412,278 results match your criteria Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny[Journal]

Living in the endosymbiotic world of Wolbachia: A centennial review.

Cell Host Microbe 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA; Vanderbilt Microbiome Initiative, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA; Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA; Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology and Inflammation, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37235, USA. Electronic address:

The most widespread intracellular bacteria in the animal kingdom are maternally inherited endosymbionts of the genus Wolbachia. Their prevalence in arthropods and nematodes worldwide and stunning arsenal of parasitic and mutualistic adaptations make these bacteria a biological archetype for basic studies of symbiosis and applied outcomes for curbing human and agricultural diseases. Here, we conduct a summative, centennial analysis of living in the Wolbachia world. Read More

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Field efficacy of Bt cotton containing events DAS-21023-5 × DAS-24236-5 × SYN-IR102-7 against lepidopteran pests and impact on the non-target arthropod community in Brazil.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0251134. Epub 2021 May 4.

Instituto Federal Goiano, Campus Rio Verde, Rio Verde, Goiás, Brazil.

The efficacy and non-target arthropod effects of transgenic DAS-21023-5 × DAS-24236-5 × SYN-IR102-7 Bt cotton, expressing proteins Cry1Ac, Cry1F and Vip3Aa19, was examined through field trials in Brazil. Fifteen field efficacy experiments were conducted from 2014 through the 2020 growing season across six different states in Brazil to evaluate performance against key lepidopteran pests through artificial infestations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker), Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Read More

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Consideration of Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases during Differential Diagnosis.

South Med J 2021 May;114(5):277-282

From the Departments of Environmental Toxicology and Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, and the Department of Human Development, Family Studies, and Counseling, Texas Woman's University, Denton.

Objective: Recognition and reporting of vector-borne and zoonotic disease (VBZD) cases is largely dependent upon the consideration of such diseases by healthcare practitioners during the initial diagnosis and ordering of specific confirmative diagnostic tests. This study was conducted to assess the general knowledge and understanding of VBZD transmission and clinical presentation.

Methods: Healthcare practitioners were surveyed to determine the extent of training and educational experiences they received relative to VBZDs, and their likelihood to consider such diseases during differential diagnoses. Read More

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Plant to insect horizontal gene transfer: empowering whiteflies.

Trends Genet 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Université de Tours, EA2106 Biomolécules et Biotechnologies Végétales, Tours, France. Electronic address:

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a well-documented evolutionary driving phenomenon in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but its impact on the plant kingdom has remained elusive. A recent study provides compelling evidences, which support the idea that a plant-derived gene allows for the detoxification of plant defense metabolites in a polyphagous arthropod herbivore. Read More

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Surveillance for West Nile virus disease - United States, 2009-2018.

Am J Transplant 2021 May;21(5):1959-1974

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Problem/condition: West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the family Flaviviridae and is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the contiguous United States. An estimated 70%-80% of WNV infections are asymptomatic. Symptomatic persons usually develop an acute systemic febrile illness. Read More

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Changes in plant responses induced by an arthropod influence the colonization behavior of a subsequent herbivore.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Entomology and Acarology, Luis de Queiroz College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brazil.

Plants in nature can be sequentially attacked by different arthropod herbivores. Feeding by one arthropod species may induce plant-defense responses that might affect the performance of a later-arriving herbivorous species. Understanding these interactions can help in developing pest-management strategies. Read More

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The subfamily Thorictinae (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) from Saudi Arabia.

Zookeys 2021 8;1029:155-174. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

King Saud University Museum of Arthropods (KSMA), Plant Protection Department, College of Food and Agricultral Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460 Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia King Saud University Riyadh Saudi Arabia.

In this study, the Saudi Arabian Thorictinae beetle species, Háva & Abdel-Dayem, , Háva & Abdel-Dayem, , Háva & Abdel-Dayem, , Háva & Abdel-Dayem, are described, illustrated, and compared with related species. Three other species: Germar, 1834; Wasmann, 1894; and Chobaut, 1904 are excluded from the fauna of Saudi Arabia. A list of Thorictinae species from the Arabian Peninsula is provided. Read More

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MRI Spectrum of Japanese Encephalitis in Northeast India: A Cross-Sectional Study.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2021 Apr 24;12(2):281-289. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Radiodiagnosis, North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical Sciences, Shillong, Meghalaya, India.

 Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus infection having high mortality and morbidity. This study was performed to evaluate the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in JE and to find out any difference between pediatric and adult JE.  This retrospective study was performed on serologically positive 54 JE patients presented to a tertiary care hospital with acute encephalitic symptoms between April 2016 and October 2019. Read More

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Phytohormone-dependent plant defense signaling orchestrated by oral bacteria of the herbivore Spodoptera litura.

New Phytol 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Biological Science and Technology, Faculty of Advanced Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo, 125-8585, Japan.

A vast array of herbivorous arthropods live with symbiotic microorganisms. However, little is known about the nature and functional mechanism of bacterial effects on plant defense responses towards herbivores. We explored the role of microbes present in extracts of oral secretion (OS) isolated from larvae of Spodoptera litura, a generalist herbivore, in phytohormone signaling-dependent defense responses in Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis). Read More

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Lipocalins in arthropod chemical communication.

Genome Biol Evol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Biosensor Technologies, Konrad-Lorenz Straße, 24, 3430 Tulln, Austria.

Lipocalins represent one of the most successful superfamilies of proteins. Most of them are extracellular carriers for hydrophobic ligands across aqueous media, but other functions have been reported. They are present in most living organisms including bacteria. Read More

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The type of blood used to feed Aedes aegypti females affects their cuticular and internal free fatty acid (FFA) profiles.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(4):e0251100. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland.

Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of various arthropod-borne viral (arboviral) diseases such as dengue and Zika, is a popular laboratory model in vector biology. However, its maintenance in laboratory conditions is difficult, mostly because the females require blood meals to complete oogenesis, which is often provided as sheep blood. The outermost layer of the mosquito cuticle is consists of lipids which protects against numerous entomopathogens, prevents desiccation and plays an essential role in signalling processes. Read More

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Potential for online crowdsourced biological recording data to complement surveillance for arthropod vectors.

Benjamin Cull

PLoS One 2021 30;16(4):e0250382. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States of America.

Voluntary contributions by citizen scientists can gather large datasets covering wide geographical areas, and are increasingly utilized by researchers for multiple applications, including arthropod vector surveillance. Online platforms such as iNaturalist accumulate crowdsourced biological observations from around the world and these data could also be useful for monitoring vectors. The aim of this study was to explore the availability of observations of important vector taxa on the iNaturalist platform and examine the utility of these data to complement existing vector surveillance activities. Read More

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Blood Virosphere in Febrile Tanzanian Children.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Apr 30:1-237. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland.

Viral infections are the leading cause of childhood acute febrile illnesses motivating consultation in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of causal viruses are never identified in low-resource clinical settings as such testing is either not part of routine screening or available diagnostic tools have limited ability to detect new/unexpected viral variants. An in-depth exploration of the blood virome is therefore necessary to clarify the potential viral origin of fever in children. Read More

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Feeding design in free-living mesostigmatid chelicerae (Acari: Anactinotrichida).

Clive E Bowman

Exp Appl Acarol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK.

A model based upon mechanics is used in a re-analysis of historical acarine morphological work augmented by an extra seven zoophagous mesostigmatid species. This review shows that predatory mesostigmatids do have cheliceral designs with clear rational purposes. Almost invariably within an overall body size class, the switch in predatory style from a worm-like prey feeding ('crushing/mashing' kill) functional group to a micro-arthropod feeding ('active prey cutting/slicing/slashing' kill) functional group is matched by: an increased cheliceral reach, a bigger chelal gape, a larger morphologically estimated chelal crunch force, and a drop in the adductive lever arm velocity ratio of the chela. Read More

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Wolbachia manipulate fitness benefits of olfactory associative learning in a parasitoid wasp.

J Exp Biol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

University of Rennes 1, UMR-CNRS 6553 EcoBio, Avenue du Général Leclerc, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France.

Upon encountering a host, a female parasitoid wasp has to decide whether to learn positive or negative cues related to a host. The optimal female decision will depend on the fitness costs and benefits of learned stimuli. Reward quality is positively related to the rate of behavioral acquisition in processes such as associative learning. Read More

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The olfactory system: the remote-sensing arm of the immune system.

Anim Health Res Rev 2021 Apr 30:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Departments of Veterinary Pathobiology and Veterinary Integrated Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 77843, USA.

Odors may be pleasant or unpleasant and in practice, pleasant odors are attractive while unpleasant odors are repellent. However, an odor that is noxious to one species may be attractive to another. Plants, predators, and pathogens may enhance their transmission by manipulating these signals. Read More

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Reliable and Sensitive Nested PCR for the Detection of in Sputum.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 27;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Ilkovičova 6, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia.

Chlamydia are Gram-negative, intracellular pathogens colonizing epithelial mucosa. They cause primarily atypical pneumonia and have recently been associated with chronic diseases. Diagnostics relies almost exclusively on serological methods; PCR tests are used rarely because in patients with positive ELISA, it is nearly impossible to identify chlamydial DNA. Read More

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Virome Diversity among Mosquito Populations in a Sub-Urban Region of Marseille, France.

Viruses 2021 Apr 27;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Aix Marseille Université, Intitut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Marseille (AP-HM), Microbes Evolution Phylogeny and Infections (MEPHI) UM 63, 13005 Marseille, France.

Some mosquito species have significant public health importance given their ability to transmit major diseases to humans and animals, making them the deadliest animals in the world. Among these, the (.) genus is a vector of several viruses such as Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika viruses that can cause serious pathologies in humans. Read More

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A Systematic Review of the Behavioral Responses by Stored-Product Arthropods to Individual or Blends of Microbially Produced Volatile Cues.

Insects 2021 Apr 28;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Center for Grain and Animal Health Research, 1515 College Ave., Manhattan, KS 66502, USA.

Microbes are ubiquitous and play important ecological roles in a variety of habitats. While research has been largely focused on arthropods and microbes separately in the post-harvest supply chain, less attention has been paid to their interactions with each other. Up to this point, there has been no attempt to systematically describe the patterns of behavioral responses by stored-product insects to microbially produced volatile organic compounds (MVOCs). Read More

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Mating Disruption for Managing the Honeydew Moth, (Millière), in Mediterranean Vineyards.

Insects 2021 Apr 28;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy.

The demand for a reduced use of pesticides in agriculture requires the development of specific strategies for managing arthropod pests. Among eco-friendly pest control tools, pheromone-based mating disruption (MD) is promising for controlling several key insect pests of economic importance, including many lepidopteran species. In our study, we evaluated an MD approach for managing the honeydew moth (HM), , an emerging threat for the grapevine in the Mediterranean basin. Read More

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Host Cell Restriction Factors of Bunyaviruses and Viral Countermeasures.

Viruses 2021 Apr 28;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

CIRI-Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Inserm, U1111, CNRS, UMR5308, ENS Lyon, 46 allée d'Italie, 69007 Lyon, France.

The order comprises more than 500 viruses (generally defined as bunyaviruses) classified into 12 families. Some of these are highly pathogenic viruses infecting different hosts, including humans, mammals, reptiles, arthropods, birds, and/or plants. Host cell sensing of infection activates the innate immune system that aims at inhibiting viral replication and propagation. Read More

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Identifying Molecular-Based Trophic Interactions as a Resource for Advanced Integrated Pest Management.

Insects 2021 Apr 16;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Southeast Watershed Research, USDA, Tifton, GA 31793, USA.

Biodiversity is an essential attribute of sustainable agroecosystems. Diverse arthropod communities deliver multiple ecosystem services, such as biological control, which are the core of integrated pest management programs. The molecular analysis of arthropod diets has emerged as a new tool to monitor and help predict the outcomes of management on the functioning of arthropod communities. Read More

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GPCR-Based Bioactive Peptide Screening Using Phage-Displayed Peptides and an Insect Cell System for Insecticide Discovery.

Biomolecules 2021 Apr 16;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

USDA-ARS, Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA.

The discovery of new insecticides improves integrated pest management (IPM), but is usually a long high-risk process with a low probability of success. For over two decades, insect neuropeptides (NPs) and their G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been considered as biological targets for insect pest control, because they are involved in almost all physiological processes associated with insect life stages. A key roadblock to success has been the question of how large volume chemical libraries can be efficiently screened for active compounds. Read More

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DNA Barcoding Identifies Unknown Females and Larvae of R.-D. (Diptera: Fanniidae) from Carrion Succession Experiment and Case Report.

Insects 2021 Apr 23;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Ecology and Biogeography, Faculty of Biological and Veterinary Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, 87-100 Toruń, Poland.

Application of available keys to European Fanniidae did not facilitate unequivocal species identification for third instar larvae and females of Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 collected during a study of arthropod succession on pig carrion. To link these samples to known species, we took the advantage of molecular identification methods and compared newly obtained cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) barcode sequences against sequences deposited in reference databases. As an outcome of the results obtained, we describe for the first time a third instar larva of Malloch, 1910 and (Rondani, 1866) and a female of d'Assis-Fonseca, 1966. Read More

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Exposure to Major Vector-Borne Diseases in Dogs Subjected to Different Preventative Regimens in Endemic Areas of Italy.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 23;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, 64100 Teramo, Italy.

Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) are globally widespread arthropod-transmitted diseases with a significant impact on animal and human health. Many drivers have recently spurred the geographic spread of VBDs in dogs. This study has evaluated the exposure to most important VBDs in dogs under different preventative treatments in different regions of Italy, i. Read More

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Evaluating Transmission Paths for Three Different spp. in Ticks Using Artificial Feeding.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 22;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Institute of Animal Hygiene and Veterinary Public Health, University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

Bartonellae are facultative intracellular alpha-proteobacteria often transmitted by arthropods. is the most important vector for arthropod-borne pathogens in Europe. However, its vector competence for spp. Read More

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Distribution of and Associated Pathogens: Meta-Analysis of Global Published Data and a Field Survey in China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 22;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing 100071, China.

is an obligate blood sucking arthropod and transmits various pathogens to humans and domestic animals. Recently several new viruses were detected in as an emerging disease threat. In this study, we aimed to analyze its geographical distribution and associated pathogens. Read More

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Arthropod Ectoparasites Have Potential to Bind SARS-CoV-2 via ACE.

Viruses 2021 04 19;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, UCL, Darwin Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

Coronavirus-like organisms have been previously identified in Arthropod ectoparasites (such as ticks and unfed cat flea). Yet, the question regarding the possible role of these arthropods as SARS-CoV-2 passive/biological transmission vectors is still poorly explored. In this study, we performed in silico structural and binding energy calculations to assess the risks associated with possible ectoparasite transmission. Read More

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A Duplex Fluorescent Microsphere Immunoassay for Detection of Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Antibodies in Cattle Sera.

Viruses 2021 04 15;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Center for Grain and Animal Health, Agricultural Research Service, Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA.

Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes internationally reportable hemorrhagic disease in cattle, sheep, and white-tailed deer. The closely related, and often co-circulating, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus causes a clinically similar devastating disease in white-tailed deer, with increasing levels of disease in cattle in the past 10 years. Transmitted by biting midges, together, they constitute constant disease threats to the livelihood of livestock owners. Read More

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Bacterial Pathogens and Symbionts Harboured by Ticks Parasitising Red Squirrels in the United Kingdom.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 11;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK.

Red squirrels () are native to most of Eurasia; in much of the United Kingdom, they have been supplanted by the non-native grey squirrel, and are considered an endangered species. Very little is known about the range of tick-borne pathogens to which UK red squirrels are exposed. As part of trap-and-release surveys examining prevalence of spp. Read More

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