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    26 results match your criteria Artery Research [Journal]

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    Post-processing reproducibility of the structural characteristics of the common carotid artery in a Flemish population.
    Artery Res 2017 Sep;19:9-17
    Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Introduction: Common carotid artery (CCA) intima-media thickness (IMT), lumen diameter, and maximum plaque thickness were assessed on ultrasound images. The objective of the study was to evaluate the intra- and inter-reader reproducibility of the measurements following a standardised protocol.

    Methods: Two readers performed the off-line measurements on B-mode ultrasound images of the distal CCA, in a randomly selected subset (n = 60) from a Flemish population cohort (FLEMENGHO). Read More

    Towards a consensus on the understanding and analysis of the pulse waveform: Results from the 2016 Workshop on Arterial Hemodynamics: Past, present and future.
    Artery Res 2017 Jun 28;18:75-80. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    This paper aims to summarize and map contemporary views on some contentious aspects of arterial hemodynamics that have remained unresolved despite years of research. These were discussed during a workshop entitled Arterial hemodynamics: past, present and future held in London on June 14 and 15, 2016. To do this we formulated a list of potential consensus statements informed by discussion at the meeting in London and quantified the degree of agreement and invited comments from the participants of the workshop. Read More

    Estimation of Maximal Oxygen Consumption and Heart Rate Recovery Using the Tecumseh Sub-Maximal Step Test and their Relationship to Cardiovascular Risk Factors.
    Artery Res 2017 Jun;18:29-35
    Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, University College London, London, UK.
    Background: Maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max) is associated with lower cardiovascular and total mortality. Step tests can be used to provide an estimate of (VO2max) in epidemiological or home-based studies. We compared different methods of estimation of VO2max and heart rate recovery and evaluated the relationship of these estimates with cardiovascular risk factors. Read More

    Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the assessment of local skeletal muscle microvascular function and capacity to utilise oxygen.
    Artery Res 2016 Dec;16:25-33
    Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, WC1E 6BT, UK.
    Purpose Of Review: Continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CW NIRS) provides non-invasive technology to measure relative changes in oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin in a dynamic environment. This allows determination of local skeletal muscle O2 saturation, muscle oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) and blood flow. This article provides a brief overview of the use of CW NIRS to measure exercise-limiting factors in skeletal muscle. Read More

    Loss of Elastic Fiber Integrity Compromises Common Carotid Artery Function: Implications for Vascular Aging.
    Artery Res 2016 Jun 22;14:41-52. Epub 2016 Apr 22.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA; Vascular Biology and Therapeutics Program, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Competent elastic fibers endow central arteries with the compliance and resilience that are fundamental to their primary mechanical function in vertebrates. That is, by enabling elastic energy to be stored in the arterial wall during systole and then to be used to work on the blood during diastole, elastic fibers decrease ventricular workload and augment blood flow in pulsatile systems. Indeed, because elastic fibers are formed during development and stretched during somatic growth, their continual tendency to recoil contributes to the undulation of the stiffer collagen fibers, which facilitates further the overall compliance of the wall under physiologic pressures while allowing the collagen to limit over-distension during acute increases in blood pressure. Read More

    A pilot study of scanning acoustic microscopy as a tool for measuring arterial stiffness in aortic biopsies.
    Artery Res 2016 Mar;13:1-5
    Cardiology Department, Klinikum Wels-Grieskirchen, Grieskirchnerstrasse 42, 4600 Wels, Austria.
    This study explores the use of scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) as a potential tool for characterisation of arterial stiffness using aortic biopsies. SAM data is presented for human tissue collected during aortic bypass graft surgery for multi-vessel coronary artery disease. Acoustic wave speed as determined by SAM was compared to clinical data for the patients namely, pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose levels. Read More

    Performance assessment of Pulse Wave Imaging using conventional ultrasound in canine aortas ex vivo and normal human arteries in vivo.
    Artery Res 2015 Sep 22;11:19-28. Epub 2015 Jul 22.
    Ultrasound and Elasticity Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA ; Department of Radiology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
    The propagation behavior of the arterial pulse wave may provide valuable diagnostic information for cardiovascular pathology. Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) is a noninvasive, ultrasound imaging-based technique capable of mapping multiple wall motion waveforms along a short arterial segment over a single cardiac cycle, allowing for the regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) and propagation uniformity to be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to improve the clinical utility of PWI using a conventional ultrasound system. Read More

    Central pressure should not be used in clinical practice.
    Artery Res 2015 Mar;9:8-13
    Cardiovascular Engineering, Inc., Norwood, MA.
    The heart, brain and kidneys are key targets of pulsatile damage in older people and in patients with longstanding hypertension. These central organs are exposed to central systolic and pulse pressures, which may differ from the corresponding peripheral pressures measured in the brachial artery. Studies employing the generalized transfer function as a means to estimate central pressure have demonstrated a large difference between central and peripheral systolic and pulse pressure that diminishes with age but remains substantial even in octogenarians. Read More

    Artery Res 2014 Sep;8(3):115-118
    Integrative Vascular Biology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 ; Integrative Vascular Biology Laboratory, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver and the Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO 80045.
    Background: Modest elevations in plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol have been shown to confer a significant increase in cardiovascular risk. Endothelin (ET)-1 is a vasoconstrictor peptide with proatherogenic properties. The experimental aim of this study was to determine whether ET-1 system activity is elevated in adults with borderline high LDL-cholesterol, independent of other cardiometabolic abnormalities. Read More

    Enhancing coronary Wave Intensity Analysis robustness by high order central finite differences.
    Artery Res 2014 Sep;8(3):98-109
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, King's Health Partners, St. Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH, UK.
    Background: Coronary Wave Intensity Analysis (cWIA) is a technique capable of separating the effects of proximal arterial haemodynamics from cardiac mechanics. Studies have identified WIA-derived indices that are closely correlated with several disease processes and predictive of functional recovery following myocardial infarction. The cWIA clinical application has, however, been limited by technical challenges including a lack of standardization across different studies and the derived indices' sensitivity to the processing parameters. Read More

    Quantification of Arterial Wall Inhomogeneity Size, Distribution, and Modulus Contrast Using FSI Numerical Pulse Wave Propagation.
    Artery Res 2014 Jun;8(2):57-65
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY ; Department of Radiology, Columbia University, New York, NY.
    Changes in aortic wall material properties, such as stiffness, have been shown to accompany onset and progression of various cardiovascular pathologies. Pulse Wave velocity (PWV) and propagation along the aortic wall have been shown to depend on the wall stiffness (i.e. Read More

    Ventricular-arterial coupling: Invasive and non-invasive assessment.
    Artery Res 2013 Mar;7(1)
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA ; Philadelphia VA Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Interactions between the left ventricle (LV) and the arterial system, (ventricular-arterial coupling) are key determinants of cardiovascular function. Ventricularearterial coupling is most frequently assessed in the pressure-volume plane using the ratio of effective arterial elastance (EA) to LV end-systolic elastance (EES). EA (usually interpreted as a lumped index of arterial load) can be computed as end-systolic pressure/stroke volume, whereas EES (a load-independent measure of LV chamber systolic stiffness and contractility) is ideally assessed invasively using data from a family of pressure-volume loops obtained during an acute preload alteration. Read More

    Detection of Aortic Wall Inclusion Using Regional Pulse Wave Propagation and Velocity In Silico.
    Artery Res 2012 Sep;6(3)
    Columbia University, New York, NY.
    Monitoring of the regional stiffening of the arterial wall may prove important in the diagnosis of various vascular pathologies. The pulse wave velocity (PWV) along the aortic wall has been shown to be dependent on the wall stiffness and has played a fundamental role in a range of diagnostic methods. Conventional clinical methods involve a global examination of the pulse traveling between two remote sites, e. Read More

    White blood cell count and endothelin-1 vasoconstrictor tone in middle-aged and older adults.
    Artery Res 2012 Jun;6(2):65-70
    Integrative Vascular Biology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
    Background: Higher white blood cell (WBC) count is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation. However, the influence of higher WBC count on endothelin (ET)-1 vasoconstrictor activity is currently unknown. We tested the hypothesis that adults with elevated WBC count demonstrate enhanced ET-1 system activity. Read More

    Artery Res 2011 Jun;5(2):65-71
    Ultrasound and Elasticity Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
    Background: Arterial stiffness is a well-established indicator of cardiovascular disease outcome. Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) is a surrogate for arterial stiffness that is measured either globally using carotid to femoral applanation tonometry or locally using biomedical imaging methods. Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) is an ultrasound-based method for both qualitative visualisation of pulse wave propagation and quantitative estimation of arterial stiffness. Read More

    A novel measure to characterise optimality of diameter relationships at retinal vascular bifurcations.
    Artery Res 2010 Sep;4(3):75-80
    International Centre for Circulatory Health, NHLI Division, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, 59 North Wharf Road, London W2 1LA, UK.
    Conventionally, the relationship between parent and daughter vessels at vascular bifurcations has been expressed by the junction exponent (x), and deviations of this parameter from the optimal conditions predicted by Murray's law (x = 3) have been shown to be associated with vascular disease. However, the junction exponent is normally calculated iteratively from diameter measurements, and Monte-Carlo simulation studies show the junction exponent to be biased in the presence of measurement noise.We present an alternative parameter, referred to as optimality ratio, that is simpler to compute and also more robust in the presence of noise. Read More

    Racial Differences in Relation Between Carotid and Radial Augmentation Index.
    Artery Res 2010 Mar;4(1):15-18
    Institute for Human Science and Biomedical Engineering, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki, Japan.
    BACKGROUND: Augmented central artery wave reflection is a cardiovascular disease risk factor. Augmentation index (AI) obtained from peripheral artery waveforms provides qualitatively similar information to AI from central artery waveforms. Little information is available, however, regarding the influence of racial difference in association between central and peripheral AI. Read More

    Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity: Impact of Different Arterial Path Length Measurements.
    Artery Res 2010 Mar;4(1):27-31
    Cardiovascular Aging Research Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
    BACKGROUND: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the most established index of arterial stiffness. Yet there is no consensus on the methodology in regard to the arterial path length measurements conducted on the body surface. Currently, it is not known to what extent the differences in the arterial path length measurements affect absolute PWV values. Read More

    Arterial Stiffness and Wave Reflection: Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Risk.
    Artery Res 2009 Jun;3(2):56-64
    Cardiovascular Engineering, Inc. Norwood, MA.
    Arterial stiffness and excessive pressure pulsatility have emerged as important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Arterial stiffness increases with age and in the presence of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and lipid disorders. Pathologic stiffening of large arteries with advancing age and risk factor exposure predominantly involves the elastic aorta and carotid arteries, whereas stiffness changes are relatively limited in muscular arteries. Read More

    A cardiovascular phenotype in warfarin-resistant Vkorc1 mutant rats.
    Artery Res 2008 Nov;2(4):138-147
    Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Rice University, MS 170, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005, U.S.A.
    BACKGROUND: The inhibition of the vitamin K cycle by warfarin promotes arterial calcification in the rat. Conceivably, genetically determined vitamin K-deficiency owing to a mutant epoxide reductase subcomponent 1 (Vkorc1) gene, a key component of the vitamin K cycle, might also promote arterial calcification. In the absence of an available Vkorc1 gene knockout model we used a wild-derived Vkorc1 mutant rat strain (Rattus norvegicus) to explore the validity of this hypothesis. Read More

    Gender and Endothelial Progenitor Cell Number in Middle-Aged Adults.
    Artery Res 2008 Nov;2(4):156-160
    Integrative Vascular Biology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.
    BACKGROUND: Between the ages of 45 and 65 years, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease is significantly lower in women compared with men. Circulating bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in vascular repair. Reduced EPC number is predictive of more cardiovascular events. Read More

    H. pylori-Induced Higher C-Reactive Protein in Obese African Americans.
    Artery Res 2009 Feb;3(1):39-42
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.
    African Americans are more susceptible to develop insulin resistance, obesity, Type 2 Diabetes, and coronary heart disease (CHD), and systemic inflammation is central to the pathophysiology of these chronic diseases. African Americans are also more likely to contract H. pylori (cagA) infections during their childhood. Read More

    Vascular Health and Cognitive Function in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Disease.
    Artery Res 2008 Feb;2(1):35-43
    Division of Cardiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital; Boston, MA.
    BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that changes in vascular flow dynamics resulting from age and cardiovascular disease (CVD) would correlate to neurocognitive capacities, even in adults screened to exclude dementia and neurological disease. We studied endothelial-dependent as well as endothelial-independent brachial responses in older adults with CVD to study the associations of vascular responses with cognition. Comprehensive neurocognitive testing was used to discern which specific cognitive domain(s) correlated to the vascular responses. Read More

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