351,768 results match your criteria Artificial Cells Nanomedicine And Biotechnology[Journal]


Equivalence of in vitro and in vivo methods for assessing the effectiveness of anti-particulate matter pollution products.

Skin Res Technol 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

AMOREPACIFIC R&D Center, Yongin-si, Korea.

Background: The in vivo evaluation of antipollution products has attracted attention due to increasing global pollution levels; however, it is expensive, time-consuming, and dangerous because of the harmful nature of fine dust. Therefore, this paper proposes an alternative in vitro assessment method and compares the fine dust blocking effectiveness of both methods for different antipollution products.

Materials And Methods: Initially, tests were conducted by spraying fine dust on human forearms and artificial leather without pretreatment for in vivo and in vitro samples, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/srt.12907DOI Listing

Monte Carlo dosimetry of a realistic multicellular model of follicular lymphoma in a context of radioimmunotherapy.

Med Phys 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

CRCT, UMR 1037 INSERM, Université Paul Sabatier, F-31037, Toulouse, France.

Purpose: Tumors geometry and radiopharmaceutical biodistribution impact the energy deposition in targeted radionuclide therapy. However, small-scale dosimetry studies generally consider an artificial environment where the tumors are spherical and the radionuclides are homogeneously biodistributed. To bring realism, we developed a dosimetric methodology based on a three-dimensional in vitro model of follicular lymphoma incubated with rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, which might be combined with a radionuclide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.14370DOI Listing

Hypomethylation of the aquatic invasive plant, Ludwigia grandiflora subsp hexapetala mimics the adaptive transition into the terrestrial morphotype.

Physiol Plant 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Laboratoire de Biologie des Ligneux et des Grandes Cultures (LBLGC), EA1207 USC1328 INRA, Université d'Orléans, 45067, Orléans, France.

Ongoing global changes affect ecosystems and open up new opportunities for biological invasion. The ability of invasive species to rapidly adapt to new environments represents a relevant model for studying short-term adaptation mechanisms. The aquatic invasive plant, Ludwigia grandiflora subsp hexapetala, is classified as harmful in European rivers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13162DOI Listing

Ischemia and outcome prediction by cardiac CT based machine learning.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Heart & Vascular Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, 25 Courtenay Drive, Charleston, SC, 29425-2260, USA.

Cardiac CT using non-enhanced coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) and coronary CT angiography (cCTA) has been proven to provide excellent evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD) combining anatomical and morphological assessment of CAD for cardiovascular risk stratification and therapeutic decision-making, in addition to providing prognostic value for the occurrence of adverse cardiac outcome. In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) and, in particular, the application of machine learning (ML) algorithms, have been promoted in cardiovascular CT imaging for improved decision pathways, risk stratification, and outcome prediction in a more objective, reproducible, and rational manner. AI is based on computer science and mathematics that are based on big data, high performance computational infrastructure, and applied algorithms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-020-01929-yDOI Listing

Machine Learning for Work Disability Prevention: Introduction to the Special Series.

J Occup Rehabil 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Computing Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Rapid development in computer technology has led to sophisticated methods of analyzing large datasets with the aim of improving human decision making. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (ML) approaches hold tremendous potential for solving complex real-world problems such as those faced by stakeholders attempting to prevent work disability. These techniques are especially appealing in work disability contexts that collect large amounts of data such as workers' compensation settings, insurance companies, large corporations, and health care organizations, among others. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10926-020-09910-1DOI Listing

Dislodgement resistance and adhesive pattern of different endodontic sealers to dentine wall after artificial ageing: an in-vitro study.

Odontology 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Paediatric Dentistry Unit, School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health campusKubang Kerian, 16150, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

To compare the dislodgement resistance and the adhesive pattern of four different endodontic sealers to root dentine walls. Ninety lower premolars were assigned to five groups (n = 18), Group 1: no sealer (control); Group 2: EndoRez (ERZ); Group 3: Sealapex (SPX); Group 4: EndoSeal MTA (ESA) and Group 5: BioRoot RCS (BRS). They were instrumented up to size 30 taper 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10266-020-00535-7DOI Listing

Efficient Photoelectron Capture by Ni Decoration in Methanosarcina barkeri-CdS Biohybrids for Enhanced Photocatalytic CO-to-CH Conversion.

iScience 2020 Jun 20;23(7):101287. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA.

Semi-artificial photosynthesis (biohybrid) provides an intriguing opportunity for efficient CO-to-CH conversion. However, creating a desirable semiconductor in biohybrids remains a great challenge. Here, by doping Ni into CdS nanoparticles, we have successfully developed the Methanosarcina barkeri-Ni:CdS biohybrids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101287DOI Listing

Development of a reliable bioanalytical method based on prostate specific antigen trapping on the cavity of molecular imprinted polymer towards sensing of PSA using binding affinity of PSA-MIP receptor: A novel biosensor.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2020 Jun 26;188:113447. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics Linköping University, Sweden.

In this study, electrically-conducting poly [Toluidine Blue (PTB)] was applied as artificial receptor. It was organized by molecular imprinting approaches and via electrochemical technique for the sensitive monitoring of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The protein-imprinted PTB was electropolymerized in a pre-formed glutaraldehyde-cysteamine (GA-Cys A) matrix on the surface of gold electrode, which significantly boosted the stability against degradation of the Molecular Imprinted Polymer (MIP) on the surface of pre-modified gold electrode. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113447DOI Listing

Deep learning evaluation of pelvic radiographs for position, hardware presence, and fracture detection.

Authors:
Gene Kitamura

Eur J Radiol 2020 Jun 21;130:109139. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

University of Pittsburgh. University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC)Department of Radiology, 200 Lothrop St., UPMC Montefiore, Room NE 538, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States. Electronic address:

Purpose: Recent papers have shown the utility of deep learning in detecting hip fractures with pelvic radiographs, but there is a paucity of research utilizing deep learning to detect pelvic and acetabular fractures. Creating deep learning models also requires appropriately labeling x-ray positions and hardware presence. Our purpose is to train and test deep learning models to detect pelvic radiograph position, hardware presence, and pelvic and acetabular fractures in addition to hip fractures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.109139DOI Listing

The safety and effectiveness of preserving the ascending uterine artery in a modified fertility-sparing abdominal radical trachelectomy.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2020 Jun 26;252:193-197. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Gynecological Oncology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yan Jiang West Road, Guangzhou, 510120, China; Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Gene Regulation and Target Therapy of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the outcome of preserving the ascending uterine artery in a modified fertility-sparing abdominal radical trachelectomy and understand whether preserving uterine arteries during abdominal radical trachelectomy is helpful for patients.

Methods: From September 2005 to September 2019, 31 early uterine cervical cancer patients who underwent modified fertility-sparing abdominal radical trachelectomy were enrolled in this study, and were followed up in our cancer center. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis was advised as the initial investigation to evaluate the ascending uterine artery in 11 patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.06.053DOI Listing

Social media's role in the perception of radiologists and artificial intelligence.

Clin Imaging 2020 Jun 15;68:158-160. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Houston Radiological Associates, 8850 Long Point Road, Houston, TX 77080, United States of America. Electronic address:

Social media are impacting all industries and changing the way daily interactions take place. This has been notable in health care as it allows a mechanism to connect patients directly to physicians, advocacy groups, and health care information. Recently, the development of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in radiology has drawn media attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.06.003DOI Listing

Response of protist community dynamics and co-occurrence patterns to the construction of artificial reefs: A case study in Daya Bay, China.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 27;742:140575. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou 510300, China; National Fishery Resources and Environment Dapeng Observation and Experimental Station, Shenzhen 518120, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Lab. of Fishery Ecology and Environment, Guangzhou 510300, China; Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of South China Sea Fishery Resources & Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affair, Guangzhou 510300, China; Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou 511458, China.

Artificial reefs (ARs) are widely used for biodiversity conservation and coastal habitat restoration. Although protists play an important ecological role in marine ecosystems, the response of the protist community to ARs is still poorly understood. In the current study, an Illumina sequencing analysis of 18S rDNA was performed, and the diversity, community structure, and co-occurrence networks of protists in the ARs and open sea area (OW) in Daya Bay were described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140575DOI Listing

Tuning in to non-adjacencies: Exposure to learnable patterns supports discovering otherwise difficult structures.

Cognition 2020 Jul 2;202:104283. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1202 W Johnson Street, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Non-adjacent dependencies are ubiquitous in language, but difficult to learn in artificial language experiments in the lab. Previous research suggests that non-adjacent dependencies are more learnable given structural support in the input - for instance, in the presence of high variability between dependent items. However, not all non-adjacent dependencies occur in supportive contexts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104283DOI Listing

Advances in lipidomics.

Clin Chim Acta 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (FI-00560 Helsinki), Finland. Electronic address:

The present article examines recently published literature on lipids, mainly focusing on research involving glycero-, glycerophospho- and sphingo-lipids. The primary aim is identification of distinct profiles in biologic lipidomic systems by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS, tandem MS) with multivariate data analysis. This review specifically targets lipid biomarkers and disease pathway mechanisms in humans and artificial targets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2020.06.049DOI Listing

Digitalization, clinical microbiology and infectious diseases.

Authors:
Adrian Egli

Clin Microbiol Infect 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Clinical Bacteriology and Mycology, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031, Basel, Switzerland; Applied Microbiology Research, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.06.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330545PMC

Outcomes of Totally Endoscopic Beating-Heart Tricuspid Repair in Redo Cardiac Surgery.

Heart Lung Circ 2020 Jun 14. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Background: The role of endoscopic surgery in treating late severe tricuspid regurgitation after cardiac surgery has not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of a combination of a beating-heart, minimally invasive approach and a leaflet-augmentation technique in treating tricuspid regurgitation after cardiac surgery.

Method: This was a retrospective cohort study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2020.05.100DOI Listing

Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Patients With Erectile Dysfunction.

Sex Med Rev 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Professor, Department of Urology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Introduction: Concurrent urinary incontinence (UI) and erectile dysfunction (ED) can greatly damage a patient's quality of life. Owing to the intertwined anatomy, treatment options for one most certainly have implications on the other.

Objective: The aim of this review is to characterize and elucidate the treatment patients with postprostatectomy UI undergoing concurrent or subsequent treatment of ED. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sxmr.2020.04.006DOI Listing

Pneumonia Detection in Chest X-Ray Dose-Equivalent CT: Impact of Dose Reduction on Detectability by Artificial Intelligence.

Acad Radiol 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Rämistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland; University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Rationale And Objectives: There has been a significant increase of immunocompromised patients in recent years due to new treatment modalities for previously fatal diseases. This comes at the cost of an elevated risk for infectious diseases, most notably pathogens affecting the respiratory tract. Because early diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia can help reducing morbidity and mortality, we assessed the performance of a deep neural network in the detection of pulmonary infection in chest X-ray dose-equivalent computed tomography (CT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2020.05.031DOI Listing

Preoperative Pathological Grading of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Ultrasomics of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound.

Acad Radiol 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Medical Ultrasonics, Ultrasomics Artificial Intelligence X-Lab, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China; Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Rationale And Objectives: To develop an ultrasomics model for preoperative pathological grading of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS).

Material And Methods: A total of 235 HCCs were retrospectively enrolled, including 65 high-grade and 170 low-grade HCCs. Representative images of four-phase CEUS were selected from the baseline sonography, arterial, portal venous, and delayed phase images. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2020.05.033DOI Listing

The use of Alloderm® for correction of severe chordee in children: An initial experience.

J Pediatr Urol 2020 Jun 14. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Division Pediatric Urology, Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Long Island, NY, USA.

Introduction: Correction of chordee remains a prerequisite prior to urethroplasty in children with severe hypospadias. The use of an interposition graft is indicated when significant chordee (>30) persists after division of the urethral plate. The use of free dermis or tunica vaginalis are most often used, but the use of a pre-packaged graft material is attractive with regards to efficiency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2020.06.007DOI Listing

Fertility and 305-day production of Viking Red-, Montbéliarde-, and Holstein-sired crossbred cows compared with Holstein cows during their first 3 lactations in Minnesota dairy herds.

J Dairy Sci 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Animal Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul 55108.

Three generations of crossbred cows from a 3-breed rotation of the Viking Red (VR), Montbéliarde (MO), and Holstein (HO) breeds were compared with HO herdmates in 7 high-performance, commercial dairy herds in Minnesota. The designed study was initiated in 2008 with the enrollment of 3,550 HO females. Sires of cows were proven artificial insemination bulls and were high-ranking for genetic merit within each of the VR, MO, and HO breeds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-18196DOI Listing

Use of phospholipase C zeta analysis to identify candidates for artificial oocyte activation: a case series of clinical pregnancies and a proposed algorithm for patient management.

Fertil Steril 2020 Jul;114(1):163-174

Nuffield Department of Women's and Reproductive Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the applicability of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) analysis in assisting the clinical decision-making process when considering artificial oocyte activation (AOA) for infertile males in assisted reproductive technology.

Design: Fifty-six males (43 infertile/13 fertile) were screened using our PLCζ assay.

Setting: Fertility unit/university laboratory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2020.02.113DOI Listing

Ethnic and regional variations in hospital mortality from COVID-19 in Brazil: a cross-sectional observational study.

Lancet Glob Health 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

The Alan Turing Institute, London, UK; Cambridge Centre for Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, Cambridge, UK; Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics and Department of Population Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Brazil ranks second worldwide in total number of COVID-19 cases and deaths. Understanding the possible socioeconomic and ethnic health inequities is particularly important given the diverse population and fragile political and economic situation. We aimed to characterise the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil and assess variations in mortality according to region, ethnicity, comorbidities, and symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30285-0DOI Listing

Accuracy and efficiency of an artificial intelligence tool when counting breast mitoses.

Diagn Pathol 2020 Jul 4;15(1):80. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: The mitotic count in breast carcinoma is an important prognostic marker. Unfortunately substantial inter- and intra-laboratory variation exists when pathologists manually count mitotic figures. Artificial intelligence (AI) coupled with whole slide imaging offers a potential solution to this problem. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13000-020-00995-zDOI Listing

A comprehensive overview of promising biomarkers in stage II colorectal cancer.

Cancer Treat Rev 2020 Jun 23;88:102059. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

University of Lille, CNRS, Inserm, CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, UMR9020 - UMR-S 1277 - Canther - Cancer Heterogeneity, Plasticity and Resistance to Therapies, Lille, France; Medical Oncology Department, CHU Lille, University of Lille, Lille, France; GERCOR, 151 rue du Faubourg Saint Antoine, 75011 Paris, France; AP-HP, Sorbonne Paris Cité, University of Paris, 2 rue Albert Einstein, 75013 Paris, France; Department of Gastroenterology and Gastrointestinal Oncology, Georges-Pompidou European Hospital, 20 Rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris, France; AP-HP, Sorbonne Paris Cité, University of Paris, 2 rue Albert Einstein, 75013 Paris, France; Department of Medical Oncology, Claude Huriez Hospital, Rue Michel Polonovski, 59000 Lille, France. Electronic address:

Colon cancer (CC) has the highest incidence rate among gastrointestinal cancers and ranks the third in mortality among all cancers, which contributes to the current CC burden and constitutes a major public health issue. While therapeutic strategies for stage I, III, and IV CC are standardized, those for stage II CC remain debatable. The choice of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage II CC depends on stage (pT4) and grade (high) of the disease, the presence of venous, perinervous, and/or lymphatic emboli, or the need of suboptimal surgery (tumor with initial occlusion or perforation needing emergency surgeries, <12 lymph nodes harvested). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctrv.2020.102059DOI Listing

Silencing the Oryza sativa plasma membrane H-ATPase isoform OsA2 affects grain yield and shoot growth and decreases nitrogen concentration.

J Plant Physiol 2020 Jun 20;251:153220. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 7.0, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The plasma membrane (PM) H-ATPase (EC 3.6.1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2020.153220DOI Listing

Transcription profiles and fatty acid composition of the artificial induced triploid alevin in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

Theriogenology 2020 Jun 13;155:49-59. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, 266071, PR China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao, 266237, PR China. Electronic address:

Triploid Atlantic salmon Salmo salar is commercially available and ideal means of achieving sterility in fish. The expression patterns of triploid parr and smolt were described before. However, little is known about the gene expression and fatty acid composition of triploid alevins at endogenous nutritional stage, which is an important period for their survival and development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2020.06.007DOI Listing

Efficacy of ovulation synchronization with timed artificial insemination in treatment of follicular cysts in dairy cows.

Theriogenology 2020 May 21;154:171-180. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig City, 44511, Al Sharquiya Governorate, Egypt; Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health Group, Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield, AL9 7TE, UK.

The efficacy of five ovulation-synchronization protocols with FTAI in treatment of cows diagnosed with follicular cysts was investigated in a nonrandomized study in a single herd. Cows identified with follicular structures >25 mm on two subsequent ultrasonographic (USG) examinations 7-10 days apart (n = 552) were assigned to one of the five treatment regimens on the day of the second USG examination. Treatment regimens were Ovsynch (GnRH-7d-PGF2α-56 h-GnRH-16 h-FTAI), New-CIDR (as Ovsynch with a new CIDR insert being fitted between days 0 and 7), Reused-CIDR (as New-CIDR but the CIDR insert was previously used for 7 days in another cow), G-New CIDR (Pre-GnRH on day 0 with the New-CIDR regimen being initiated 7 days later), and RG-Ovsynch (Pre-GnRH on day 0 and then every 7 days until detection of a luteal structure upon USG examination; at that point the Ovsynch was initiated). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2020.05.029DOI Listing

Lead source and bioaccessibility in windowsill dusts within a Pb smelting-affected area.

Environ Pollut 2020 Jun 29;266(Pt 2):115110. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

School of the Environment, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450001, China. Electronic address:

Windowsill, heavy metal-containing dust samples, collected at different building heights, may provide some insight into both source and human health risk. Windowsill dust samples were collected from the 1st to 9th floor (1.4-23. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115110DOI Listing

Artificial light at night (ALAN) alters the physiology and biochemistry of symbiotic reef building corals.

Environ Pollut 2020 Jun 6;266(Pt 2):114987. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Centre Scientifique de Monaco, Biologie Marine, Equipe d'Ecophysiologie, MC-98000, Monaco.

Artificial Light at Night (ALAN), which is the alteration of natural light levels as the result of anthropogenic light sources, has been acknowledged as an important factor that alters the functioning of marine ecosystems. Using LEDs light to mimic ALAN, we studied the effect on the physiology (symbiont and chlorophyll contents, photosynthesis, respiration, pigment profile, skeletal growth, and oxidative stress responses) of two scleractinian coral species originating from the Red Sea. ALAN induced the photoinhibition of symbiont photosynthesis, as well as an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an increase in oxidative damage to lipids in both coral species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114987DOI Listing

Using Deep Learning to Predict Beam-Tunable Pareto Optimal Dose Distribution for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy.

Med Phys 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Medical Artificial Intelligence and Automation (MAIA) Laboratory, Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA.

Purpose: Many researchers have developed deep learning models for predicting clinical dose distributions and Pareto optimal dose distributions. Models for predicting Pareto optimal dose distributions have generated optimal plans in real time using anatomical structures and static beam orientations. However, Pareto optimal dose prediction for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) prostate planning with variable beam numbers and orientations has not yet been investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.14374DOI Listing

Life history and population dynamics of an endangered seahorse (Hippocampus capensis) within an artificial habitat.

J Fish Biol 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Fisheries Research, NSW Department of Primary Industries, NSW.

Species specific life history information is critical for successful conservation, particularly in establishing an accurate baseline status. Obtaining such information is challenging for most species, but in particular for rare and threatened marine species. To facilitate future conservation of the Endangered Knysna seahorse (Hippocampus capensis) this study aimed to determine important life history information for this species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.14452DOI Listing

Optic disc classification by deep learning versus expert neuro-ophthalmologists.

Ann Neurol 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore.

Objective: To compare the diagnostic performance of an artificial intelligence deep learning system with that of expert neuro-ophthalmologists in classifying optic disc appearance.

Methods: The deep learning system was previously trained and validated on 14,341 ocular fundus photographs from 19 international centers. The performance of the system was evaluated on 800 new fundus photographs (400 normal optic discs, 201 papilledema [disc edema from elevated intracranial pressure], 199 other optic disc abnormalities) and compared with that of two expert neuro-ophthalmologists who independently reviewed the same randomly-presented images without clinical information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25839DOI Listing

Improving the safety of induction of labor in low-resource settings using a 20-point toolkit.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Women's Health and HIV Research Group, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Kwa Zulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Induction of labor (IOL) is defined as artificial initiation of labor with the aim of achieving vaginal delivery. IOL is performed globally and has a wide variation in prevalence, averaging between 4.4% and 20% according to WHO, with high rates in high-resource settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.13290DOI Listing

Automated detection of pulmonary embolism in CT pulmonary angiograms using an AI-powered algorithm.

Eur Radiol 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Clinic of Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031, Basel, Switzerland.

Objectives: To evaluate the performance of an AI-powered algorithm for the automatic detection of pulmonary embolism (PE) on chest computed tomography pulmonary angiograms (CTPAs) on a large dataset.

Methods: We retrospectively identified all CTPAs conducted at our institution in 2017 (n = 1499). Exams with clinical questions other than PE were excluded from the analysis (n = 34). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-06998-0DOI Listing

Structural Modeling and Ligand-Binding Prediction for Analysis of Structure-Unknown and Function-Unknown Proteins Using FORTE Alignment and PoSSuM Pocket Search.

Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2165:1-11

Artificial Intelligence Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tokyo, Japan.

Structural data of biomolecules, such as those of proteins and nucleic acids, provide much information for estimation of their functions. For structure-unknown proteins, structure information is obtainable by modeling their structures based on sequence similarity of proteins. Moreover, information related to ligands or ligand-binding sites is necessary to elucidate protein functions because the binding of ligands can engender not only the activation and inactivation of the proteins but also the modification of protein functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0708-4_1DOI Listing
January 2020

Current applications of artificial intelligence for intraoperative decision support in surgery.

Front Med 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Surgical Artificial Intelligence and Innovation Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Research into medical artificial intelligence (AI) has made significant advances in recent years, including surgical applications. This scoping review investigated AI-based decision support systems targeted at the intraoperative phase of surgery and found a wide range of technological approaches applied across several surgical specialties. Within the twenty-one (n = 21) included papers, three main categories of motivations were identified for developing such technologies: (1) augmenting the information available to surgeons, (2) accelerating intraoperative pathology, and (3) recommending surgical steps. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11684-020-0784-7DOI Listing

Suspended sediment load prediction using artificial neural network and ant lion optimization algorithm.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya (UM), 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Suspended sediment load (SSL) estimation is a required exercise in water resource management. This article proposes the use of hybrid artificial neural network (ANN) models, for the prediction of SSL, based on previous SSL values. Different input scenarios of daily SSL were used to evaluate the capacity of the ANN-ant lion optimization (ALO), ANN-bat algorithm (BA) and ANN-particle swarm optimization (PSO). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09876-wDOI Listing

Finite-difference and integral schemes for Maxwell viscous stress calculation in immersed boundary simulations of viscoelastic membranes.

Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Bharti School of Engineering, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, ON, P3E 2C6, Canada.

The immersed boundary method (IBM) has been frequently utilized to simulate the motion and deformation of biological cells and capsules in various flow situations. Despite the convenience in dealing with flow-membrane interaction, direct implementation of membrane viscosity in IBM suffers severe numerical instability. It has been shown that adding an artificial elastic element in series to the viscous component in the membrane mechanics can efficiently improve the numerical stability in IBM membrane simulations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10237-020-01363-yDOI Listing

Nanozymes in electrochemical affinity biosensing.

Mikrochim Acta 2020 Jul 3;187(8):423. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de CC. Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040, Madrid, Spain.

Over the past decade, artificial nanomaterials that exhibit properties similar to those of enzymes are gaining attraction in electrochemical biosensing as highly stable and low-cost alternatives to enzymes. This review article discusses the main features of the various nanomaterials (metal oxide, metal, and carbon-based materials) explored so far to mimic different kinds of enzymes. The unprecedented opportunities imparted by these functional nanomaterials or their nanohybrids, mostly providing peroxidase-like activity, in electrochemical affinity biosensing are critically discussed mainly in connection with their use as catalytic labels or electrode surface modifiers by highlighting representative strategies reported in the past 5 years with application in the food, environmental, and biomedical fields. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-020-04390-9DOI Listing

A mapping study of ensemble classification methods in lung cancer decision support systems.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Informatics and Systems, Faculty of Computer Science, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.

Achieving a high level of classification accuracy in medical datasets is a capital need for researchers to provide effective decision systems to assist doctors in work. In many domains of artificial intelligence, ensemble classification methods are able to improve the performance of single classifiers. This paper reports the state of the art of ensemble classification methods in lung cancer detection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11517-020-02223-8DOI Listing

Recent developments in regenerative ophthalmology.

Sci China Life Sci 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Regenerative medicine (RM) is one of the most promising disciplines for advancements in modern medicine, and regenerative ophthalmology (RO) is one of the most active fields of regenerative medicine. This review aims to provide an overview of regenerative ophthalmology, including the range of tools and materials being used, and to describe its application in ophthalmologic subspecialties, with the exception of surgical implantation of artificial tissues or organs (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-019-1684-xDOI Listing

Demystifying artificial intelligence in pharmacy.

Am J Health Syst Pharm 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN.

Purpose: To provide pharmacists and other clinicians with a basic understanding of the underlying principles and practical applications of artificial intelligence (AI) in the medication-use process.

Summary: "Artificial intelligence" is a general term used to describe the theory and development of computer systems to perform tasks that normally would require human cognition, such as perception, language understanding, reasoning, learning, planning, and problem solving. Following the fundamental theorem of informatics, a better term for AI would be "augmented intelligence," or leveraging the strengths of computers and the strengths of clinicians together to obtain improved outcomes for patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/zxaa218DOI Listing

Reconstituted cell-free protein synthesis using in vitro transcribed tRNAs.

Commun Biol 2020 Jul 3;3(1):350. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Laboratory for Cell-Free Protein Synthesis, RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR), Suita, Osaka, 565-0874, Japan.

Entire reconstitution of tRNAs for active protein production in a cell-free system brings flexibility into the genetic code engineering. It can also contribute to the field of cell-free synthetic biology, which aims to construct self-replicable artificial cells. Herein, we developed a system equipped only with in vitro transcribed tRNA (iVTtRNA) based on a reconstituted cell-free protein synthesis (PURE) system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-1074-2DOI Listing

Observation of Weyl fermions in a magnetic non-centrosymmetric crystal.

Nat Commun 2020 Jul 3;11(1):3356. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Laboratory for Topological Quantum Matter and Advanced Spectroscopy (B7), Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08544, USA.

The absence of inversion symmetry in non-centrosymmetric materials has a fundamental role in the emergence of a vast number of fascinating phenomena, like ferroelectricity, second harmonic generation, and Weyl fermions. The removal of time-reversal symmetry in such systems further extends the variety of observable magneto-electric and topological effects. Here we report the striking topological properties in the non-centrosymmetric spin-orbit magnet PrAlGe by combining spectroscopy and transport measurements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16879-1DOI Listing

Iron oxides nanobelt arrays rooted in nanoporous surface of carbon tube textile as stretchable and robust electrodes for flexible supercapacitors with ultrahigh areal energy density and remarkable cycling-stability.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 3;10(1):11023. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Artificial Functional Materials, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Haian Institute of High-Tech Research, Nanjing University, Jiangsu, 210093, People's Republic of China.

We report a significant advance toward the rational design and fabrication of stretchable and robust flexible electrodes with favorable hierarchical architectures constructed by homogeneously distributed α-FeO nanobelt arrays rooted in the surface layer of nanoporous carbon tube textile (NPCTT). New insight into alkali activation assisted surface etching of carbon and in-situ catalytic anisotropic growth is proposed, and is experimentally demonstrated by the synthesis of the FeO nanobelt arrays/NPCTT. The FeO/NPCTT electrode shows excellent flexibility and great stretchability, especially has a high specific areal capacitance of 1846 mF cm at 1 mA cm and cycling stability with only 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68032-zDOI Listing

Digital pathology and artificial intelligence will be key to supporting clinical and academic cellular pathology through COVID-19 and future crises: the PathLAKE consortium perspective.

J Clin Pathol 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, Oxfordshire, UK

The measures to control the COVID-19 outbreak will likely remain a feature of our working lives until a suitable vaccine or treatment is found. The pandemic has had a substantial impact on clinical services, including cancer pathways. Pathologists are working remotely in many circumstances to protect themselves, colleagues, family members and the delivery of clinical services. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2020-206854DOI Listing

Effect of high-speed sintering on the flexural strength of hydrothermal and thermo-mechanically aged zirconia materials.

Dent Mater 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Goethestrasse 70, 80336 Munich, Germany.

Objective: To investigate the influence of high-speed and conventional sintering on the flexural strength (FS) of three zirconia materials initial and after artificial aging.

Methods: Milled zirconia specimens (3Y-TZP: ZI and Zolid; 4Y-TZP: Zolid HT+; Amann Girrbach AG; N = 288, n = 96/group) were sintered in a high-speed sintering protocol (final temperature 1580 °C, n = 48/subgroup) or a conventional sintering protocol (control group, final temperature 1450 °C, n = 48/subgroup). FS was tested initially and after artificial aging (10 h in an autoclave or 1,200,000 chewing cycles; n = 16/subgroup). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2020.05.013DOI Listing

Influence of flavonoids on long-term bonding stability on caries-affected dentin.

Dent Mater 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, State University of Ponta Grossa, Rua General Carlos Cavalcanti, 4748, Uvaranas, Ponta Grossa, Parana, 84030-900 Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of experimental dentin pre-treatment solutions formulated with different flavonoids on microtensile bond strength (μTBS), nanohardness (NH) and ultra-morphological characteristics of artificial caries-affected dentin (CAD) bonded using a universal bonding system.

Methods: A microbiological method was used to create an artificial CAD in 91 human molars. Five experimental pre-treatment solutions were created using the following flavonoids: quercetin (QUE); hesperidin (HES); rutin (RUT); naringin (NAR), or proanthocyanidin (PRO). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2020.05.007DOI Listing

Use of theory to guide development and application of sensor technologies in Nursing.

Nurs Outlook 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

College of Nursing, IALS Center for Health & Human Performance, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Amherst, MA.

Sensor technologies for health care, research, and consumers have expanded and evolved rapidly. Many technologies developed in commercial or engineering spaces, lack theoretical grounding and scientific evidence to support their need, safety, and efficacy. Theory is a mechanism for synthesizing and guiding knowledge generation for the discipline of nursing, including the design, implementation, and evaluation of sensors and related technologies such as artificial intelligence and machine learning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2020.04.007DOI Listing