328,916 results match your criteria Artificial Cells Nanomedicine And Biotechnology[Journal]


Using Artificial Intelligence to Identify Factors Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy.

Neuropediatrics 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Lenval University Pediatric Hospital of Nice, Nice, France.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is common in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and there is a lack of studies applying artificial intelligence to investigate this field and this population in particular. The aim of this study is to develop and test a predictive learning model to identify factors associated with ASD in adolescents with CP. This was a multicenter controlled cohort study of 102 adolescents with CP (61 males, 41 females; mean age ± SD [standard deviation] = 16. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1685525DOI Listing

Optically Stimulated Artificial Synapse Based on Layered Black Phosphorus.

Small 2019 Apr 24:e1900966. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Functional Materials and Microsystems Research Group and the Micro Nano Research Facility, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, 3001, Australia.

The translation of biological synapses onto a hardware platform is an important step toward the realization of brain-inspired electronics. However, to mimic biological synapses, devices till-date continue to rely on the need for simultaneously altering the polarity of an applied electric field or the output of these devices is photonic instead of an electrical synapse. As the next big step toward practical realization of optogenetics inspired circuits that exhibit fidelity and flexibility of biological synapses, optically-stimulated synaptic devices without a need to apply polarity-altering electric field are needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201900966DOI Listing

Biochemical and structural characterization of XoxG and XoxJ and their roles in activity of the lanthanide-dependent methanol dehydrogenase, XoxF.

Chembiochem 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Pennsylvania State University, Chemistry, 220 Chemistry Building, Penn State University, 16802, University Park, UNITED STATES.

Lanthanide (Ln)-dependent methanol dehydrogenases (MDHs) have been recently shown to be widespread in methylotrophic bacteria. Along with the core MDH protein, XoxF, these systems comprise two other proteins, XoxG (a c-type cytochrome) and XoxJ (a periplasmic binding protein of unknown function), about which little is known. Here, we biochemically and structurally characterize these proteins from the methyltroph, Methylobacterium extorquens AM1. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cbic.2019001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.201900184DOI Listing
April 2019
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Optimization of the Protocol for Cryopreservation of Arabian Stallion Spermatozoa: Effects of Centrifugation, Semen Extenders and Cryoprotectants.

Cryo Letters 2019 Mar/Apr;40(2):129-138

Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Background: Cryopreservation of Arabian stallion semen is important in order to improve the function and fertility of frozen/thawed semen in this breed.

Objective: To investigate the effects of centrifugation, type of semen extenders, and type of cryoprotectants on the quality of frozen/thawed Arabian stallion spermatozoa.

Materials And Methods: Semen samples collected from four adult Arabian stallions (one ejaculate per week for 10 consecutive weeks) were either processed directly without centrifugation (no centrifugation; NC) or subjected to centrifugation on the gel-free fraction. Read More

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Effect of Tris-egg Yolk, Soya Milk, and Liposome-based Extenders on Sahiwal (Bos indicus) Sperm Quality during Pre- and Post-Cryopreservation Stages.

Cryo Letters 2019 Mar/Apr;40(2):94-102

Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001 (Haryana) India.

Background: Even though there are plenty of semen cryopreservation extenders available, their adoption is limited. Although normal tris-based egg yolk (EYC) extender is widely used, it leads to compromised post-thaw sperm quality.

Objective: To find a standard semen extender, six different semen extenders were validated. Read More

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How will clinical practice be impacted by artificial intelligence?

Authors:
Jacques Biot

Eur J Dermatol 2019 Apr;29(S1):8-10

École des Mînes, 60, boulevard Saint-Michel, 75006 Paris, France.

Currently, artificial intelligence (AI) heavily impacts all human activities, including medicine, where needs for data analysis and interpretation are high and where technology opens new perspectives. Considering that current treatments do not always cure all patients and may even harm certain of them, we have to recognize that AI may fill a great medical need, potentially supporting physicians' efforts to refine diagnosis and to improve the relevance of the clinical diagnosis for each patient. As in other industries, this challenge implies changes in the repartition of medical and paramedical tasks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/ejd.2019.3536DOI Listing

Computational neural network in melanocytic lesions diagnosis: artificial intelligence to improve diagnosis in dermatology?

Eur J Dermatol 2019 Apr;29(S1):4-7

Facolta di Medicina et Chirugia, UNIMORE Iniversita Degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Diagnosis in dermatology is largely based on contextual factors going far beyond the visual and dermoscopic inspection of a lesion. Diagnostic tools such as the different types of dermoscopy, confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are available and all of these have shown their importance in improving the dermatologist's ability, especially in the diagnosis of skin cancer. Their use, however, remains limited and time consuming, and optimizing their practice appears to be difficult, requiring extensive pre-processing, lesion segmentation and extraction of domain-specific visual features before classification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/ejd.2019.3538DOI Listing

FifoBots: Foldable Soft Robots for Flipping Locomotion.

Soft Robot 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Research Institute of Robotics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

In this work, we design a type of soft robots for flipping locomotion, called the FifoBots. Different from most of the current soft robots that perform crawling, rolling, or jumping locomotion, the proposed FifoBots can flip forward and backward like a piece of self-foldable paper. The FifoBots have simple actuation and avoid complicated balance control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/soro.2018.0103DOI Listing

Rare plant species do not occupy water-remote refuges in arid environments subject to livestock grazing.

Ecol Appl 2019 Apr 24:e01911. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, 4072, Queensland, Australia.

In many of the world's arid regions there has been a dramatic increase in grazing pressure with herds of livestock sustained by the provision of artificial water points. In these systems it has been suggested that grazing-sensitive plant species will have contracted to refuges distant from water points where grazing impacts are low. This association was tested using a large dataset of presence-absence records for rare plant species throughout the north-eastern Australian arid zone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eap.1911DOI Listing

Using informatics to improve healthcare quality.

Authors:
Ahmed Otokiti

Int J Health Care Qual Assur 2019 Mar;32(2):425-430

Harlem Hospital Center, New York, New York, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into contemporary challenges associated with applying informatics and big data to healthcare quality improvement.

Design/methodology/approach: This paper is a narrative literature review.

Findings: Informatics serve as a bridge between big data and its applications, which include artificial intelligence, predictive analytics and point-of-care clinical decision making. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJHCQA-03-2018-0062DOI Listing

Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate aggravates inflammatory response via sirtuin regulation and inflammasome activation in RAW 264.7 cells.

Chem Res Toxicol 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Artificial environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exert public health concerns. Exposure to EDCs may induce various disorders in the cardiometabolic system. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.9b00101DOI Listing

[Review of studies on the application of biomechanical factors in the evaluation of glaucoma].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2019 Apr;36(2):315-319

Beijing Key Laboratory of Fundamental Research on Biomechanics in Clinical Application, Beijing 100069, P.R.China;School of Biomedical Engineering, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, P.R.China.

There are so many biomechanical risk factors related with glaucoma and their relationship is much complex. This paper reviewed the state-of-the-art research works on glaucoma related mechanical effects. With regards to the development perspectives of studies on glaucoma biomechanics, a completely novel biomechanical evaluation factor -- Fractional Flow Reserve (FPR) for glaucoma was proposed, and developing clinical application oriented glaucoma risk assessment algorithm and application system by using the new techniques such as artificial intelligence and machine learning were suggested. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.201809058DOI Listing

Artificial Intelligence in Diabetic Eye Disease Screening.

Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore.

Systematic or national screening programs for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME), using digital fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (OCT), are currently implemented at primary care level, aiming to provide timely referral for vision-threatening DR and DME to ophthalmologists for timely treatment and vision loss prevention. However, interpretation of retinal images requires specialized knowledge and expertise in diabetic eye disease. Furthermore, current DR screening programs are capital- and labor-intensive, which makes it difficult to rapidly scale up and expand diabetic eye screening to meet the needs of this growing global epidemic. Read More

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http://www.apjo.org/Apjo/pdf/id/655.html
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22608/APO.201976DOI Listing
April 2019
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Agar plate-based screening methods for the identification of polyester hydrolysis by Pseudomonas species.

Microb Biotechnol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Institute of Molecular Enzyme Technology, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425, Jülich, Germany.

Hydrolases acting on polyesters like cutin, polycaprolactone or polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are of interest for several biotechnological applications like waste treatment, biocatalysis and sustainable polymer modifications. Recent studies suggest that a large variety of such enzymes are still to be identified and explored in a variety of microorganisms, including bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. For activity-based screening, methods have been established using agar plates which contain nanoparticles of polycaprolactone or PET prepared by solvent precipitation and evaporation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13418DOI Listing

The Use of Serinol Nucleic Acids as Ultrasensitive Molecular Beacons.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1973:261-279

Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.

Molecular beacons composed of the artificial serinol nucleic acid (SNA) have demonstrated utility as novel fluorescence probes for visualization of RNA in fixed cells using both conventional fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and wash-free FISH protocols. The SNA molecular beacons have higher affinity for target RNA and greater sensitivity than molecular beacons composed of DNA. Here we describe facile synthesis of the SNA using a conventional DNA synthesizer and protocols for purification by PAGE and HPLC as well as methods for use of the SNA molecular beacon in FISH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9216-4_17DOI Listing
January 2019

Artificial Nucleosides as Diagnostic Probes to Measure Translesion DNA Synthesis.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1973:237-249

Department of Chemistry, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

The misreplication of damaged DNA, a biological process termed translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), produces a large number of adverse effects on human health. This chapter describes the application of an artificial nucleoside/nucleotide system that functions as a biochemical probe to quantify TLS activity under in vitro and in vivo conditions. For in vitro studies, the artificial nucleotide, 3-ethynyl-5-nitroindolyl-2'-deoxyriboside triphosphate (3-Eth-5-NITP), is used as it is efficiently inserted opposite an abasic site, a highly pro-mutagenic DNA lesion produced by several types of DNA-damaging agents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9216-4_15DOI Listing
January 2019

Deep learning for liver tumor diagnosis part I: development of a convolutional neural network classifier for multi-phasic MRI.

Eur Radiol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.

Objectives: To develop and validate a proof-of-concept convolutional neural network (CNN)-based deep learning system (DLS) that classifies common hepatic lesions on multi-phasic MRI.

Methods: A custom CNN was engineered by iteratively optimizing the network architecture and training cases, finally consisting of three convolutional layers with associated rectified linear units, two maximum pooling layers, and two fully connected layers. Four hundred ninety-four hepatic lesions with typical imaging features from six categories were utilized, divided into training (n = 434) and test (n = 60) sets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-019-06205-9DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Gender-dependent impact of aging on facial proportions.

J Orofac Orthop 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany.

Purpose: Facial proportions in younger people have been evaluated in several studies. However, the number of older people who need orthognathic surgery is growing steadily. The aim of this study was to evaluate facial morphology in Caucasians accounting for age and gender. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00056-019-00176-8DOI Listing

Reporting cell planning-based cellular mobility management using a Binary Artificial Bat algorithm.

Heliyon 2019 Mar 7;5(3):e01276. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India.

This paper attempts to present a novel application of Binary Artificial Bat algorithm for more effective location management in cellular networks. The location management is a mobility management task, which involves tracking of the mobile stations to locate their exact positions so that an incoming call or data can be routed to the intended mobile user. The location management cost comprises of the costs incurred by two processes, namely location registration and location search. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6475638PMC

A polyaromatic receptor with high androgen affinity.

Sci Adv 2019 Apr 19;5(4):eaav3179. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Laboratory for Chemistry and Life Science, Institute of Innovative Research, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503, Japan.

Biological receptors distinguish and bind steroid sex hormones, e.g., androgen-, progestogen-, and estrogen-type hormones, with high selectivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aav3179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6474769PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Artificial sgRNAs engineered for genome editing with new Cas12b orthologs.

Cell Discov 2019 23;5:23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

1State Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-019-0091-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6476878PMC

Switching transcription with bacterial RNA polymerase through photocaging, photorelease and phosphorylation reactions in the major groove of DNA.

Chem Sci 2019 Apr 4;10(14):3937-3942. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry , Czech Academy of Sciences , Flemingovo nam. 2 , 16610 Prague 6 , Czech Republic . Email:

We report proof of principle biomimetic switching of transcription through non-natural chemical reactions in the major groove of DNA templates. Photocaged DNA templates containing nitrobenzyl-protected 5-hydroxymethyluracil or - cytosine permitted no transcription with RNA polymerase (OFF state). Their irradiation with 400 nm light resulted in DNA templates containing hydroxymethylpyrimidines, which switched transcription ON with a higher yield (250-350%) compared to non-modified DNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9sc00205gDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457204PMC

Artificial intelligence in healthcare.

Nat Biomed Eng 2018 Oct 10;2(10):719-731. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is gradually changing medical practice. With recent progress in digitized data acquisition, machine learning and computing infrastructure, AI applications are expanding into areas that were previously thought to be only the province of human experts. In this Review Article, we outline recent breakthroughs in AI technologies and their biomedical applications, identify the challenges for further progress in medical AI systems, and summarize the economic, legal and social implications of AI in healthcare. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41551-018-0305-zDOI Listing
October 2018

Gut bacteria of the cowpea beetle mediate its resistance to dichlorvos and susceptibility to Lippia adoensis essential oil.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 23;9(1):6435. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundere, P.O Box 454, Ngaoundere, Cameroon.

Bacteria inhabiting the gut of insects provide many benefits to their hosts, such as aiding in food digestion, reproduction, and immunity, tissue homeostasis, adaptation to environment and resistance to pathogen and pesticides. The cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, is a serious cosmopolitan pest of pulses. This beetle has lent itself as a guinea pig for several ecological studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42843-1DOI Listing

Binary tree-inspired digital dendrimer.

Nat Commun 2019 Apr 23;10(1):1918. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, 215123, Suzhou, China.

Digital polymers with precisely ordered units acting as the coded 0- or 1-bit, are introduced as a promising option for molecular data storage. However, the pursuit of better performance in terms of high storage capacity and useful functions never stops. Herein, we propose a concept of an information-coded 2D digital dendrimer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09957-6DOI Listing

Multi-level chirality in liquid crystals formed by achiral molecules.

Nat Commun 2019 Apr 23;10(1):1922. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Żwirki i Wigury 101, 02-089, Warsaw, Poland.

Complex materials often exhibit a hierarchical structure with an intriguing mechanism responsible for the 'propagation' of order from the molecular to the nano- or micro-scale level. In particular, the chirality of biological molecules such as nucleic acids and amino acids is responsible for the helical structure of DNA and proteins, which in turn leads to the lack of mirror symmetry of macro-bio-objects. To fully understand mechanisms of cross-level order transfer there is an intensive search for simpler artificial structures exhibiting hierarchical arrangement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09862-yDOI Listing

Dramatic differences in carbon dioxide adsorption and initial steps of reduction between silver and copper.

Nat Commun 2019 Apr 23;10(1):1875. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA.

Converting carbon dioxide (CO) into liquid fuels and synthesis gas is a world-wide priority. But there is no experimental information on the initial atomic level events for CO electroreduction on the metal catalysts to provide the basis for developing improved catalysts. Here we combine ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with quantum mechanics to examine the processes as Ag is exposed to CO both alone and in the presence of HO at 298 K. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09846-yDOI Listing

Ultrafast charge transfer coupled with lattice phonons in two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks.

Nat Commun 2019 Apr 23;10(1):1873. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea.

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have emerged as a promising light-harvesting module for artificial photosynthesis and photovoltaics. For efficient generation of free charge carriers, the donor-acceptor (D-A) conjugation has been adopted for two-dimensional (2D) COFs recently. In the 2D D-A COFs, photoexcitation would generate a polaron pair, which is a precursor to free charge carriers and has lower binding energy than an exciton. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09872-wDOI Listing

Artificial cell membrane binding thrombin constructs drive in situ fibrin hydrogel formation.

Nat Commun 2019 Apr 23;10(1):1887. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TD, UK.

Cell membrane re-engineering is emerging as a powerful tool for the development of next generation cell therapies, as it allows the user to augment therapeutic cells to provide additional functionalities, such as homing, adhesion or hypoxia resistance. To date, however, there are few examples where the plasma membrane is re-engineered to display active enzymes that promote extracellular matrix protein assembly. Here, we report on a self-contained matrix-forming system where the membrane of human mesenchymal stem cells is modified to display a novel thrombin construct, giving rise to spontaneous fibrin hydrogel nucleation and growth at near human plasma concentrations of fibrinogen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09763-0DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The nucleosomes that mark centromere location on chromosomes old and new.

Essays Biochem 2019 Apr 23;63(1):15-27. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Graduate Program in Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, and Epigenetics Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, U.S.A.

Proper segregation of chromosomes is an essential component of cell division. The centromere is the locus at which the kinetochore-the proteinaceous complex that ties chromosomes to microtubules-forms during mitosis and meiosis. Thus, the centromere is critical for equal segregation of chromosomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/EBC20180060DOI Listing

A parsimonious 3-gene signature predicts clinical outcomes in an acute myeloid leukemia multicohort study.

Blood Adv 2019 Apr;3(8):1330-1346

John van Geest Cancer Research Centre, College of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a genetically heterogeneous hematological malignancy with variable responses to chemotherapy. Although recurring cytogenetic abnormalities and gene mutations are important predictors of outcome, 50% to 70% of AMLs harbor normal or risk-indeterminate karyotypes. Therefore, identifying more effective biomarkers predictive of treatment success and failure is essential for informing tailored therapeutic decisions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2018030726DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Rapid advances in auto-segmentation of organs at risk and target volumes in head and neck cancer.

Radiother Oncol 2019 Mar 22;135:130-140. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, UK; NIHR University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, UK. Electronic address:

Advances in technical radiotherapy have resulted in significant sparing of organs at risk (OARs), reducing radiation-related toxicities for patients with cancer of the head and neck (HNC). Accurate delineation of target volumes (TVs) and OARs is critical for maximising tumour control and minimising radiation toxicities. When performed manually, variability in TV and OAR delineation has been shown to have significant dosimetric impacts for patients on treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2019.03.004DOI Listing

MRI-only brain radiotherapy: Assessing the dosimetric accuracy of synthetic CT images generated using a deep learning approach.

Radiother Oncol 2019 Apr 11;136:56-63. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Medical Artificial Intelligence and Automation Laboratory, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, United States. Electronic address:

Purpose: This study assessed the dosimetric accuracy of synthetic CT images generated from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data for focal brain radiation therapy, using a deep learning approach.

Material And Methods: We conducted a study in 77 patients with brain tumors who had undergone both MRI and computed tomography (CT) imaging as part of their simulation for external beam treatment planning. We designed a generative adversarial network (GAN) to generate synthetic CT images from MRI images. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2019.03.026DOI Listing

DynMat, a network that can learn after learning.

Authors:
Jung Hoon Lee

Neural Netw 2019 Apr 8;116:88-100. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Allen Institute for Brain Science, 615 Westlake Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. Electronic address:

To survive in the dynamically-evolving world, we accumulate knowledge and improve our skills based on experience. In the process, gaining new knowledge does not disrupt our vigilance to external stimuli. In other words, our learning process is 'accumulative' and 'online' without interruption. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2019.04.005DOI Listing

Network Medicine In Pathobiology.

Am J Pathol 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115. Electronic address:

The past decade has witnessed exponential growth in the generation of high-throughput human data across almost all known dimensions of biological systems. The discipline of network medicine has rapidly evolved in parallel, providing an unbiased, comprehensive biological framework through which to interrogate and integrate systematically these large-scale multi-omic data in order to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and to design drugs that reflect a deep knowledge of molecular pathobiology. In this review, we discuss the key principles of network medicine and the human disease network, and explore the latest applications of network medicine in this multi-omic era. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2019.03.009DOI Listing

Demystifying the Jargon: The Bridge between Ophthalmology and Artificial Intelligence.

Ophthalmol Retina 2019 Apr;3(4):291-293

Department of Medical Informatics and Clinical Epidemiology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon.; Department of Ophthalmology, Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon.. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oret.2018.12.008DOI Listing

Commentary: Technology to make the invisible "visible": Novel optical visualization system for off-pump artificial chordae implantation.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, MedStar Heart and Vascular Institute, Georgetown University, Washington, DC. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2019.03.032DOI Listing

[An Overview of the Application of Artificial Neural Networks in Lung Cancer Research].

Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi 2019 Apr;22(4):245-249

Department of Thoracic Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Lung cancer is the most common and fatal tumor in the world with limited diagnostic and treatment methods. The development of precision medicine has brought new opportunities for the improvement of diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. However, various kinds of information required by precision medicine (such as biometrics, clinical test indicators and non-biological environmental background information) are difficult for clinicians to integrate and utilize effectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2019.04.08DOI Listing

Intelligently learning from data.

Crit Care 2019 Apr 24;23(1):136. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Bloomsbury Institute of Intensive Care Medicine, University College London, London, UK.

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https://ccforum.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13054-01
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-019-2424-7DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

TransLiG: a de novo transcriptome assembler that uses line graph iteration.

Genome Biol 2019 Apr 23;20(1):81. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

School of Mathematics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, China.

We present TransLiG, a new de novo transcriptome assembler, which is able to integrate the sequence depth and pair-end information into the assembling procedure by phasing paths and iteratively constructing line graphs starting from splicing graphs. TransLiG is shown to be significantly superior to all the salient de novo assemblers in both accuracy and computing resources when tested on artificial and real RNA-seq data. TransLiG is freely available at https://sourceforge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-019-1690-7DOI Listing

Inside the Scrambler Therapy, a Noninvasive Treatment of Chronic Neuropathic and Cancer Pain: From the Gate Control Theory to the Active Principle of Information.

Authors:
Giuseppe Marineo

Integr Cancer Ther 2019 Jan-Dec;18:1534735419845143

1 University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Scrambler therapy (ST) is an electro-analgesia therapy for the noninvasive treatment of chronic neuropathic and cancer pain based on a new generation of medical device that uses 5 artificial neurons and is based on a novel theoretical model the differs from gate control theory. The active principle with Scrambler Therapy is such that synthetic "non-pain" information is transmitted by C fiber surface receptors. This is a different theoretical mechanism than the traditional electric stimulation of A-Beta fibers to produce paresthesia and/or block the conduction of nerve fibers to produce an analgesic effect, that is, via TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) machines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534735419845143DOI Listing

Remote Control of Greenhouse Vegetable Production with Artificial Intelligence-Greenhouse Climate, Irrigation, and Crop Production.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Apr 16;19(8). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Wageningen University & Research, Business Unit Greenhouse Horticulture, 6708PB Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The global population is increasing rapidly, together with the demand for healthy fresh food. The greenhouse industry can play an important role, but encounters difficulties finding skilled staff to manage crop production. Artificial intelligence (AI) has reached breakthroughs in several areas, however, not yet in horticulture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19081807DOI Listing

A Wavelet Scattering Feature Extraction Approach for Deep Neural Network Based Indoor Fingerprinting Localization.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Apr 14;19(8). Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon 16499, Korea.

The performance of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based algorithm is subject to the way the feature data is extracted. This is a common issue when applying the ANN to indoor fingerprinting-based localization where the signal is unstable. To date, there is not adequate feature extraction method that can significantly mitigate the influence of the receiver signal strength indicator (RSSI) variation that degrades the performance of the ANN-based indoor fingerprinting algorithm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19081790DOI Listing

A Neuroevolutionary Approach to Controlling Traffic Signals Based on Data from Sensor Network.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Apr 13;19(8). Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Institute of Innovative Technologies EMAG, 40-189 Katowice, Poland.

The paper introduces an artificial neural network ensemble for decentralized control of traffic signals based on data from sensor network. According to the decentralized approach, traffic signals at each intersection are controlled independently using real-time data obtained from sensor nodes installed along traffic lanes. In the proposed ensemble, a neural network, which reflects design of signalized intersection, is combined with fully connected neural networks to enable evaluation of signal group priorities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19081776DOI Listing

Prediction and Decision-Making in Intelligent Environments Supported by Knowledge Graphs, A Systematic Review.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Apr 13;19(8). Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Expert Systems and Applications Lab, Faculty of Science, University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain.

Ambient Intelligence is currently a lively application domain of Artificial Intelligence and has become the central subject of multiple initiatives worldwide. Several approaches inside this domain make use of knowledge bases or knowledge graphs, both previously existing and ad hoc. This form of representation allows heterogeneous data gathered from diverse sources to be contextualized and combined to create relevant information for intelligent systems, usually following higher level constraints defined by an ontology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19081774DOI Listing

Evaluation of the Release Kinetics of a Pharmacologically Active Substance from Model Intra-Articular Implants Replacing the Cruciate Ligaments of the Knee.

Materials (Basel) 2019 Apr 12;12(8). Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, ul. Borowska 211A, 55-556 Wroclaw, Poland.

Implants are readily applied as a convenient method of therapy. There is great interest in the prolonged release of active substances from implants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the dissolution kinetics of steroidal anti-inflammatory preparation (SAP) released from novel implants, and to test the influence of the technology on SAP release kinetics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12081202DOI Listing

Data-Driven Interaction Review of an Ed-Tech Application.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Apr 22;19(8). Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of the Computer Science, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganés 28911, Spain.

Smile and Learn is an Ed-Tech company that runs a smart library with more that100 applications, games and interactive stories, aimed at children aged two to 10 and their families.The platform gathers thousands of data points from the interaction with the system to subsequentlyoffer reports and recommendations. Given the complexity of navigating all the content, the libraryimplements a recommender system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19081910DOI Listing

Use of Basalt Fiber-Reinforced Tailings for Improving the Stability of Tailings Dam.

Materials (Basel) 2019 Apr 22;12(8). Epub 2019 Apr 22.

State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China.

As one of the largest artificial geotechnical structures on earth, the tailings dams are classified as one of the high-risk sources in China's industry. How to improve the stability and safety of tailings dams remains a challenge for mine operators currently. In this paper, an innovative method is presented for improving the stability of tailings dams, in which the basalt fiber is used to reinforce tailings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12081306DOI Listing

Risk Factors for Seroprevalence in Peri-Urban Dairy Farms in Five Indian Cities.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2019 Apr 22;4(2). Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Public Health Foundation India, Gurgaon 122002, India.

Brucellosis is endemic among dairy animals in India, contributing to production losses and posing a health risk to people, especially farmers and others in close contact with dairy animals or their products. Growing urban populations demand increased milk supplies, resulting in intensifying dairy production at the peri-urban fringe. Peri-urban dairying is under-studied but has implications for disease transmission, both positive and negative. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4020070DOI Listing

Millisecond Response of Shape Memory Polymer Nanocomposite Aerogel Powered by Stretchable Graphene Framework.

ACS Nano 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Shape memory polymers (SMPs) change shapes as-designed through altering the chain segment movement by external stimuli, promising wide uses in actuator, sensor, drug delivery, deployable devices. However, the recovery speed of SMPs is still far slower than the benchmark shape memory alloys (SMAs), originating from their intrinsic poor heat transport and retarded viscoelasticity of polymer chains. In this work, monolithic nanocomposite aerogels composed of bi-continuous graphene and SMP networks are designed to promote the recovery time of SMP composites to a record value of 50 milliseconds, comparable to SMA case. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.9b00428DOI Listing