5,010 results match your criteria Arenaviruses

Hearing loss in outbred Hartley guinea pigs experimentally infected with Pichinde virus as a surrogate model of human mammarenaviral hemorrhagic fevers.

Virulence 2022 Dec;13(1):1049-1061

Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics Graduate Program, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minnesota, USA.

Lassa fever (LF) is a neglected tropical disease that is caused by Lassa virus (LASV), a human hemorrhagic fever-causing mammarenavirus. A notable sequela of LF is sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) that can develop in about 33% of the patients. Animal models of LF-associated SNHL have been limited in size and scope because LASV is a biosafety level 4 (BSL4) pathogen that requires its handling in a high biocontainment laboratory. Read More

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December 2022

Cell surface glycan engineering reveals that matriglycan alone can recapitulate dystroglycan binding and function.

Nat Commun 2022 Jun 24;13(1):3617. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

α-Dystroglycan (α-DG) is uniquely modified on O-mannose sites by a repeating disaccharide (-Xylα1,3-GlcAβ1,3-) termed matriglycan, which is a receptor for laminin-G domain-containing proteins and employed by old-world arenaviruses for infection. Using chemoenzymatically synthesized matriglycans printed as a microarray, we demonstrate length-dependent binding to Laminin, Lassa virus GP1, and the clinically-important antibody IIH6. Utilizing an enzymatic engineering approach, an N-linked glycoprotein was converted into a IIH6-positive Laminin-binding glycoprotein. Read More

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The Virus-Host Interplay in Junín Mammarenavirus Infection.

Viruses 2022 May 24;14(6). Epub 2022 May 24.

Centro de Virología Humana y Animal (CEVHAN), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Universidad Abierta Interamericana (UAI), Buenos Aires C1287, Argentina.

Junín virus (JUNV) belongs to the family and is the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), a severe human disease endemic to agricultural areas in Argentina. At this moment, there are no effective antiviral therapeutics to battle pathogenic arenaviruses. Cumulative reports from recent years have widely provided information on cellular factors playing key roles during JUNV infection. Read More

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Identification of potent inhibitors of arenavirus and SARS-CoV-2 exoribonucleases by fluorescence polarization assay.

Antiviral Res 2022 Jun 16;204:105364. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Université Aix-Marseille, Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques (AFMB) - UMR7257 CNRS - Case 932, 163 avenue de Luminy, Marseille CEDEX 09, 13288, France. Electronic address:

Viral exoribonucleases are uncommon in the world of RNA viruses. To date, they have only been identified in the Arenaviridae and the Coronaviridae families. The exoribonucleases of these viruses play a crucial role in the pathogenicity and interplay with host innate immune response. Read More

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Chapare Hemorrhagic Fever and Virus Detection in Rodents in Bolivia in 2019.

N Engl J Med 2022 06;386(24):2283-2294

From Centro Nacional de Enfermedades Tropicales, Santa Cruz de la Sierra (R.L.M., C.E.A.A., C.A.A., M.C.Z., A.D.A., N.M.L., A.-M.M., F.L.M.A., J.R.G., S.S.M.), and Unidad de Epidemiología (C.R., G.A.D.L.V., A.M.R., J.T.M.G.), Unidad de Gestión de Riesgos en Salud Ambiental, Emergencias y Desastres (A.J.C.P.), and Instituto Nacional de Laboratorios de Salud "Dr. Néstor Morales Villazón" (R.S.B.), Ministerio de Salud, the Pan American Health Organization (A.A.), Hospital Obrero No. 1, Caja Nacional de Salud (A.S.), Hospital Militar Central, Hospital Municipal Boliviano Holandés (K.M.T.C.), and Hospital de Clínicas (A.V.-C.), La Paz - all in Bolivia; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta (M.E.M.-B., C.M.C., S.W., B.R.A., M.J.C., B.-R.E., C.G., J.C.G., A.J., J.D.K., A.L., J.H.M., S.T.N., K.P., T. Sealy, T. Shoemaker, C.F.S., A.T., J.S.T., J.M.M.); Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Virales Humanas "Dr. Julio I. Maiztegui," Pergamino, Argentina (J.B., J.G.); the Pan American Health Organization, Washington, D.C. (J.M.-R.); and Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil (K.L.).

Background: In June 2019, the Bolivian Ministry of Health reported a cluster of cases of hemorrhagic fever that started in the municipality of Caranavi and expanded to La Paz. The cause of these cases was unknown.

Methods: We obtained samples for next-generation sequencing and virus isolation. Read More

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Subtilisin of as Potential Druggable Target: Subcellular Localization, In Vitro Leishmanicidal Activity and Molecular Docking of PF-429242, a Subtilisin Inhibitor.

Curr Issues Mol Biol 2022 May 9;44(5):2089-2106. Epub 2022 May 9.

Laboratório de Imunologia Clínica, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro 21040-360, Brazil.

Subtilisin proteases, found in all organisms, are enzymes important in the post-translational steps of protein processing. In and , this enzyme has been described as essential to their survival; however, few compounds that target subtilisin have been investigated for their potential as an antileishmanial drug. In this study, we first show, by electron microscopy and flow cytometry, that subtilisin has broad localization throughout the cytoplasm and membrane of the parasite in the promastigote form with foci in the flagellar pocket. Read More

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[Co-circulation of Junín virus and other mammarenaviruses in a geographical area without confirmed cases of Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever].

Medicina (B Aires) 2022 ;82(3):344-350

Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Virales Humanas Dr. Julio I. Maiztegui, ANLIS, Pergamino, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Since the identification of Junin virus in the 1950s, many studies were carried out in wild rodents within the endemic area of the Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever (AHF) that recorded also the activity of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and the Latino virus (LATV). The absence of confirmed cases of AHF since the 1990s in the department of Rio Cuarto, Córdoba province, promoted ecoepidemiological surveillance of infection of Calomys musculinus (Junin virus reservoir) and the search of reservoirs of the other mammarenaviruses. During two years of seasonal sampling, with a capture, mark and release system, 857 rodents were captured, corresponding 57. Read More

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Detection of Lassa Virus-Reactive IgG Antibodies in Wild Rodents: Validation of a Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunological Assay.

Viruses 2022 05 7;14(5). Epub 2022 May 7.

Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, 20359 Hamburg, Germany.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of LASV-reactive IgG antibodies in rodents. The assay was used for laboratory-bred rodents, as well as for animals caught in the wild in various regions of West Africa. The ELISA reached an accuracy of 97. Read More

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Delineating the mechanism of anti-Lassa virus GPC-A neutralizing antibodies.

Cell Rep 2022 May;39(8):110841

La Jolla Institute for Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address:

Lassa virus (LASV) is the etiologic agent of Lassa Fever, a hemorrhagic disease that is endemic to West Africa. During LASV infection, LASV glycoprotein (GP) engages with multiple host receptors for cell entry. Neutralizing antibodies against GP are rare and principally target quaternary epitopes displayed only on the metastable, pre-fusion conformation of GP. Read More

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The Tetraspanin CD81 Is a Host Factor for Chikungunya Virus Replication.

mBio 2022 May 25:e0073122. Epub 2022 May 25.

Institute for Experimental Virology, TWINCORE, Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research, a joint venture between the Medical School Hannover and the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Hanover, Germany.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic reemerging virus replicating in plasma membrane-derived compartments termed "spherules." Here, we identify the human transmembrane protein CD81 as host factor required for CHIKV replication. Ablation of CD81 results in decreased CHIKV permissiveness, while overexpression enhances infection. Read More

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Viral Zoonoses in Small Wild Mammals and Detection of Hantavirus, Spain.

Emerg Infect Dis 2022 06;28(6):1294-1296

We screened 526 wild small mammals for zoonotic viruses in northwest Spain and found hantavirus in common voles (Microtus arvalis) (1.5%) and high prevalence (48%) of orthopoxvirus among western Mediterranean mice (Mus spretus). We also detected arenavirus among small mammals. Read More

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CD4 T-cell depletion prevents Lassa fever associated hearing loss in the mouse model.

PLoS Pathog 2022 05 23;18(5):e1010557. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, United States of America.

Lassa virus (LASV) is the causative agent of Lassa fever (LF), which presents as a lethal hemorrhagic disease in severe cases. LASV-induced hearing loss in survivors is a huge socioeconomic burden, however, the mechanism(s) leading to hearing loss is unknown. In this study, we evaluate in a mouse LF model the auditory function using auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) to determine the mechanisms underlying LASV-induced hearing loss. Read More

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Codon usage signatures in Sabia and Chapare for host adaptation.

Bioinformation 2021 31;17(10):891-898. Epub 2021 Oct 31.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Bioengineering and Biosciences, Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar Delhi G.T. Road, Phagwara, Punjab, INDIA -144411.

Sabia and Chapare viruses in the Arenavirus family cause viral hemorrhagic fever among humans with a fatality rate of 30% with no treatment models. Therefore, it is of interest to document the codon usage, amino acid patterns and associated factors influencing the observed variations in Sabia and Chapare viruses for host adaptation. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed compositional constraint and host selection pressure influencing the viral codon usage patterns. Read More

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October 2021

Persistent viral shedding after acute Lassa fever: thorough evidence arouses more noteworthy concerns.

Lancet Microbe 2022 May 7;3(5):e329. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Department of Microbiology, School of Preclinical Medicine, Airforce Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China.

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Understanding Sabiá virus infections (Brazilian mammarenavirus).

Travel Med Infect Dis 2022 Jul-Aug;48:102351. Epub 2022 May 7.

Núcleo de Anatomia Patológica, Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Only two naturally occurring human Sabiá virus (SABV) infections have been reported, and those occurred over 20 years ago.

Methods: We diagnosed two new cases of SABV infection using metagenomics in patients thought to have severe yellow fever and described new features of histopathological findings.

Results: We characterized clinical manifestations, histopathology and analyzed possible nosocomial transmission. Read More

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Viral RNA and infectious virus in mucosal specimens from guinea pigs modelling early phases of lethal and non-lethal Lassa fever.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2022 Dec;11(1):1390-1393

Viral Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Lassa fever (LF) is endemic to broad regions of West Africa. Infection with Lassa virus (LASV), the etiologic agent of LF, results in a spectrum of clinical signs in humans, including severe and lethal hemorrhagic disease. Person-to-person transmission occurs through direct contact with body fluids or contaminated bedding and clothing. Read More

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December 2022

Junin Virus Activates p38 MAPK and HSP27 Upon Entry.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 7;12:798978. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD, United States.

Junín virus (JUNV), a New World arenavirus, is a rodent-borne virus and the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever. Humans become infected through exposure to rodent host secreta and excreta and the resulting infection can lead to an acute inflammatory disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Little is understood about the molecular pathogenesis of arenavirus hemorrhagic fever infections. Read More

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Pathogenesis of recent Lassa virus isolates from lineages II and VII in cynomolgus monkeys.

Virulence 2022 12;13(1):654-669

Unité de Biologie des Infections Virales Emergentes, Institut Pasteur, Lyon, France.

The area of Lassa virus (LASV) circulation is expanding, with the emergence of highly pathogenic new LASV lineages. Benin recently became an endemic country for LASV and has seen the emergence of a new LASV lineage (VII). The first two outbreaks in 2014 and 2016 showed a relatively high mortality rate compared to other outbreaks. Read More

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December 2022

Tissue-resident memory CD8 T cells cooperate with CD4 T cells to drive compartmentalized immunopathology in the CNS.

Sci Transl Med 2022 04 13;14(640):eabl6058. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.

In chronic inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), immune cells persisting behind the blood-brain barrier are supposed to promulgate local tissue destruction. The drivers of such compartmentalized inflammation remain unclear, but tissue-resident memory T cells (T) represent a potentially important cellular player in this process. Here, we investigated whether resting CD8 T persisting after cleared infection with attenuated lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can initiate immune responses directed against cognate self-antigen in the CNS. Read More

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Lassa Virus Infection: a Summary for Clinicians.

Int J Infect Dis 2022 Jun 6;119:187-200. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD. Electronic address:

Objectives: This summary on Lassa virus (LASV) infection and Lassa fever disease (LF) was developed from a clinical perspective to provide clinicians with a condensed, accessible understanding of the current literature. The information provided highlights pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnostics emphasizing therapies and vaccines that have demonstrated potential value for use in clinical or research environments.

Methods: We conducted an integrative literature review on the clinical and pathological features, vaccines, and treatments for LASV infection, focusing on recent studies and in vivo evidence from humans and/or non-human primates (NHPs), when available. Read More

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Genome Sequences of Five Arenaviruses from Pygmy Mice (Mus minutoides) in Sierra Leone.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2022 May 7;11(5):e0009522. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

The genome sequences of five strains of a mammarenavirus were assembled from metagenomic data from pygmy mice (Mus minutoides) captured in Sierra Leone. The nearest fully sequenced relatives of this virus, which was named Seli virus, are lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Lunk virus, and Ryukyu virus. Read More

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Promyelocytic leukemia protein is a restriction factor for Junín virus independently of Z matrix protein.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2022 05 17;606:168-173. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Laboratorio de Estrategias Antivirales, Instituto de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, IQUIBICEN, UBA-CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

The New World (NW) mammarenavirus Junín (JUNV) is the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, a human endemic disease of Argentina. Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) has been reported as a restriction factor for several viruses although the mechanism/s behind PML-mediated antiviral effect may be diverse and are a matter of debate. Previous studies have reported a nuclear to cytoplasm translocation of PML during the murine Old World mammarenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. Read More

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Ribavirin for treating Lassa fever: A systematic review of pre-clinical studies and implications for human dosing.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 03 30;16(3):e0010289. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Ribavirin is currently the standard of care for treating Lassa fever. However, the human clinical trial data supporting its use suffer from several serious flaws that render the results and conclusions unreliable. We performed a systematic review of available pre-clinical data and human pharmacokinetic data on ribavirin in Lassa. Read More

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A case report of human infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in Israel.

J Med Virol 2022 Aug 12;94(8):4012-4014. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Infectious Diseases and Control Unit, Samson Assuta Ashdod University Hospital, Ashdod, Israel and Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is an often-overlooked cause for viral meningitis but can have severe consequences in certain clinical situations. We present the first documented infection by LCMV in Israel. The epidemiology of LCMV is evolving with a potential for a worldwide endemicity due to the widespread presence of the natural host. Read More

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LCMV induced downregulation of HVEM on antiviral T cells is critical for an efficient effector response.

Eur J Immunol 2022 Jun 18;52(6):924-935. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Molecular Health Sciences, Department of Biology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, 8093, Switzerland.

T-cell responses against tumors and pathogens are critically shaped by cosignaling molecules providing a second signal. Interaction of herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM, CD270, TNFRSF14) with multiple ligands has been proposed to promote or inhibit T-cell responses and inflammation, dependent on the context. In this study, we show that absence of HVEM did neither affect generation of effector nor maintenance of memory antiviral T cells and accordingly viral clearance upon acute and chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, due to potent HVEM downregulation during infection. Read More

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Machupo Virus with Mutations in the Transmembrane Domain and Glycosylation Sites of the Glycoprotein Is Attenuated and Immunogenic in Animal Models of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever.

J Virol 2022 04 28;96(8):e0020922. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Department of Microbiology, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima, Japan.

Several highly pathogenic mammarenaviruses cause severe hemorrhagic and neurologic disease in humans for which vaccines and antivirals are limited or unavailable. New World (NW) mammarenavirus Machupo virus (MACV) infection causes Bolivian hemorrhagic fever in humans. We previously reported that the disruption of specific N-linked glycan sites on the glycoprotein (GPC) partially attenuates MACV in an interferon alpha/beta and gamma (IFN-α/β and -γ) receptor knockout (R) mouse model. Read More

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Infection of Human Endothelial Cells with Lassa Virus Induces Early but Transient Activation and Low Type I IFN Response Compared to the Closely-Related Nonpathogenic Mopeia Virus.

Viruses 2022 03 21;14(3). Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Unité de Biologie des Infections Virales Emergentes, Institut Pasteur, 69007 Lyon, France.

Lassa virus (LASV), an Old World arenavirus, is responsible for hemorrhagic fevers in western Africa. The privileged tropism of LASV for endothelial cells combined with a dysregulated inflammatory response are the main cause of the increase in vascular permeability observed during the disease. Mopeia virus (MOPV) is another arenavirus closely related to LASV but nonpathogenic for non-human primates (NHPs) and has never been described in humans. Read More

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Contrasting Modes of New World Arenavirus Neutralization by Immunization-Elicited Monoclonal Antibodies.

mBio 2022 04 22;13(2):e0265021. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxfordgrid.4991.5, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Transmission of the New World hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses Junín virus (JUNV) and Machupo virus (MACV) to humans is facilitated, in part, by the interaction between the arenavirus GP1 glycoprotein and the human transferrin receptor 1 (hTfR1). We utilize a mouse model of live-attenuated immunization with envelope exchange viruses to isolate neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NAbs) specific to JUNV GP1 and MACV GP1. Structures of two NAbs, termed JUN1 and MAC1, demonstrate that they neutralize through disruption of hTfR1 recognition. Read More

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Echoencephalography of encephalopathy due to congenital lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.

J Neuroimaging 2022 05 17;32(3):412-419. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Department of Neurology, Child Neurology Division, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama, USA.

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Contemporary and emerging pharmacotherapeutic agents for the treatment of Lassa viral haemorrhagic fever disease.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2022 05;77(6):1525-1531

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

This review was designed to discuss the emerging and current pharmacotherapeutic agents for the treatment of Lassa viral haemorrhagic fever disease (LVHFD), also known as Lassa fever (LF). Original peer-reviewed articles that investigated LF were identified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search. Information was also sourced from printed textbooks and reports by recognized health professional bodies such as the WHO, CDC, the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Read More

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