391,349 results match your criteria Arthropoda Selecta[Journal]


Statement on risk mitigation measures on cypermethrin.

Authors:

EFSA J 2019 Oct 4;17(10):e05822. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

In August 2018, EFSA published its conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance cypermethrin on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of cypermethrin as proposed by the applicant and following the guidance document currently available at EU level. In order to verify the possibility to identify a safe use, at recent meetings of the Standing Committee on Plants, Animals, Food and Feed, exposure reduction measures prepared by the rapporteur Member State (RMS) for cypermethrin (BE) were discussed. In July 2019, the European Commission mandated EFSA to identify conditions of use other than those reported in the original conclusion, which are likely to result in an low risk to aquatic organisms, non-target arthropods and bees, considering the risk assessment performed for the representative uses of cypermethrin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7008897PMC
October 2019

Mimicry in Cretaceous Bugs.

iScience 2020 Jun 16;23(7):101280. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Centre for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China; School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Life Sciences Building, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TQ, UK. Electronic address:

Mimicry is ubiquitous in nature, yet understanding its origin and evolution is complicated by the scarcity of exceptional fossils that enable behavioral inferences about extinct animals. Here we report bizarre true bugs (Hemiptera) that closely resemble beetles (Coleoptera) from mid-Cretaceous amber. The unusual fossil bugs are described as Bersta vampirica gen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101280DOI Listing

Molecular Detection of Toxoplasma Gondii in Haemaphysalis Ticks in Korea.

Korean J Parasitol 2020 Jun 26;58(3):327-331. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Arthropods of Medical Importance Resource Bank, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea.

Toxoplasma gondii are intracellular protozoa that can cause neurological disease or death in fetuses and even in immunocompromised human adults. Ticks are recognized as vectors of many microorganisms including viruses, bacteria, and protozoa. Recent studies detected T. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2020.58.3.327DOI Listing

Phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily reveals the unexplored diversity of -like elements.

Mob DNA 2020 29;11:21. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE UK.

Background: transposons are widespread DNA transposable elements (TEs) that have made important contributions to the evolution of host genomic complexity in metazoans. However, the evolution and diversity of the superfamily remains poorly understood. Following recent developments in genome sequencing and the availability of a wealth of new genomes, TEs have been identified in many new taxa across the eukaryotic tree of life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13100-020-00212-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325037PMC

Structural colours in diverse Mesozoic insects.

Proc Biol Sci 2020 Jul 1;287(1930):20200301. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, and Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, People's Republic of China.

Structural colours, nature's most pure and intense colours, originate when light is scattered via nanoscale modulations of the refractive index. Original colours in fossils illuminate the ecological interactions among extinct organisms and functional evolution of colours. Here, we report multiple examples of vivid metallic colours in diverse insects from mid-Cretaceous amber. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2020.0301DOI Listing

Multiple Invasions of Visitor, a DD41D Family of Tc1/mariner Transposons, throughout the Evolution of Vertebrates.

Genome Biol Evol 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

College of Animal Science & Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Although the DD41D (named as Visitor, VS) family of Tc1/mariner transposons was discovered in Arthropods, Mollusca and Ctenophora, the evolution profile of this family is still largely unknown. We found that VS is widespread in the animal kingdom, including 140 species of 18 orders in invertebrates and 30 species of 12 orders in vertebrates, and one land plant species. Our data revealed multiple horizontal transfer (HT) events in both invertebrates and vertebrates and invasion into multiple lineages of mammals, including Chiroptera (seven species), Dasyuromorphia/Marsupialia (one species), Didelphimorphia/Marsupialia (one species), Diprotodontia/Marsupialia (two species) and Primates (one species). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evaa135DOI Listing

VectorInfo: A web resource for medically important Indian arthropod disease vectors.

Acta Trop 2020 Jun 26;211:105601. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Biomedical Informatics Centre, Vector Control Research Center, Indian Council of Medical Research, Pondicherry, 605006, India; Department of Biostatistics and Data Science, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 66160, USA. Electronic address:

VectorInfo is a freely accessible web resource, emphasised on medically important Indian arthropods funded by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and maintained by one of its premier institute, Vector Control Research Centre (VCRC). VectorInfo elucidates and curates medically important Indian arthropod's biological, omics technologies to adopt a holistic view of the molecules that make up an organism, aimed at the detection of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, enzymes & pathways and immune specific genes. The nitty-gritty of VectorInfo is aimed at scrutinizing all the possible information on Indian disease vectors in a single window for the scientific community. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105601DOI Listing

[Formation of FADD amyloid fiber and its role in immune signaling in Drosophila melanogaster].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2020 Jun;36(6):1198-1208

Biological Science Research Center, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China.

In this research, we studied the formation of Drosophila melanogaster FADD (Fas-associated death domain-containing protein) amyloid fiber and its influence on signal transduction in IMD (Immune deficiency) signaling pathway to better understand the regulation mechanism of Drosophila innate immune signaling pathway, which will provide reference for the immune regulation in other species. First, we purified dFADD protein expressed in Escherichia coli and performed Sulfur flavin T binding and transmission electron microscopy to identify the dFADD amyloid fibers formed in vitro. Then we investigated the formation of dFADD polymers in S2 cells using SDD-AGE and confocal microscope. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.190402DOI Listing

Beyond polyphagy and opportunism: natural prey of hunting spiders in the canopy of apple trees.

PeerJ 2020 19;8:e9334. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Entomology, Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary.

Spiders (Araneae) form abundant and diverse assemblages in agroecosystems such as fruit orchards, and thus might have an important role as natural enemies of orchard pests. Although spiders are polyphagous and opportunistic predators in general, limited information exists on their natural prey at both species and community levels. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the natural prey (realized trophic niche) of arboreal hunting spiders, their role in trophic webs and their biological control potential with direct observation of predation events in apple orchards. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307562PMC

Ectoparasites and Endoparasites of New Zealand White Rabbits from North West of Iran.

Iran J Parasitol 2020 Apr-Jun;15(2):266-271

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran.

Background: Rabbits contain several parasites that can be harmful to their health as well as human being's health due to the probability of causing parasitic zoonosis. The present research was designed to study ectoparasites and endoparasites of New Zealand White rabbits in North West of Iran and potential risks of parasitic zoonosis for researchers and owners.

Methods: Totally, 50 rabbits were purchased from rabbit sellers and breeders in suburbs of Urmia and Tabriz between Jul and Dec 2016. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311816PMC

Immunological and antibiofilm property of haemocyanin purified from grooved tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus): An in vitro and in silico approach.

Microb Pathog 2020 Jun 24:104253. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Crustacean Molecular Biology and Genomics Division, Biomaterials and Biotechnology in Animal Health Lab, Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, 630 004, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Haemocyanin (Hc) is a non-specific innate immune protein present in the haemolymph of arthropods and molluscs. In the current study, we characterized the structural and immunological properties of Hc from grooved tiger shrimp, Penaeus semisulcatus. Hc was isolated from the haemolymph of P. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104253DOI Listing

Known Target and Non-target Effects of the Novel Neonicotinoid Cycloxaprid to Arthropods: A Systematic Review.

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA.

Neonicotinoids are the most widely used insecticide class worldwide, and unfortunately, the widely used neonicotinoid imidacloprid is problematic for pollinators and other non-target organisms. These non-target impacts and the development of resistance prompt the ongoing development and testing of new neonicotinoids. The novel neonicotinoid cycloxaprid was described in 2011 and registered in China in 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ieam.4305DOI Listing

Arthropod exosomes as bubbles with message(s) to transmit vector-borne diseases.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2020 Jun 2;40:39-47. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA. Electronic address:

Ticks and mosquitoes are medically important vectors that transmit several pathogens, including arboviruses, to humans. Understanding how these blood-feeding arthropods transmit pathogens to humans requires knowledge on the molecular and cellular interplay at vector-host interface. Recent studies have highlighted the role of tick and mosquito small extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, facilitating arbovirus transmission within arthropod cells and from arthropod to mammalian cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2020.05.017DOI Listing

Microbiome diversity in Diaphorina citri populations from Kenya and Tanzania shows links to China.

PLoS One 2020 26;15(6):e0235348. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya.

The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) is a key pest of Citrus spp. worldwide, as it acts as a vector for "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las)", the bacterial pathogen associated with the destructive Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. Recent detection of D. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235348PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319306PMC

------Widespread conservation and lineage-specific diversification of genome-wide DNA methylation patterns across arthropods.

PLoS Genet 2020 Jun 25;16(6):e1008864. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

MRC London Institute of Medical Sciences, London, United Kingdom.

Cytosine methylation is an ancient epigenetic modification yet its function and extent within genomes is highly variable across eukaryotes. In mammals, methylation controls transposable elements and regulates the promoters of genes. In insects, DNA methylation is generally restricted to a small subset of transcribed genes, with both intergenic regions and transposable elements (TEs) depleted of methylation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008864DOI Listing

Assessing the Risks of Topically Applied dsRNA-Based Products to Non-target Arthropods.

Front Plant Sci 2020 4;11:679. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Competence Division Method Development and Analytics, Agroscope, Zurich, Switzerland.

RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful technology that offers new opportunities for pest control through silencing of genes that are essential for the survival of arthropod pests. The approach relies on sequence-specificity of applied double-stranded (ds) RNA that can be designed to have a very narrow spectrum of both the target gene product (RNA) as well as the target organism, and thus allowing highly targeted pest control. Successful RNAi has been reported from a number of arthropod species belonging to various orders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289159PMC

Notes on the hosts of Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) from China.

Biodivers Data J 2020 11;8:e53786. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Ecology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Ecology, Sun Yat-sen University Guangzhou China.

Background: Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) is a cosmopolitan genus of egg-parasitoid wasps associated with stink bugs (Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae, Urostylididae), many of which are important insect pests. Documentation of host associations for these wasps, which we here provide via museum specimens, can support their use as biological control agents of invasive stink bugs.

New Information: The hosts of seven species are reported from China: (Mayr) (hosts: Stål, Pentatomidae; Distant, Urostylididae), (Watanabe) (host: (Dallas), Pentatomidae), (Ashmead) (hosts: (Thunberg), Pentatomidae; (Poda), Pentatomidae), (Crawford) (host: Dallas, Scutelleridae), (Ashmead) (host: Pentatomidae), (Nees von Esenbeck) (host: sp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.8.e53786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303229PMC

An exploration of the complex biogeographical history of the Neotropical banner-wing damselflies (Odonata: Polythoridae).

BMC Evol Biol 2020 Jun 24;20(1):74. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Federated Department of Biological Sciences. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, USA.

Background: The New World Tropics has experienced a dynamic landscape across evolutionary history and harbors a high diversity of flora and fauna. While there are some studies addressing diversification in Neotropical vertebrates and plants, there is still a lack of knowledge in arthropods. Here we examine temporal and spatial diversification patterns in the damselfly family Polythoridae, which comprises seven genera with a total of 58 species distributed across much of Central and South America. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01638-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315476PMC

Basal tolerance but not plasticity gives invasive springtails the advantage in an assemblage setting.

Conserv Physiol 2020 15;8(1):coaa049. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia.

As global climates change, alien species are anticipated to have a growing advantage relative to their indigenous counterparts, mediated through consistent trait differences between the groups. These insights have largely been developed based on interspecific comparisons using multiple species examined from different locations. Whether such consistent physiological trait differences are present within assemblages is not well understood, especially for animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/conphys/coaa049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294889PMC

Earlier springs enable high-Arctic wolf spiders to produce a second clutch.

Proc Biol Sci 2020 Jun 24;287(1929):20200982. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service - Atlantic Forestry Centre, 26 University Drive, PO Box 960, Corner Brook, NL, Canada A2H 6J3.

Spiders at southern latitudes commonly produce multiple clutches, but this has not been observed at high latitudes where activity seasons are much shorter. Yet the timing of snowmelt is advancing in the Arctic, which may allow some species to produce an additional clutch. To determine if this is already happening, we used specimens of the wolf spider caught by pitfall traps from the long-term (1996-2014) monitoring programme at Zackenberg, NE Greenland. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2020.0982DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329030PMC

The genome, transcriptome, and proteome of the fish parasite Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala).

PLoS One 2020 23;15(6):e0232973. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Anthropology, Institute of Organismic and Molecular Evolution (iomE), Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Thorny-headed worms (Acanthocephala) are endoparasites exploiting Mandibulata (Arthropoda) and Gnathostomata (Vertebrata). Despite their world-wide occurrence and economic relevance as a pest, genome and transcriptome assemblies have not been published before. However, such data might hold clues for a sustainable control of acanthocephalans in animal production. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232973PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310846PMC

Individual and environmental determinants of Cuterebra bot fly parasitism in the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus).

Oecologia 2020 Jun 21;193(2):359-370. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Department of Biological Sciences, Bishop's University, Sherbrooke, QC, J1M 1Z7, Canada.

Understanding the interactions between parasites, hosts, and their shared environment is central to ecology. Variation in infestation prevalence may be the result of varying environmental and population characteristics; however, variations in parasitism may also depend on individual characteristics that influence both the exposure and susceptibility to parasites. Using 12 years of data from a population of wild eastern chipmunks relying on pulsed food resources, we investigated the determinants of bot fly parasitism at both the population and individual level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-020-04685-xDOI Listing

Jellyfish genomes reveal distinct homeobox gene clusters and conservation of small RNA processing.

Nat Commun 2020 Jun 19;11(1):3051. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

School of Life Sciences, Simon F.S. Li Marine Science Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.

The phylum Cnidaria represents a close outgroup to Bilateria and includes familiar animals including sea anemones, corals, hydroids, and jellyfish. Here we report genome sequencing and assembly for true jellyfish Sanderia malayensis and Rhopilema esculentum. The homeobox gene clusters are characterised by interdigitation of Hox, NK, and Hox-like genes revealing an alternate pathway of ANTP class gene dispersal and an intact three gene ParaHox cluster. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16801-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305137PMC

Nitrate application decreased microbial biodiversity but stimulated denitrifiers in epiphytic biofilms on Ceratophyllum demersum.

J Environ Manage 2020 Sep 27;269:110814. Epub 2020 May 27.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, China.

Among nitrogen species, nitrate is more stable than ammonium and nitrite, and it is an important nitrogenous pollutant in surface water. However, little is known about the characterization of epiphytic microbial communities on submersed macrophytes under nitrate loading. In this study, we investigated the co-occurring pattern and response of bacteria and microeukaryotes in epiphytic biofilms under nitrate loading. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110814DOI Listing
September 2020

Degradation mechanism of fipronil and its transformation products, matrix effects and toxicity during the solar/photo-Fenton process using ferric citrate complex.

J Environ Manage 2020 Sep 21;269:110756. Epub 2020 May 21.

Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Instituto de Química, 38400-902, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study presents the degradation of fipronil in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent by photo-Fenton at near neutral pH (pH 6.0) using Fe/Citrate complex. 83% of fipronil degradation was reached using a molar iron/citrate ratio of 1:3 (192 μmol L of Fe/576 μmol L of citrate). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110756DOI Listing
September 2020

Antiviral Natural Products for Arbovirus Infections.

Molecules 2020 Jun 17;25(12). Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Laboratory of Molecular RNA Virology and Antiviral Strategies, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117545, Singapore.

Over the course of the last 50 years, the emergence of several arboviruses have resulted in countless outbreaks globally. With a high proportion of infections occurring in tropical and subtropical regions where arthropods tend to be abundant, Asia in particular is a region that is heavily affected by arboviral diseases caused by dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Zika, and chikungunya viruses. Major gaps in protection against the most significant emerging arboviruses remains as there are currently no antivirals available, and vaccines are only available for some. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122796DOI Listing

Interrupted Blood Feeding in Ticks: Causes and Consequences.

Microorganisms 2020 Jun 16;8(6). Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Ceva Santé Animale, 10 Avenue de la Ballastière, 33500, Libourne, France.

Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods and act as vectors for a great variety of pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminths. Some tick-borne viruses, such as Powassan virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus, are transmissible within 15-60 min after tick attachment. However, a minimum of 3-24 h of tick attachment is necessary to effectively transmit bacterial agents such as spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060910DOI Listing

Effect of norfloxacin on algae-cladoceran grazer-larval damselfly food chains: Algal morphology-mediated trophic cascades.

Chemosphere 2020 Oct 24;256:127166. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Biology, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China.

Antibiotic norfloxacin (NOR) has recently been demonstrated to affect the swimming behavior of zooplankton species and phytoplankton-zooplankton interactions, which may further affect trophic cascades. To test this hypothesis, two food chains (Scenedesmus quadricauda-Daphnia magna-larval damselfly and Chlorella vulgaris-D. magna-larval damselfly) were used to examine the effect of NOR concentrations (0, 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127166DOI Listing
October 2020

Metabolic Reconfiguration in C. elegans Suggests a Pathway for Widespread Sterol Auxotrophy in the Animal Kingdom.

Curr Biol 2020 Jun 10. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Biology and the Environment, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Oranim, Tivon 36006, Israel. Electronic address:

Cholesterol is one of the hallmarks of animals. In vertebrates, the cholesterol synthesis pathway (CSP) is the primary source of cholesterol that has numerous structural and regulative roles [1]. Nevertheless, the few invertebrates tested for cholesterol synthesis show complete sterol auxotrophy [2-6], raising questions about how animals thrive without cholesterol synthesis and about the prevalence of sterol auxotrophy in animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.05.070DOI Listing

Can anthophilous hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) discriminate neonicotinoid insecticides in sucrose solution?

PLoS One 2020 19;15(6):e0234820. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Entomology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America.

Understanding how neonicotinoid insecticides affect non-target arthropods, especially pollinators, is an area of high priority and popular debate. Few studies have considered how pollinators interact and detect neonicotinoids, and almost none have examined for these effects in anthophilous Diptera such as hover flies (Syrphidae). We investigated behavioral responses of two species of hover flies, Eristalis arbustorum L. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234820PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304583PMC

DNA metabarcoding for biodiversity monitoring in a national park: Screening for invasive and pest species.

Mol Ecol Resour 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

SNSB-Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Munich, Germany.

DNA metabarcoding was utilized for a large-scale, multiyear assessment of biodiversity in Malaise trap collections from the Bavarian Forest National Park (Germany, Bavaria). Principal component analysis of read count-based biodiversities revealed clustering in concordance with whether collection sites were located inside or outside of the National Park. Jaccard distance matrices of the presences of barcode index numbers (BINs) at collection sites in the two survey years (2016 and 2018) were significantly correlated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13212DOI Listing

Evolutionary bedfellows: Reconstructing the ancestral state of autotomy and regeneration.

J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.

Some form of regeneration occurs in all lifeforms and extends from single-cell organisms to humans. The degree to which regenerative ability is distributed across different taxa, however, is harder to ascertain given the potential for phylogenetic constraint or inertia, and adaptive processes to shape this pattern. Here, we examine the phylogenetic history of regeneration in two groups where the trait has been well-studied: arthropods and reptiles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.b.22974DOI Listing

Efficacy of Transdermal Immunotherapy with Biodegradable Microneedle Patches in a Murine Asthma Model.

Clin Exp Allergy 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: House dust mite (HDM) is a well-known cause of asthma. Allergen specific immunotherapy (AIT) can only modify the natural course of the disease. Conventional routes of HDM AIT are subcutaneous or sublingual. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cea.13688DOI Listing
June 2020
4.769 Impact Factor

Predation patterns across states of landscape fragmentation can shift with seasonal transitions.

Oecologia 2020 Jun 18;193(2):403-413. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Institute of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 3431 Arendell Street, Morehead City, NC, 28557, USA.

Nested scales of habitat heterogeneity may independently or synergistically influence faunal interactions. Fragmentation effects (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-020-04675-zDOI Listing

An overview on marine cellulolytic enzymes and their potential applications.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan.

Marine-derived enzymes have recently gained attention particularly for industrial applications. Cellulose-degrading enzymes are among leading biocatalysts with potential utility in biorefineries. This review presents an account of the cellulase production by marine sources from microorganisms including bacteria, yeasts, and molds to marine invertebrates such as protist, rotifer, mollusks, arthropods, and echinoderms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-020-10692-yDOI Listing

How a Scorpion Toxin Selectively Captures a Prey Sodium Channel: the Molecular and Evolutionary Basis Uncovered.

Mol Biol Evol 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Toxicology and Pharmacology, University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Leuven, Belgium.

The growing resistance of insects to chemical pesticides is reducing the effectiveness of conventional methods for pest control and thus the development of novel insecticidal agents is imperative. Scorpion toxins specific for insect voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) have been considered as one of the most promising insecticide alternatives due to their host specificity, rapidly evoked toxicity, biodegradability and the lack of resistance. However, they have not been developed for uses in agriculture and public health, mainly because of a limited understanding of their molecular and evolutionary basis controlling their phylogenetic selectivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msaa152DOI Listing

Environmental DNA from plastic and textile marine litter detects exotic and nuisance species nearby ports.

PLoS One 2020 18;15(6):e0228811. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Functional Biology, University of Oviedo. C/ Julian Claveria s/n. Oviedo, Spain.

Marine debris is currently a significant source of environmental and economic problems. Floating litter can be employed by marine organisms as a surface to attach to and use as spreading vector. Human activities are promoting the expansion of potentially harmful species into novel ecosystems, endangering autochthonous communities. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228811PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302909PMC

Spider link: a palatal skeletal anchorage system.

J Clin Orthod 2020 Feb;54(2):82-95

University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

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February 2020

Biosynthetic origin of benzoquinones in the explosive discharge of the bombardier beetle Brachinus elongatulus.

Naturwissenschaften 2020 Jun 16;107(4):26. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA.

Bombardier beetles are well-known for their remarkable defensive mechanism. Their defensive apparatus consists of two compartments known as the reservoir and the reaction chamber. When challenged, muscles surrounding the reservoir contract sending chemical precursors into the reaction chamber where they mix with enzymes resulting in an explosive discharge of a hot noxious chemical spray containing two major quinones: 1,4-benzoquinone and 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (toluquinone). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-020-01683-0DOI Listing

Predation threat modifies Pieris rapae performance and response to host plant quality.

Oecologia 2020 Jun 16;193(2):389-401. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, 1129 Farm Lane Rm 348, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA.

Predators impact prey populations through both consumptive and non-consumptive effects, such as behavioral and physiological changes by prey in response to a predation threat. Additionally, various top-down (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-020-04686-wDOI Listing

Immune priming against bacteria in spiders and scorpions?

PeerJ 2020 5;8:e9285. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Panamá, Panama, Panama.

Empirical evidence of immune priming in arthropods keeps growing, both at the within- and trans-generational level. The evidence comes mostly from work on insects and it remains unclear for some other arthropods whether exposure to a non-lethal dose of a pathogen provides protection during a second exposure with a lethal dose. A poorly investigated group are arachnids, with regard to the benefits of immune priming measured as improved survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278890PMC

Imperfect and askew: A review of asymmetric genitalia in araneomorph spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae).

PLoS One 2020 15;15(6):e0220354. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Biodiversity Discovery group, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Bilateral asymmetry in the genitalia is a rare but widely dispersed phenomenon in the animal tree of life. In arthropods, occurrences vary greatly from one group to another and there seems to be no common explanation for all the independent origins. In spiders, genital asymmetry appears to be especially rare. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220354PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295216PMC

Blood parasites in vectors reveal a united blackfly community in the upper canopy.

Parasit Vectors 2020 Jun 15;13(1):309. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Molecular Ecology and Evolution Lab, Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Background: The behaviour of blood-sucking arthropods is a crucial determinant of blood protozoan distribution and hence of host-parasite coevolution, but it is very challenging to study in the wild. The molecular identification of parasite lineages in vectors can be a useful key to understand the behaviour and transmission patterns realised by these vectors.

Methods: In this study, we collected blackflies around nests of three raptor species in the upper forest canopy in central Europe and examined the presence of vertebrate DNA and haemosporidian parasites in them. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04177-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296761PMC

Prevalence of allergenic arthropods in domestic dwellings of referrals to an asthma and allergy clinic in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

East Mediterr Health J 2020 May 21;26(5):586-593. Epub 2020 May 21.

Research Center for Health Sciences, Institute of Health, Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Health.

Background: Allergenic arthropods are crucial agents in inducing medically important respiratory diseases like asthma and the inflammation of the respiratory tract worldwide.

Aims: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of all arthropods in the dwellings of people referred to the asthma and allergy clinic in Shiraz.

Methods: This was was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26719/emhj.19.087DOI Listing

[Spatial-temporal variation in hotspot and coldspot of Antarctic krill distribution in recent 100 years].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2020 Mar;31(3):1015-1022

College of Marine Sciences, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China.

To analyze the long-term variation in the spatial-temporal patterns of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) distribution, based on krill density data collected from 1926 to 2016, we analyzed the spatial and temporal variation of krill using the Getis-Ord G statistic and the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) model. We compared the krill abundance, the percentage of krill abundance, and the size of hotspot/coldspot area. The results showed that there were one core hot-spot area, one sub-hotspot area and one edge hotspot area from 1926 to 1935 and from 1936 to 1945; one core hotspot area, one sub-hotspot area and one edge hotspot/coldspot area from 1976 to 1985; two core hotspot areas, two sub-hotspot areas, two edge hotspot areas, one sub-coldspot area and one coldspot area from 1986 to 1995; two core hotspot areas, two sub-hotspot/sub-coldspot areas and two edge hotspot/coldspot areas from 1996 to 2005; and from 2006 to 2016, there were two sub-hotspot areas, two edge hotspot areas, one sub-coldspot area and one edge coldspot area, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.202003.019DOI Listing

Was the Devonian placoderm a suspension feeder?

R Soc Open Sci 2020 May 20;7(5):200272. Epub 2020 May 20.

Paläontologisches Institut und Museum, Universität Zürich, Karl-Schmid-Strasse 4, 8006 Zürich, Switzerland.

Large nektonic suspension feeders have evolved multiple times. The apparent trend among apex predators for some evolving into feeding on small zooplankton is of interest for understanding the associated shifts in anatomy and behaviour, while the spatial and temporal distribution gives clues to an inherent relationship with ocean primary productivity and how past and future perturbations to these may impact on the different tiers of the food web. The evolution of large nektonic suspension feeders-'gentle giants'-occurred four times among chondrichthyan fishes (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.200272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7277245PMC

Transcription profiling and characterization of Dermanyssus gallinae cytochrome P450 genes involved in beta-cypermethrin resistance.

Vet Parasitol 2020 May 30;283:109155. Epub 2020 May 30.

College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, poses a significant threat to hen health and poultry husbandry. D. gallinae has typically been controlled using synthetic acaricides, like pyrethroids, but increased resistance to pyrethroids has been found in poultry red mite populations worldwide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2020.109155DOI Listing