436,557 results match your criteria Arthropod Structure & Development[Journal]

Cryptic Genes for Interbacterial Antagonism Distinguish Species Infecting Blacklegged Ticks From Other Pathogens.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 3;12:880813. Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Background: The genus (: Rickettsiales) encompasses numerous obligate intracellular species with predominantly ciliate and arthropod hosts. Notable species are pathogens transmitted to mammals by blood-feeding arthropods. Mammalian pathogenicity evolved from basal, non-pathogenic host-associations; however, some non-pathogens are closely related to pathogens. Read More

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Endosymbiont of Modulates Tick Physiology With a Major Impact in Blood Feeding Capacity.

Front Microbiol 2022 3;13:868575. Epub 2022 May 3.

Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Leopoldo de Meis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

In the past decade, metagenomics studies exploring tick microbiota have revealed widespread interactions between bacteria and arthropods, including symbiotic interactions. Functional studies showed that obligate endosymbionts contribute to tick biology, affecting reproductive fitness and molting. Understanding the molecular basis of the interaction between ticks and their mutualist endosymbionts may help to develop control methods based on microbiome manipulation. Read More

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Assembly of Chitin Nanofibers into Porous Biomimetic Structures via Freeze Drying.

ACS Macro Lett 2014 Feb 28;3(2):185-190. Epub 2014 Jan 28.

School of Materials Science and Engineering and School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States.

The intricate hierarchical architectures in natural creatures are usually derived from assembly of molecular building blocks into nanoscale structures that then organize into micro- and macroscopic sizes. An example is the complex structure in arthropods (crustaceans, insects) constructed primarily of chitin. Because of chitin's inherent insolubility in common solvents, processes for mimicking the fascinating natural chitin-based nanostructures are still at an early stage of development. Read More

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February 2014

Characterization of m A modifications in the contemporary Zika virus genome and host cellular transcripts.

J Med Virol 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100071, China.

Zika virus (ZIKV) suddenly evolved from a neglected arthropod-borne flavivirus into a pandemic pathogen during 2015-2016. A panel of amino acid mutations have been shown to be responsible for the enhanced neurovirulence and transmissibility of ZIKV. Recent studies have demonstrated that ZIKV genomic RNA is modified by host N6-methyladenosine (m A) machinery during viral replication in host cells, and the m A profiles vary among different isolates and different host cells. Read More

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A Survey Among Cadets at the United States Military Academy on Knowledge and Wearing of Permethrin-Treated Uniforms and the Risk of Tick-Borne Diseases.

Mil Med 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Chemistry and Life Sciences, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY 10996, USA.

Introduction: The Army uses permethrin-treated uniforms as the primary method to protect soldiers from tick-borne diseases. Permethrin binds strongly to fabric and provides long-term protection against many blood-feeding arthropods. However, protection decreases if the uniforms are not washed and cared for according to label instructions. Read More

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[Lessons from the Malaria Vector Control Program Based on Indoors Residual Spraying with DDT or Dieldrin in the Pilot Zone of Bobo-Dioulasso: Failure or Success?]

Med Trop Sante Int 2021 Mar 6;1(1). Epub 2021 Mar 6.

HydroSciences Montpellier (HSM), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), CNRS, Université Montpellier, France.

During five years, from 1953, a village scale indoors residual spraying (IRS) was done in the pilot zone of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, with DDT or dieldrin (DLN) or even HCH with a conceptually both entomological and parasitological evaluation [18].Compared to the control area, DDT induced an approximatively 95% and 67% reduction in the landing rate of , respectively inside and outside human houses but due to its irritant action, DDT greatly increased their exophagic behaviour. However, DLN had no impact on the landing rate of either indoors or outdoors due to the already noticed resistance of this species to this insecticide. Read More

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[Culicidae Larvae and Their Seasonal Dynamics in the Region of Fez-Meknes, Morocco].

Med Trop Sante Int 2021 Jun 12;1(2). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Laboratoire de biotechnologie, conservation et développement des ressources naturelles, Faculté des sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Fès, Maroc.

Objective: As part of the prevention of vector-borne diseases in central Morocco, a study of the seasonal fluctuation of Culicidian biodiversity was conducted from November 2015 to November 2016 on four breeding sites located in the city of Fez in central Morocco (Jnan El Alami, Lgaâda dam, Awinat Elhajaj, Douwar Lhandiya Source). The study aimed to improve the knowledge of seasonal dynamics and activity period of Culicidian mosquitoes, in order to target the period of control.

Methods: Larvae were collected by dipping method at a 15-day interval at least once a month. Read More

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[Mosquitoes, Distribution and Specific Richness in Eight Countries of Africa: Cape Verde, Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad].

Med Trop Sante Int 2021 Jun 31;1(2). Epub 2021 May 31.

Unité MIVEGEC, Université de Montpellier, IRD, CNRS, Montpellier, France.

Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) form a family of insects of considerable public health importance. Mention of their presence/absence was tackled in the literature and by specialized websites for eight African countries: Cape Verde, Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad. In total, 216 species have been recorded belonging to 13 genera: (48 species), (2), (62), (6), (54), (1), (7), (3), (1), (2), (7), (4) and (19). Read More

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Potential Regulatory Role in Mammalian Host Adaptation for a Small Intergenic Region of Lp17 in the Lyme Disease Spirochete.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 2;12:892220. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, United States.

The bacterial agent of Lyme disease, , relies on an intricate gene regulatory network to transit between the disparate tick vector and mammalian host environments. We recently reported that a mutant lacking a transcriptionally active intergenic region of lp17 displayed attenuated murine tissue colonization and pathogenesis due to altered expression of multiple antigens. In this study, a more detailed characterization of the putative regulatory factor encoded by the intergenic region was pursued. Read More

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Tracing RNA viruses associated with Nudibranchia gastropods.

Umberto Rosani

PeerJ 2022 13;10:e13410. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Background: Nudibranchia is an under-studied taxonomic group of gastropods, including more than 3,000 species with colourful and extravagant body shapes and peculiar predatory and defensive strategies. Although symbiosis with bacteria has been reported, no data are available for the nudibranch microbiome nor regarding viruses possibly associated with these geographically widespread species.

Methods: Based on 47 available RNA sequencing datasets including more than two billion reads of 35 nudibranch species, a meta-transcriptome assembly was constructed. Read More

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Eating in a losing cause: limited benefit of modified macronutrient consumption following infection in the oriental cockroach Blatta orientalis.

BMC Ecol Evol 2022 May 18;22(1):67. Epub 2022 May 18.

Institute of Biology, Freie Universität Berlin, Schwendenerstr. 1, 14195, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Host-pathogen interactions can lead to dramatic changes in host feeding behaviour. One aspect of this includes self-medication, where infected individuals consume substances such as toxins or alter their macronutrient consumption to enhance immune competence. Another widely adopted animal response to infection is illness-induced anorexia, which is thought to assist host immunity directly or by limiting the nutritional resources available to pathogens. Read More

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Assessing the pathogenicity of gut bacteria associated with tobacco caterpillar Spodoptera litura (Fab.).

Sci Rep 2022 May 18;12(1):8257. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Zoology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, 143005, India.

The symbiotic relationship between insects and gut microbes contributes to their fitness by serving immense range of functions viz. nutrition and digestion, detoxification, communication and reproduction etc. However, this relationship between insect and gut microbes varies from mutualistic to pathogenic. Read More

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Reduced neural investment in post-reproductive females of the bee Ceratina calcarta.

Sci Rep 2022 May 18;12(1):8256. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Biological Sciences, George Washington University, 800 22nd St. NW, Washington, DC, 20052, USA.

Many insects show plasticity in the area of the brain called the mushroom bodies (MB) with foraging and social experience. MBs are paired neuropils associated with learning and memory. MB volume is typically greater in mature foragers relative to young and/or inexperienced individuals. Read More

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Barcoding and species delimitation of Iranian freshwater crabs of the Potamidae family (Decapoda: Brachyura).

Sci Rep 2022 May 18;12(1):8288. Epub 2022 May 18.

Lund University, Ecology Building, Sölvegatan 37, 22362, Lund, Skåne, Sweden.

Freshwater ecosystems are under multiple threats in modern times such as water extraction for human consumption, industries and agricultural activities, water contamination and habitat destruction for example. At the same time the biodiversity of these ecosystems are often poorly studied, especially in arid countries such as Iran. In this work, we study one of the ecologically important members of Iranian freshwater fauna, freshwater crab species of the genus Potamon. Read More

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Virome analysis of ticks in Zhoushan Archipelago, China.

J Vet Med Sci 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Chinese People's Liberation Army Center for Disease Control and Prevention.

Ticks are an important group of arthropod vectors. Ticks pose a profound risk to public health by transmitting many types of microorganisms that are human and animal pathogens. With the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and viral metagenomics, numerous novel viruses have been discovered in ticks and tick-related hosts. Read More

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Toll-9 interacts with Toll-1 to mediate a feedback loop during apoptosis-induced proliferation in Drosophila.

Cell Rep 2022 May;39(7):110817

Department of Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. Electronic address:

Drosophila Toll-1 and all mammalian Toll-like receptors regulate innate immunity. However, the functions of the remaining eight Toll-related proteins in Drosophila are not fully understood. Here, we show that Drosophila Toll-9 is necessary and sufficient for a special form of compensatory proliferation after apoptotic cell loss (undead apoptosis-induced proliferation [AiP]). Read More

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Studying biodiversity of spiders species in seven different localities of Charsadda District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Braz J Biol 2022 20;84:e260515. Epub 2022 May 20.

Islamia College Peshawar, Department of Zoology, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

The current research work aims to provide knowledge about the diversity of spiders' fauna and their occurrence throughout the year from District Charsadda Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Research data were collected from March-2015 to January-2017 from seven different localities of Charsadda District by using the camera, bottle, plastic bags, paraffin films, field book and 70% of ethylene alcohol and 20% of glycerine were used as chemicals. By using special identification keys, spiders were differentiated into families, genera and species. Read More

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Analysis of antioxidants in water striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae) as bioindicator of water pollution.

R Saleem S Afsheen

Braz J Biol 2022 20;84:e258106. Epub 2022 May 20.

University of Gujrat, Department of Zoology, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan.

The antioxidant enzyme system is an important defense mechanism to cope with Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) produced due to exposure to heavy metals. In the present study lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) in water and the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) was investigated in three species (Metrocoris communis, Limnogonus fossarum fossarum, and Aquarius adelaidis) of water striders collected from the industrial triangle of Punjab, Pakistan. The results of present study revealed that Pb, Cr, As, Cd and Ni were according to the permissible amount of WHO. Read More

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Determination of hormoligosis of organophosphate insecticides against Phenacoccus solenopsis.

Braz J Biol 2022 13;82:e261971. Epub 2022 May 13.

University of Mianwali, Department of Zoology, Mianwali, Pakistan.

Cotton mealybug is a highly invasive pest of agricultural crops worldwide. Major agriculturists most rely on the use of insecticides for the control of pesticides. So, the indiscriminate use of insecticides leads to resistance development in recent years. Read More

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Brood reduction caused by sibling cannibalism in Isodontia harmandi (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae), a solitary wasp species building communal brood cells.

PLoS One 2022 18;17(5):e0267958. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Biosphere Sciences, School of Human Sciences, Kobe College, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan.

Sibling rivalry or brood reduction prevailing within bird nests is effectively avoided in solitary aculeate nests because the larvae of wasps and bees usually develop in each brood cell. However, a solitary wasp species, Isodontia harmandi, allows us to study brood reduction in a communal brood cell, where up to a dozen larvae develop in a group relying on prey provisioned by a female wasp. To demonstrate brood reduction in this species, we collected nests at various developmental brood stages from fields for five years (2010-2015). Read More

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Drosophila as a Suitable In Vivo Model in the Safety Assessment of Nanomaterials.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1357:275-301

Group of Mutagenesis, Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Nanotechnology is often praised as the future technology that will revolutionize the world as we know it, because nanomaterials (NMs) offer numerous practical applications for a wide range of fields such as medicine, cosmetics, food preservation, paintings, and industry. Produced by nanotechnology, NMs are in the front line of this innovative applied science, while nanoparticles (NPs) refer to materials existing in the natural world and measuring 1-100 nanometers in at least one dimension. The recent surge in the number of endeavors to utilize NMs makes it imperative to identify hazards and risk factors involved as we have yet to know harmful effects of this uncharted territory on the environment and public health. Read More

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sp. nov. and sp. nov., isolated from larvae of .

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2022 May;72(5)

Institute of Jeju Microbial Resources, BioPS Co., Ltd., Jeju 63243, Republic of Korea.

The taxonomic positions of two novel strains isolated from larvae of an insect () collected in Jeju, Republic of Korea, were determined by a polyphasic approach. Strain BWB3-3 was closely related to the type strain of , having 97.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, whereas strain BWM-S5 formed an independent cluster within the genus in the 16S rRNA gene phylogeny and the closest relative was the type strain of (98. Read More

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Distinct forms of resonant optimality within insect indirect flight motors.

J R Soc Interface 2022 May 18;19(190):20220080. Epub 2022 May 18.

The Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.

Insect flight motors are extraordinary natural structures that operate efficiently at high frequencies. Structural resonance is thought to play a role in ensuring efficient motor operation, but the details of this role are elusive. While the efficiency benefits associated with resonance may be significant, a range of counterintuitive behaviours are observed. Read More

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Dispersal ability and its consequences for population genetic differentiation and diversification.

Proc Biol Sci 2022 May 18;289(1975):20220489. Epub 2022 May 18.

Island Ecology and Evolution Research Group, Institute of Natural Products and Agrobiology (IPNA-CSIC), C/Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez 3, La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands 38206, Spain.

Dispersal ability is known to influence geographical structuring of genetic variation within species, with a direct relationship between low vagility and population genetic structure, which can potentially give rise to allopatric speciation. However, our general understanding of the relationship between dispersal ability, population differentiation and lineage diversification is limited. To address this issue, we sampled mitochondrial DNA variation within lineages of beetles and spiders across the Canary Islands to explore the relationships between dispersal ability, differentiation within lineages and diversification. Read More

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An experimental test of Lanchester's models of combat in the neotropical termite (Blattodea: Termitidae).

Proc Biol Sci 2022 May 18;289(1975):20220343. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3043, USA.

Lanchester's models of combat have been invoked to explain the mechanics of group fighting in social animals. Specifically, Lanchester's square law posits that the fighting ability of the group is proportional to the square of the number of combatants. Although used to explain a variety of ecological phenomena, the models have not been thoroughly tested. Read More

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Characterization of a novel pesticide transporter and P-glycoprotein orthologues in .

Proc Biol Sci 2022 May 18;289(1975):20220625. Epub 2022 May 18.

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, 100N. Plastira Street, 700 13 Heraklion Crete, Greece.

Pesticides remain one of the most effective ways of controlling agricultural and public health insects, but much is still unknown regarding how these compounds reach their targets. Specifically, the role of ABC transporters in pesticide absorption and excretion is poorly understood, especially compared to the detailed knowledge about mammalian systems. Here, we present a comprehensive characterization of pesticide transporters in the model insect . Read More

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Current developments in the resistance, quality, and production of entomopathogenic fungi.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2022 May 18;38(7):115. Epub 2022 May 18.

Departamento de Biotecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, 09340, Unidad Iztapalapa, Mexico.

There is a worldwide concern to achieve food security with a sustainable approach, including the generation and implementation of techniques for the production of high-quality chemical-free crops. This food revolution has promoted the development and consolidation of programmes for integrated pest management. Some of those programmes include the use of diverse organisms (biological control agents) to suppress populations of pests potentially harmful to the crops. Read More

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Nanoporous and nano thickness film-forming bioactive composition for biomedical applications.

Sci Rep 2022 May 17;12(1):8198. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, 576104, India.

Unmanageable bleeding is one of the significant causes of mortality. Attaining rapid hemostasis ensures subject survivability as a first aid during combats, road accidents, surgeries that reduce mortality. Nanoporous fibers reinforced composite scaffold (NFRCS) developed by a simple hemostatic film-forming composition (HFFC) (as a continuous phase) can trigger and intensify hemostasis. Read More

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Heat shock protein Grp78/BiP/HspA5 binds directly to TDP-43 and mitigates toxicity associated with disease pathology.

Sci Rep 2022 May 17;12(1):8140. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85724, USA.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with no cure or effective treatment in which TAR DNA Binding Protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) abnormally accumulates into misfolded protein aggregates in affected neurons. It is widely accepted that protein misfolding and aggregation promotes proteotoxic stress. The molecular chaperones are a primary line of defense against proteotoxic stress, and there has been long-standing interest in understanding the relationship between chaperones and aggregated protein in ALS. Read More

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Multiple long-range host shifts of major Wolbachia supergroups infecting arthropods.

Sci Rep 2022 May 17;12(1):8131. Epub 2022 May 17.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Wolbachia is a genus of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts found in 20-66% of all insect species and a range of other invertebrates. It is classified as a single species, Wolbachia pipientis, divided into supergroups A to U, with supergroups A and B infecting arthropods exclusively. Wolbachia is transmitted mainly via vertical transmission through female oocytes, but can also be transmitted across different taxa by host shift (HS): the direct transmission of Wolbachia cells between organisms without involving vertically transmitted gametic cells. Read More

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