407,747 results match your criteria Artificial Cells Blood Substitutes And Biotechnology[Journal]

Mixed aortic stenosis and regurgitation: a clinical conundrum.

Heart 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Division of Cardiology, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Mixed aortic stenosis (AS) and aortic regurgitation (AR) is the most frequent concomitant valve disease worldwide and represents a heterogeneous population ranging from mild AS with severe AR to mild AR with severe AS. About 6.8% of patients with at least moderate AS will also have moderate or greater AR, and 17. Read More

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Developing and Implementing Predictive Models in a Learning Healthcare System: Traditional and Artificial Intelligence Approaches in the Veterans Health Administration.

Annu Rev Biomed Data Sci 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Office of Discovery, Education and Affiliate Networks, Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC, USA.

Predicting clinical risk is an important part of healthcare and can inform decisions about treatments, preventive interventions, and provision of extra services. The field of predictive models has been revolutionized over the past two decades by electronic health record data; the ability to link such data with other demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic information; the availability of high-capacity computing; and new machine learning and artificial intelligence methods for extracting insights from complex datasets. These advances have produced a new generation of computerized predictive models, but debate continues about their development, reporting, validation, evaluation, and implementation. Read More

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Consequences of artificial light at night on behavior, reproduction, and development of Lymnaea stagnalis.

Environ Pollut 2022 May 21:119507. Epub 2022 May 21.

Department of Ecological Science, Faculty of Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Light is an important zeitgeber that regulates many behavioral and physiological processes in animals. These processes may become disturbed due to the changes in natural patterns of light and dark via the introduction of artificial light at night (ALAN). The present study was designed to determine the effect of possible consequences of ALAN on reproduction, hatching success, developmental success, growth rate, feeding rate, mortality rate, and locomotor activity of the simultaneous hermaphrodite pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Read More

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Evaluating the performance of multilayer perceptron algorithm for tuberculosis disease Raman data.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2022 May 21:102924. Epub 2022 May 21.

Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar, Pakistan. Electronic address:

In spite of the massive developments in various molecular approaches, the world is still facing major challenges in diagnosing infectious diseases triggered by bacteria. Identification of such causative pathogens at an earlier stage and with an acceptable degree of sensitivity and specificity play major role in initiating proper treatment. In this study the performance of multilayer perceptron (MLP) algorithm on the Raman Spectroscopic data of tuberculosis disease have been evaluated. Read More

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Orientation-dependent micromechanical behavior of nacre: in situ TEM experiments and finite element simulations.

Acta Biomater 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

Chair of Solid Mechanics, University of Wuppertal, 42119 Wuppertal, Germany; Wuppertal Center for Smart Materials & Systems, University of Wuppertal, 42119 Wuppertal, Germany. Electronic address:

Nacre's superior mechanical properties and failure behavior strongly depend on orientation due to its brick-and-mortar microstructure. In this work, the anisotropic microscopic deformation and the resulting macroscopic mechanical properties are evaluated under different loading conditions. Our in situ transmission electron microscopy deformation experiments and finite element simulations reveal that nacre possesses enhanced indentation resistance along the direction normal to the tablets through delocalization of indentation-induced deformation by taking advantage of its layered structure. Read More

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The effect of glucagon on local subcutaneous blood flow in non-diabetic volunteers; a proof-of-concept study.

Eur J Pharmacol 2022 May 21:175045. Epub 2022 May 21.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway; Department of Endocrinology, St Olav's Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.

Introduction: Glucagon and insulin are the two most important hormones for glucose metabolism and have been incorporated in the dual-hormonal artificial pancreas, a device for automated glucose regulation for people with diabetes type 1. Currently the subcutis is the preferred site of hormone delivery for insulin-only as well as dual-hormonal artificial pancreas systems. The delay in glucose-lowering effect after subcutaneous injection of insulin is substantial, in contrast to the elevation of blood glucose values after subcutaneously injected glucagon which is occurs shortly after injection. Read More

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Rapid fabrication of tendon-like collagen tissue via simultaneous fibre alignment and intermolecular cross-linking under mechanical loading.

Biomed Mater 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Biomechanics Laboratory, Dept of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Nagoya University Graduate School of Engineering School of Engineering, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8603, JAPAN.

Artificial tissue replacement is a promising strategy for better healing outcomes for tendon and ligament injuries, due to the very limited self-regeneration capacity of these tissues in mammals, including humans. Because clinically available synthetic and biological scaffolds for tendon repair have performed more poorly than autografts, both biological and mechanical compatibility need to be improved. Here we propose a rapid fabrication method for tendon-like structure from collagen hydrogel, simultaneously achieving collagen fibre alignment and intermolecular cross-linking. Read More

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Protein language-model embeddings for fast, accurate, and alignment-free protein structure prediction.

Structure 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

TUM (Technical University of Munich), Department of Informatics, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology - i12, Boltzmannstr. 3, 85748 Garching/Munich, Germany; Institute for Advanced Study (TUM-IAS), Lichtenbergstr. 2a, 85748 Garching/Munich, Germany & TUM School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan (WZW), Alte Akademie 8, Freising, Germany.

Advanced protein structure prediction requires evolutionary information from multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) from evolutionary couplings that are not always available. Artificial intelligence (AI)-based predictions inputting only single sequences are faster but so inaccurate as to render speed irrelevant. Here, we described a competitive prediction of inter-residue distances (2D structure) exclusively inputting embeddings from pre-trained protein language models (pLMs), namely ProtT5, from single sequences into a convolutional neural network (CNN) with relatively few layers. Read More

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A neural network-based algorithm for simultaneous event positioning and timestamping in monolithic scintillators.

Phys Med Biol 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo, 3, Pisa, 56126, ITALY.

Objective Monolithic scintillator crystals coupled to silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays are promising detectors for PET applications, offering spatial resolution around 1 mm and depth-of-interaction information. However, their timing resolution has always been inferior to that of pixellated crystals, while the best results on spatial resolution have been obtained with algorithms that cannot operate in real-time in a PET detector. In this study, we explore the capabilities of monolithic crystals with respect to spatial and timing resolution, presenting new algorithms that overcome the mentioned problems. Read More

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Improving the spatial resolution of artificial vision using midget retinal ganglion cell populations modelled at the human fovea.

J Neural Eng 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, 2052, AUSTRALIA.

Objective: Retinal prostheses seek to create artificial vision by stimulating surviving retinal neurons of patients with profound vision impairment. Notwithstanding tremendous research efforts, the performance of all implants tested to date has remained rudimentary, incapable of overcoming the threshold for legal blindness. To maximize the perceptual efficacy of retinal prostheses, a device must be capable of controlling retinal neurons with greater spatiotemporal precision. Read More

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Artificial intelligence for prediction of treatment outcomes in breast cancer: Systematic review of design, reporting standards, and bias.

Cancer Treat Rev 2022 May 19;108:102410. Epub 2022 May 19.

Division of New Drugs and Early Drug Development for Innovative Therapies, European Institute of Oncology, IRCCS, Milan, Italy; Department of Oncology and Haematology (DIPO), University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Background: Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to personalize treatment strategies for patients with cancer. However, current methodological weaknesses could limit clinical impact. We identified common limitations and suggested potential solutions to facilitate translation of AI to breast cancer management. Read More

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Novel TB smear microscopy automation system in detecting acid-fast bacilli for tuberculosis - A multi-center double blind study.

Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2022 May 18;135:102212. Epub 2022 May 18.

Graduate Institute of Human Resource and Knowledge Management, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Due to COVID-19 pandemic, there is a large global drop in the number of newly diagnosed cases with tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. Actions to mitigate and reverse the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on TB are urgently needed. Recent development of TB smear microscopy automation systems using artificial intelligence may increase the sensitivity of TB smear microscopy. Read More

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Development of molecularly imprinted polymer based phase boundaries for sensors design (review).

Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2022 May 8;305:102693. Epub 2022 May 8.

Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Geosciences, Institute of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius, Lithuania. Electronic address:

Achievements in polymer chemistry enables to design artificial phase boundaries modified by imprints of selected molecules and some larger structures. These structures seem very useful for the design of new materials suitable for affinity chromatography and sensors. In this review, we are overviewing the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) and the applicability of these MIPs in the design of affinity sensors. Read More

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Probing 1D convolutional neural network adapted to near-infrared spectroscopy for efficient classification of mixed fish.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2022 May 16;279:121350. Epub 2022 May 16.

College of Artificial Intelligence, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, China.

Salmon and Cod are economically significant world-class fish that have high economic value. It is difficult to accurately sort and process them by appearance during harvest and transportation. Conventional chemical detection means are time-consuming and costly, which greatly affects the cost and efficiency of Fishery production. Read More

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Automatic characterization of human embryos at day 4 post-insemination from time-lapse imaging using supervised contrastive learning and inductive transfer learning techniques.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2022 May 16;221:106895. Epub 2022 May 16.

Instituto de Investigación e Innovación en Bioingeniería, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, 46022, Spain.

Background: Embryo morphology is a predictive marker for implantation success and ultimately live births. Viability evaluation and quality grading are commonly used to select the embryo with the highest implantation potential. However, the traditional method of manual embryo assessment is time-consuming and highly susceptible to inter- and intra-observer variability. Read More

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CAM-Wnet: an effective solution for accurate pulmonary embolism segmentation.

Med Phys 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029.

Background: The morbidity of Pulmonary Embolism (PE) is only lower than that of coronary heart disease and hypertension. Early detection, early diagnosis and timely treatment are the keys to effectively reduce the risk of death. Nevertheless, PE segmentation is still a challenging task at present. Read More

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Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength Between Denture Teeth and 3D-Printed Denture Base Resin.

J Prosthodont 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Associate Professor, Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Araraquara Dental School, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength between two types of artificial teeth with a 3D-printed denture base resin using different bonding agents.

Materials & Methods: Two types of artificial teeth were evaluated: 3D-printed (Cosmos TEMP) and prefabricated polymethylmethacrylate (Biotone) bonded to cylinders (2.5 mm in height and 5 mm in diameter) of 3D-printed denture bases (Cosmos Denture designing by Meshmixer and printed by Flashforge Hunter DLP Resin 3D Printer). Read More

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Nitrogen and potassium application effects on productivity, profitability and nutrient use efficiency of irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

PLoS One 2022 24;17(5):e0264210. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The development of robust nutrient management strategies have played a crucial role in improving crop productivity, profitability and nutrient use efficiency. Therefore, the implementation of efficient nutrient management stratigies is important for food security and environmental safety. Amongst the essential plant nutrients, managing nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Read More

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Targeted therapies in non-small cell lung cancer and the potential role of AI interventions in cancer treatment.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India.

Non-small cell lung cancer is the most prevalent lung cancer, and almost three-fourths of patients are diagnosed in the advanced stage directly. In this stage, chemotherapy gives only a 15% five-year survival rate. Since people have varied symptoms and reactions to a specific cancer type, treatment for that tumor is likely to fall short, complicating cancer therapy. Read More

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Detection and Classification of Bacterial Cells After Centrifugation and Filtration of Liquid Specimens Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy.

Appl Spectrosc 2022 May 24:37028221092789. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Physics, 8637University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, Canada.

Five species of bacteria including , , , , and were deposited from suspensions of various titers onto disposable nitrocellulose filter media for analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Bacteria were concentrated and isolated in the center of the filter media during centrifugation using a simple and convenient sample preparation step. Summing all the single-shot LIBS spectra acquired from a given bacterial deposition provided perfectly sensitive and specific discrimination from sterile water control specimens in a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Read More

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Self-Healable, Highly Stretchable, Ionic Conducting Polymers as Efficient Protecting Layers for Stable Lithium-Metal Electrodes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830, United States.

Although numerous studies on polymeric protective films to stabilize lithium (Li)-metal electrodes have been reported, the construction of self-healing polymers that enables the long-term operation of Li-metal batteries (LMBs) at relatively low temperatures has rarely been demonstrated. Herein, a highly stretchable, autonomous self-healable, and ionic-conducting polymer network (SHIPN) is synthesized as an efficient protective film for LMBs. The network backbone, synthesized from copolymerization of poly(ethylene glycol)-mono-methacrylate (PEGMMA) and 2-[[(butylamino)carbonyl]oxy]ethyl acrylate (BCOE), is chemically cross-linked via diisocyanate. Read More

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Identifying Cases of Shoulder Injury Related to Vaccine Administration (SIRVA) in the United States: Development and Validation of a Natural Language Processing Method.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2022 May 24;8(5):e30426. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, CA, United States.

Background: Shoulder injury related to vaccine administration (SIRVA) accounts for more than half of all claims received by the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. However, due to the difficulty of finding SIRVA cases in large health care databases, population-based studies are scarce.

Objective: The goal of the research was to develop a natural language processing (NLP) method to identify SIRVA cases from clinical notes. Read More

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Detecting total hip arthroplasty dislocations using deep learning: clinical and Internet validation.

Emerg Radiol 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

University of Maryland Medical Intelligent Imaging (UM2ii) Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland, University of Maryland School of Medicine, MD, Baltimore, USA.

Objective: Periprosthetic dislocations of total hip arthroplasty (THA) are time-sensitive injuries, as the longer diagnosis and treatment are delayed, the more difficult they are to reduce. Automated triage of radiographs with dislocations could help reduce these delays. We trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for the detection of THA dislocations, and evaluated their generalizability by evaluating them on external datasets. Read More

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Modulation of Neuronal Activity and Saccades at Theta Rhythm During Visual Search in Non-human Primates.

Neurosci Bull 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

The Brain Cognition and Brain Disease Institute, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen-Hong Kong Institute of Brain Science-Shenzhen Fundamental Research Institutions, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Active exploratory behaviors have often been associated with theta oscillations in rodents, while theta oscillations during active exploration in non-human primates are still not well understood. We recorded neural activities in the frontal eye field (FEF) and V4 simultaneously when monkeys performed a free-gaze visual search task. Saccades were strongly phase-locked to theta oscillations of V4 and FEF local field potentials, and the phase-locking was dependent on saccade direction. Read More

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Artificial intelligence-based diagnostics of molar-incisor-hypomineralization (MIH) on intraoral photographs.

Clin Oral Investig 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Goethestraße 70, 80336, Munich, Germany.

Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a deep learning-based convolutional neural network (CNN) for the automated detection and categorization of teeth affected by molar-incisor-hypomineralization (MIH) on intraoral photographs.

Materials And Methods: The data set consisted of 3241 intraoral images (767 teeth with no MIH/no intervention, 76 with no MIH/atypical restoration, 742 with no MIH/sealant, 815 with demarcated opacity/no intervention, 158 with demarcated opacity/atypical restoration, 181 with demarcated opacity/sealant, 290 with enamel breakdown/no intervention, 169 with enamel breakdown/atypical restoration, and 43 with enamel breakdown/sealant). These images were divided into a training (N = 2596) and a test sample (N = 649). Read More

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Inter-rater reliability for assessing intracranial collaterals in patients with acute ischemic stroke: comparing 29 raters and an artificial intelligence-based software.

Neuroradiology 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Doctor Molewaterplein 40, 3015 GD, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Outcome of endovascular treatment in acute ischemic stroke patients is depending on the collateral circulation maintaining blood flow to the ischemic territory. We evaluated the inter-rater reliability and accuracy of raters and an automated algorithm for assessing the collateral score (CS, range: 0-3) in acute ischemic stroke patients.

Methods: Baseline CTA scans with an intracranial anterior occlusion from the MR CLEAN study (n=500) were used. Read More

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Machine-learning-assisted molecular design of phenylnaphthylamine-type antioxidants.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China.

In this study, a total of 302 molecular structures of phenylnaphthylamine antioxidants based on -phenyl-1-naphthylamine and -phenyl-2-naphthylamine skeletons with various substituents were modeled by exhaustive methods. Antioxidant parameters, including the hydrogen dissociation energy, solubility parameter, and binding energy, were calculated through molecular simulations. Then, a group decomposition scheme was determined to decompose 302 antioxidants. Read More

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[Prediction of melting temperatures of wax gelators depending on their component composition].

Vopr Pitan 2022 14;91(2):99-104. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety, 109240, Moscow, Russian Federation.

The study of wax gelators is a new direction with the potential for use in foods for special dietary uses. Waxes of both plant and animal origin, which consist of various combinations of organic compounds: hydrocarbons, wax esters, free fatty acids and free higher alcohols, are among the studied ones. One of the main characteristics of these gelling agents is their melting point, which largely depends on the component composition of the wax. Read More

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Artificial Intelligence Improves Radiologist Performance for Predicting Malignancy at Chest CT.

Radiology 2022 May 24:220571. Epub 2022 May 24.

From the Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamadaoka, 2-2 Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

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