightweight, and easy to set up and use. The robot consists of a batting glove with artificial tendons embedded into the glove's fingers. The tendons are pulled and pushed by a linear actuator to extend and flex the fingers. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2019.2910011DOI Listing

[Automatic detection of ventricular and supraventricular wide QRS arrhythmias using complex of morphological criteria and algorithms].

Kardiologiia 2019 Apr 13;59(3S):36-42. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Institute of Cardiological Technics (INCART), Vyborg highway, 22A, St. Petersburg 194214; Scientific, Clinical and Educational Cardiology Center, University Embankment 7-9, St. Petersburg 194214.

Aim: The aim of study is a detection of ventricular and supraventricular wide QRS arrhythmias using complex of morphological criteria and algorithms by method of automatic analysis.

Materials And Methods: For 100 patients (m/f - 61/39, Me (min; max) - 44.5 (10; 85) years) of researched group the analysis of 14306 single wide ectopic complexes (QRS 120-230 ms) has been done. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18087/cardio.2659DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read