1,298 results match your criteria Arteries to Brain and Meninges

De Novo Dural Arteriovenous Fistula on Draining Veins of Previously Treated Pial Arteriovenous Malformation: a Case Report.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jul 17;30(7):105798. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Neuroradiology, AUSL Romagna, M. Bufalini Hospital, Cesena, Italy. Electronic address:

A 71-year-old man, with a pial micro-arteriovenous malformation (pAVM) draining into the confluence of the vein of Trolard and the vein of Labbé was surgically removed, sparing these cortical veins. 4-months MR and angiographic controls showed a de novo dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) draining into the previously spared cortical veins. It was removed using intraoperative motor evoked potentials (MEP). Read More

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Neuroanatomy of cranial dural vessels: implications for subdural hematoma embolization.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 May 25;13(5):471-477. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Radiology, Neurosurgery, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

Adoption of middle meningeal artery embolization in the management of chronic subdural hematomas has led to a renewed interest in dural vascular anatomy. The readily identifiable major dural arteries and potential hazards associated with their embolization are well described. Less emphasized are several levels of intrinsic dural angioarchitecture, despite their more direct relationship to dural based diseases, such as subdural hematoma and dural fistula. Read More

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An immunohistochemical study of lymphatic elements in the human brain.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 01;118(3)

Human Brain Tissue Bank, Semmelweis University, H-1094 Budapest, Hungary.

Almost 150 papers about brain lymphatics have been published in the last 150 years. Recently, the information in these papers has been synthesized into a picture of central nervous system (CNS) "glymphatics," but the fine structure of lymphatic elements in the human brain based on imaging specific markers of lymphatic endothelium has not been described. We used LYVE1 and PDPN antibodies to visualize lymphatic marker-positive cells (LMPCs) in postmortem human brain samples, meninges, cavernous sinus (cavum trigeminale), and cranial nerves and bolstered our findings with a VEGFR3 antibody. Read More

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January 2021

The importance of modeling the human cerebral vasculature in blunt trauma.

Biomed Eng Online 2021 Jan 14;20(1):11. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Defense Biotechnology High Performance Computing Software Applications Institute, Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center, United States Army Medical Research and Development Command, FCMR-TT, 504 Scott Street, Fort Detrick, MD, 21702-5012, USA.

Background: Multiple studies describing human head finite element (FE) models have established the importance of including the major cerebral vasculature to improve the accuracy of the model predictions. However, a more detailed network of cerebral vasculature, including the major veins and arteries as well as their branch vessels, can further enhance the model-predicted biomechanical responses and help identify correlates to observed blunt-induced brain injury.

Methods: We used an anatomically accurate three-dimensional geometry of a 50th percentile U. Read More

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January 2021

Hypertrophic Pachymeningitis Related Brain Infarction in Synovitis-Acne-Pustulosis-Hyperostosis Osteomyelitis Syndrome.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Feb 8;30(2):105522. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Stroke Center, Division of Neurology and Gerontology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University, Idaidori 2-1-1, Yahaba, Shiwa, Iwate, 028-3695, Japan.

A 50-year-old woman with a history of synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis osteomyelitis (SAPHO) syndrome was admitted for left unilateral neglect, dysarthria, and left hemiparesis. Brain MRI showed multiple infarctions in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery and gadolinium enhancement of the thickened frontotemporal dura mater on the right side. MR angiography showed significant narrowing of the cavernous segment of the right internal carotid artery. Read More

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February 2021

Transient activation of spinal trigeminal neurons in a rat model of hypoxia-induced headache.

Pain 2021 04;162(4):1153-1162

Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Abstract: The mechanisms underlying headaches attributed to hypoxia are poorly known. The activation of spinal trigeminal neurons with meningeal afferent input is believed to be responsible for the generation of headaches. In the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus of anaesthetized and ventilated rats, the spontaneous firing of neurons with input from the exposed parietal dura mater and the activity evoked by mechanical stimuli to the dura and the adjacent periosteum were recorded, whereas the O2 fraction of the ventilation gas was stepwise reduced by omitting O2 and adding nitrogen. Read More

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Isolated leptomeningeal angiomatosis in the sixth decade of life, an adulthood variant of Sturge Weber Syndrome (Type III): role of advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Digital Subtraction Angiography in diagnosis.

BMC Neurol 2020 Oct 6;20(1):366. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Diagnostic & Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Neuroradiology, Cannizzaro Hospital, Via Messina, 95126, Catania, Sicily, Italy.

Background: Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is primarily diagnosed in pediatric population, but clinical presentation in late adulthood is rarely reported. Evolution of radiological findings in the adulthood variant of SWS with isolated leptomeningeal angiomatosis has never been reported to our knowledge.

Case Presentation: We report here a case of an isolated temporo-parieto-occipital leptomeningeal angiomatosis on the right cerebral hemisphere in a sixty-two-year-old male who presented with generalized seizure, GCS score 14/15 (E4 V4 M6) with equal and reacting pupils, psychomotor slowing, left hemineglect and grade 4 power in the left upper and lower limbs. Read More

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October 2020

Functional hyperemia drives fluid exchange in the paravascular space.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2020 Aug 20;17(1):52. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Center for Neural Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

The brain lacks a conventional lymphatic system to remove metabolic waste. It has been proposed that directional fluid movement through the arteriolar paravascular space (PVS) promotes metabolite clearance. We performed simulations to examine if arteriolar pulsations and dilations can drive directional CSF flow in the PVS and found that arteriolar wall movements do not drive directional CSF flow. Read More

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Detection of impaired cerebrovascular reactivity in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia using whole-brain 7T MRA.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Sep 2;29(9):105081. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Division of Ultrahigh Field MRI, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Iwate Medical University, Yahaba, Iwate, Japan.

Background: Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamide (ACZ) on single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used to assess the severity of chronic cerebral ischemia; however, this is an invasive method. We examined whether whole-brain magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 7T could non-invasively detect impaired CVR in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia by demonstrating the leptomeningeal collaterals (LMCs).

Methods: Fifty-seven patients with symptomatic unilateral cervical stenosis underwent whole-brain time-of-flight MRA at 7T and cerebral perfusion SPECT before/after the ACZ challenge. Read More

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September 2020

Suboccipital, Supracerebellar, Infratentorial Approach for Microsurgical Clipping of a Ruptured Tentorial, Straight Sinus Type Dural Arteriovenous Fistula.

World Neurosurg 2020 10 19;142:131-135. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) can often be successfully treated with endovascular embolization; however, surgery is occasionally still required.

Case Description: Herein, we discuss a 65-year-old male patient who presented with a Hunt-Hess IV subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and cerebellar intracranial hemorrhage secondary to a ruptured Borden type III tentorial (straight sinus) dAVF. Angiography revealed supply from the left occipital and posterior meningeal arteries and direct drainage into the cerebellar cortical veins with venous aneurysms in both cerebellar hemispheres. Read More

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October 2020

Enlarging Perivascular Spaces Following Radiation Therapy in the Brain: A Report of 2 Cases and Literature Review.

World Neurosurg 2020 06 3;138:436-439. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Virchow-Robin or enlarged perivascular spaces (PVS) are benign pial-lined spaces that surround penetrating arteries and arterioles through the brain parenchyma. We present 2 cases of enlarging PVS in adults following whole-brain radiation therapy.

Case Description: Two patients underwent whole-brain radiation therapy for adult-onset medulloblastoma. Read More

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Subarachnoid Contrast Accumulation and Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score Applied to Contrast Accumulation After Thrombectomy as Predictors of Symptomatic Hemorrhage.

World Neurosurg 2020 06 26;138:e847-e858. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Department of Neurology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon, South Korea.

Background: Areas of contrast accumulation (CA) are commonly found on routine computed tomography (CT) performed immediately after thrombectomy. In the present study, we investigated the types of CA associated with the different outcomes, including symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH).

Methods: The present study analyzed the data from 145 patients with anterior circulation stroke who had undergone non-contrast-enhanced conventional CT immediately after thrombectomy. Read More

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Pituitary Adenoma: A review of existing classification systems based on anatomic extension and invasion.

J Pak Med Assoc 2020 Feb;70(2):368-370

Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

Pituitary adenomas are common, benign tumours, that can be classified in many ways including their functionality, size and anatomical extension. Historically, larger more invasive adenomas with extension into parasellar regions were deemd untreatable. However, with increasing operative sophistication, and more precise and effective radiation options; it is no longer the case, and therefore it becomes even more important for a comprehensive classification system for these tumours. Read More

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February 2020

Combined Application of Arachnoid Membrane and Petrosal Dura to Transpose Dual Offending Arteries in Microvascular Decompression for Trigeminal Neuralgia: Two-Dimensional Operative Video.

World Neurosurg 2020 05 11;137:415. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, Aviation General Hospital of China Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Trigeminal neuralgia is featured by episodic and severe unilateral facial pain triggered usually by innocuous cutaneous stimuli. Microvascular decompression (MVD) is a safe and effective treatment for cases refractory to medical treatment caused by neurovascular conflicts. This Video 1 demonstrates MVD using arachnoid membrane and petrosal dura to transpose dual offending arteries. Read More

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Stroke after spontaneous intracranial hypotension: Not a single mechanism. Case report and review of literature.

J Clin Neurosci 2020 Apr 14;74:253-255. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Department of Evaluation and Treatment of Pain, FHU INOVPAIN, la Timone Hospital, AP-HM, Marseille, France; INSERM U-1107, CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a rare syndrome, typically manifests as orthostatic headache. Sometimes considered asbenignillness, neurological complications are well described, in particular subdural hematoma and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Brain infarction as complication of SIH is rarely reported. Read More

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Technical note: Preparation improvement of charred cadaveric viscera using sandison's rehydrating solution for histological analysis.

Forensic Sci Int 2020 Jan 16;306:110066. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Sezione di Medicina Legale e delle Assicurazioni, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Luigi Mangiagalli, 37, 20133 Milano, Italy. Electronic address:

In forensic evaluation of charred corpses, internal detrimental signs may result as more significant of those observed during external examination and is often arduous to state if a victim was exposed to fire before or after death. When the histological analysis of the remaining internal viscera is necessary, the massive destruction caused by the lesion, the charring and the coarctation of the samples don't allow to give further information or to determine the remaining organic components of the viscera. This limit is determined by the intrinsic characteristics of this thermal lesivity of self-maintenance even after the exitus of the subject, worsening the initial detrimental framework. Read More

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January 2020

Refractory Chronic Subdural Hematoma Associated with Dural Metastasis of Lung Adenocarcinoma Treated with Endovascular Embolization for the Middle Meningeal Artery: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

World Neurosurg 2020 Jan 16;133:256-259. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Department of Neurosurgery and Neuroendovascular Surgery, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Endovascular embolization of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) is effective for recurrent chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). CSDH associated with dural metastasis is generally refractory to burr hole surgery and has poor prognosis even if any interventions are applied. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report a case of refractory CSDH associated with dural metastasis that was successfully treated with embolization of the MMA. Read More

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January 2020

Brain pharmacology of intrathecal antisense oligonucleotides revealed through multimodal imaging.

JCI Insight 2019 10 17;4(20). Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Biogen, Cambridge, Masschusetts, USA.

Intrathecal (IT) delivery and pharmacology of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) for the CNS have been successfully developed to treat spinal muscular atrophy. However, ASO pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties remain poorly understood in the IT compartment. We applied multimodal imaging techniques to elucidate the IT PK and PD of unlabeled, radioactively labeled, or fluorescently labeled ASOs targeting ubiquitously expressed or neuron-specific RNAs. Read More

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October 2019

Brain arteriovenous malformation with transdural blood supply: Current status.

Exp Ther Med 2019 Oct 3;18(4):2363-2368. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021, P.R. China.

Arterial blood supply to a brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) is mainly derived from the internal carotid artery (ICA) and vertebral basilar artery (VBA) system. However, in certain cases, arteries supplying the meninges may also contribute to the blood supply of the BAVM, resulting in the formation of a BAVM with transdural blood supply (TBS). To review the current status of BAVM with TBS, a literature search was performed in the PubMed database. Read More

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October 2019

Microsurgical Anatomy of the Meningeal Branch of the Dorsolateral Medullary Plexus.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2020 06;18(6):E197-E204

Division of Neurological Surgery, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona.

Background: Meningeal branches originating from intradural arteries may be involved in several diseases such as meningeal tumors and arteriovenous lesions. These "pial-dural" arterial connections have been described for anterior cerebral, posterior cerebral, and cerebellar arteries. However, to the best of our knowledge, meningeal supply originating from the arterial plexus over the dorsolateral aspect of the medulla oblongata (dorsolateral medullary plexus [DLMP]) has not been described. Read More

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Autoregulation assessment by direct visualisation of pial arterial blood flow in the piglet brain.

Sci Rep 2019 09 16;9(1):13333. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Impairment of cerebrovascular autoregulation (CAR) is common after brain injury, although the pathophysiology remains elusive. The mechanisms of vascular dysregulation, their impact on brain function, and potential therapeutic implications are still incompletely understood. Clinical assessment of CAR remains challenging. Read More

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September 2019

Haptoglobin administration into the subarachnoid space prevents hemoglobin-induced cerebral vasospasm.

J Clin Invest 2019 12;129(12):5219-5235

Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) is a major driver of adverse outcomes in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), defining an unmet need for therapeutic development. Cell-free hemoglobin that is released from erythrocytes into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is suggested to cause vasoconstriction and neuronal toxicity, and correlates with the occurrence of DIND. Cell-free hemoglobin in the CSF of patients with aSAH disrupted dilatory NO signaling ex vivo in cerebral arteries, which shifted vascular tone balance from dilation to constriction. Read More

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December 2019

Subdural brain metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma on arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI.

Diagn Interv Imaging 2020 Feb 9;101(2):119-120. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Neuroradiology Department, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière-Charles-Foix Hospital, 75013 Paris, France; Sorbonne Universités, Pierre and Marie Curie University of Medicine, ICM, 75013 Paris, France.

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February 2020

Cerebral amyloid-β-related angiitis without cerebral microbleeds in a patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Cardiovasc Pathol 2019 Sep - Oct;42:36-40. Epub 2019 May 25.

Department of Diagnostic Pathology, NTT Medical Center Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Faculty of Healthcare, Tokyo Healthcare University, Tokyo, Japan.

Amyloid-β-related angiitis (ABRA), a subtype of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), is vasculitis occurring in relation to amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the walls of intracranial blood vessels. ABRA is presumed to be caused by some immune response to the deposited Aβ. An 81-year-old man on oral anticoagulant therapy complained of headache, nausea, and difficulty with standing after a head injury. Read More

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December 2019

Hydraulic resistance of periarterial spaces in the brain.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2019 Jun 20;16(1):19. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, 14627, USA.

Background: Periarterial spaces (PASs) are annular channels that surround arteries in the brain and contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): a flow of CSF in these channels is thought to be an important part of the brain's system for clearing metabolic wastes. In vivo observations reveal that they are not concentric, circular annuli, however: the outer boundaries are often oblate, and the arteries that form the inner boundaries are often offset from the central axis.

Methods: We model PAS cross-sections as circles surrounded by ellipses and vary the radii of the circles, major and minor axes of the ellipses, and two-dimensional eccentricities of the circles with respect to the ellipses. Read More

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Phase Contrast MRI Suggests an Internal Carotid Vascular Tone Alteration in Migraines.

Neuropediatrics 2019 08 6;50(4):244-247. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

I2FH, Institut d'Imagerie Fonctionnelle Humaine, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier, France.

Introduction: Migraine is the most common neurological disorder and the third most common disease worldwide. However, the underlying mechanisms contributing to its development are not completely understood. Symptoms may arise from a combination of dilation-independent vascular events and neurogenic mechanisms interacting throughout the brain and within the trigeminovascular system in the meninges MATERIALS AND METHOD:  We report here a case of a patient with a suspected familial hemiplegic migraine who presented an increased recurrence of events from one per month to one every other day. Read More

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Pial Arteriovenous Fistula with Multiple Venous Aneurysms Resembling a Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation; Case Report and Review of Literature.

World Neurosurg 2019 Jul 11;127:245-248. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery, Firoozgar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Neuroscience Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Pial arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal vascular connections between arteries and the cranial venous system on the surface of the brain in the pia mater. In contrast to vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations, they lack a true vascular nidus and may only indirectly involve the vein of Galen.

Case Description: An 18-month-old boy was referred to us with a history of seizures, drowsiness, bulging cephalic veins, and cranial nerves palsy identified as vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation according to initial magnetic resonance imaging. Read More

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Clinical importance of the posterior meningeal artery: a review of the literature.

Neuroradiol J 2019 Jun 29;32(3):158-165. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

1 Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, China.

The posterior meningeal artery, which arises from the vertebral artery, is a critical artery in neurological lesions. However, a comprehensive review of the importance of the posterior meningeal artery is currently lacking. In this study, we used the PubMed database to perform a review of the literature on the posterior meningeal artery to increase our understanding of its role in vascular lesions. Read More

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