4,351 results match your criteria Arenaviruses


Arenavirus genomics: novel insights into viral diversity, origin, and evolution.

Curr Opin Virol 2018 Nov 26;34:18-28. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Scientific Institute, IRCCS E. MEDEA, Bioinformatics, 23842 Bosisio Parini, Lecco, Italy. Electronic address:

Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized our knowledge of virus diversity and evolution. In the case of arenaviruses, which are the focus of this review, metagenomic/metatranscriptomic approaches identified reptile-infecting and fish-infecting viruses, also showing that bi-segmented genomes are not a universal feature of the Arenaviridae family. Novel mammarenaviruses were described, allowing inference of their geographic origin and evolutionary dynamics. Read More

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November 2018

Recombinant Lassa Virus Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein as a Tool for High-Throughput Drug Screens and Neutralizing Antibody Assays.

Viruses 2018 Nov 20;10(11). Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick (IRF-Frederick), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), B-8200 Research Plaza, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

Lassa virus (LASV), a mammarenavirus, infects an estimated 100,000⁻300,000 individuals yearly in western Africa and frequently causes lethal disease. Currently, no LASV-specific antivirals or vaccines are commercially available for prevention or treatment of Lassa fever, the disease caused by LASV. The development of medical countermeasure screening platforms is a crucial step to yield licensable products. Read More

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November 2018
11 Reads

Characterization of Haartman Institute snake virus-1 (HISV-1) and HISV-like viruses-The representatives of genus Hartmanivirus, family Arenaviridae.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Nov 14;14(11):e1007415. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

The family Arenaviridae comprises three genera, Mammarenavirus, Reptarenavirus and the most recently added Hartmanivirus. Arenaviruses have a bisegmented genome with ambisense coding strategy. For mammarenaviruses and reptarenaviruses the L segment encodes the Z protein (ZP) and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and the S segment encodes the glycoprotein precursor and the nucleoprotein. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Rodent control to fight Lassa fever: Evaluation and lessons learned from a 4-year study in Upper Guinea.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Nov 6;12(11):e0006829. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Virology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany.

Lassa fever is a viral haemorrhagic fever caused by an arenavirus. The disease is endemic in West African countries, including Guinea. The rodents Mastomys natalensis and Mastomys erythroleucus have been identified as Lassa virus reservoirs in Guinea. Read More

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November 2018

Tangeretin, an extract from Citrus peels, blocks cellular entry of arenaviruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 16;160:87-93. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China; Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, China. Electronic address:

The family Arenaviridae consists of numerous enveloped RNA viruses with ambisense coding strategies. Eight arenaviruses, including Lassa virus, are known to cause severe and fatal viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in humans, yet vaccines and treatments for disease caused by arenaviruses are very limited. In this study, we screened a natural product library consisting of 131 compounds and identified tangeretin, a polymethoxylated flavone widely present in citrus fruit peels, as a Lassa virus entry inhibitor that blocks viral fusion. Read More

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December 2018
10 Reads

Does exploratory behavior or activity in a wild mouse explain susceptibility to virus infection?

Curr Zool 2018 Oct 12;64(5):585-592. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Evolutionary Ecology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Exploration and activity are often described as trade-offs between the fitness benefits of gathering information and resources, and the potential costs of increasing exposure to predators and parasites. More exploratory individuals are predicted to have higher rates of parasitism, but this relationship has rarely been examined for virus infections in wild populations. Here, we used the multimammate mouse to investigate the relationship between exploration, activity, and infection with Morogoro virus (MORV). Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads
1.814 Impact Factor

Structure-based classification defines the discrete conformational classes adopted by the arenaviral GP1.

J Virol 2018 Oct 10. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

The emergence of Old and New World arenaviruses from rodent reservoirs persistently threatens human health. The GP1 subunit of the envelope-displayed arenaviral glycoprotein spike complex, GPC, mediates host-cell recognition and is an important determinant of cross-species transmission. Previous structural analyses of Old World arenaviral GP1 glycoproteins, alone and in complex with a cognate GP2 subunit, have revealed that GP1 adopts two distinct conformational states, distinguished by differences in orientation of helical regions of the molecule. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Structural basis for receptor recognition by Lujo virus.

Nat Microbiol 2018 Oct 27;3(10):1153-1160. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Department of Structural Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

Lujo virus (LUJV) has emerged as a highly fatal human pathogen. Despite its membership among the Arenaviridae, LUJV does not classify with the known Old and New World groups of that viral family. Likewise, LUJV was recently found to use neuropilin-2 (NRP2) as a cellular receptor instead of the canonical receptors used by Old World and New World arenaviruses. Read More

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October 2018

Current research for a vaccine against Lassa hemorrhagic fever virus.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2018 14;12:2519-2527. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

Zoonotic Diseases and Special Pathogens Program, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB, Canada,

Lassa virus (LASV) is a rodent-borne arenavirus endemic to several West African countries that causes Lassa fever (LF). LF is typically mild but it can cause severe disease characterized by hemorrhagic fever and multi-organ failure. A current outbreak of LASV in Nigeria has seen greater than 300 cases with a case fatality rate of 22%. Read More

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Production of recombinant NS1 protein and its possible use in encephalitic flavivirus differential diagnosis.

Protein Expr Purif 2019 Jan 17;153:18-25. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Área de Virosis Emergentes y Zoonóticas (AVEZ), Laboratorio de Ingeniería Genética y Biología Celular y Molecular (LIGBCM), Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología (DCyT), Universidad Nacional de Quilmes (UNQ), Roque Sáenz Peña 352, B1876BXD, Bernal, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are two of the major causes of arboviral encephalitis in the Americas. The co-circulation of related flaviviruses in the Americas and prior vaccination against flaviviruses pose problems to the diagnostic specificity of serological assays due to the development of cross-reactive antibodies. An accurate diagnosis method capable of differentiating these related viruses is needed. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

Review of Biology and Replication.

Front Microbiol 2018 3;9:1751. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX, United States.

The family is divided into three genera: , , and . The contain viruses responsible for causing human hemorrhagic fever diseases including New World viruses Junin, Machupo, Guanarito, Sabia, and Chapare virus and Old World viruses Lassa, and Lujo virus. These two groups of arenaviruses share the same genome organization composed of two ambisense RNA segments. Read More

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August 2018
6 Reads
3.940 Impact Factor

Cholestasis induced liver pathology results in dysfunctional immune responses after arenavirus infection.

Sci Rep 2018 Aug 15;8(1):12179. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Department of Molecular Medicine II, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University, Universitätsstrasse. 1, 40225, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Immune responses are critical for defense against pathogens. However, prolonged viral infection can result in defective T cell immunity, leading to chronic viral infection. We studied immune activation in response to arenavirus infection during cholestasis using bile duct ligation (BDL). Read More

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August 2018
3 Reads

Visualization of Double-Stranded RNA Colocalizing With Pattern Recognition Receptors in Arenavirus Infected Cells.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 24;8:251. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Department of Pathology and Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, United States.

An important step in the initiation of the innate immune response to virus infection is the recognition of non-self, viral RNA, including double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), by cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). For many positive-sense RNA viruses and DNA viruses, the production of viral dsRNA, and the interaction of viral dsRNA and PRRs are well characterized. However, for negative-sense RNA viruses, viral dsRNA was thought to be produced at low to undetectable levels and PRR recognition of viral dsRNA is still largely unclear. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

A genome-wide siRNA screen identifies a druggable host pathway essential for the Ebola virus life cycle.

Genome Med 2018 08 7;10(1):58. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 S 4th St., Hamilton, MT, 59840, USA.

Background: The 2014-2016 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa highlighted the need for improved therapeutic options against this virus. Approaches targeting host factors/pathways essential for the virus are advantageous because they can potentially target a wide range of viruses, including newly emerging ones and because the development of resistance is less likely than when targeting the virus directly. However, systematic approaches for screening host factors important for EBOV have been hampered by the necessity to work with this virus at biosafety level 4 (BSL4). Read More

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August 2018
12 Reads

Neutralization of Junín virus by single domain antibodies targeted against the nucleoprotein.

Sci Rep 2018 Jul 30;8(1):11451. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

VIB Center for Medical Biotechnology, Ghent, B-9052, Belgium.

The syndrome viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) designates a broad range of diseases that are caused by different viruses including members of the family Arenaviridae. Prophylaxis for Argentine Haemorrhagic Fever (AHF), caused by the arenavirus Junín (JUNV), has been achieved by the use of a live attenuated vaccine, named Candid#1. The standard treatment of AHF is transfusion of convalescent human plasma. Read More

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July 2018
4 Reads

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Clone 13 infection causes either persistence or acute death dependent on IFN-1, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), and host genetics.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 08 30;115(33):E7814-E7823. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037.

Understanding of T cell exhaustion and successful therapy to restore T cell function was first described using Clone (Cl) 13 variant selected from the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) Armstrong (ARM) 53b parental strain. T cell exhaustion plays a pivotal role in both persistent infections and cancers of mice and humans. C57BL/6, BALB, SWR/J, A/J, 129, C3H, and all but one collaborative cross (CC) mouse strain following Cl 13 infection have immunosuppressed T cell responses, high PD-1, and viral titers leading to persistent infection and normal life spans. Read More

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August 2018
9 Reads

Generation and Optimization of a Green Fluorescent Protein-Expressing Transcription and Replication-Competent Virus-Like Particle System for Ebola Virus.

J Infect Dis 2018 Nov;218(suppl_5):S360-S364

Institute for Molecular Virology and Cell Biology.

Work with infectious Ebola virus is restricted to biosafety level (BSL) 4 laboratories. To overcome this limitation, life cycle modeling systems, which recapitulate part or all of the virus life cycle under BSL-1 or -2 conditions, have been developed. The tetracistronic transcription and replication-competent virus-like particle (trVLP) system is currently the most advanced of these systems and is particularly useful for drug screening. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

The S Genome Segment Is Sufficient to Maintain Pathogenicity in Intra-Clade Lassa Virus Reassortants in a Guinea Pig Model.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 11;8:240. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Viral Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Genome reassortment in Lassa virus (LASV) has been reported in nature, but phenotypic consequences of this phenomenon are not well described. Here we characterize, both and , reassortment between 2 LASV strains: the prototypic 1976 Josiah strain and a more recently isolated 2015 Liberian strain. analysis showed that although cis- and trans-acting elements of viral RNA synthesis were compatible between strains, reassortants demonstrated different levels of viral replication. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Lifecycle modelling systems support inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) as a pro-viral factor and antiviral target for New World arenaviruses.

Antiviral Res 2018 Sep 19;157:140-150. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Hamilton, MT, USA; Junior Research Group Arenavirus Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald, Insel Riems, Germany. Electronic address:

Infection with Junín virus (JUNV) is currently being effectively managed in the endemic region using a combination of targeted vaccination and plasma therapy. However, the long-term sustainability of plasma therapy is unclear and similar resources are not available for other New World arenaviruses. As a result, there has been renewed interest regarding the potential of drug-based therapies. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Widespread arenavirus occurrence and seroprevalence in small mammals, Nigeria.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Jul 13;11(1):416. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Lassa fever, killing thousands of people annually, is the most reported viral zoonotic disease in Nigeria. Recently, different rodent species carrying diverse lineages of the Lassa virus (LASV) in addition to a novel Mobala-like genetic sequence were detected within the country. Here, screening 906 small mammal specimens from 11 localities for IgG antibodies and incorporating previous PCR detection data involving the same populations, we further describe arenavirus prevalence across Nigeria in relation to host species and geographical location. Read More

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July 2018
6 Reads

DDX3 suppresses type I interferons and favors viral replication during Arenavirus infection.

PLoS Pathog 2018 07 12;14(7):e1007125. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Division of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States of America.

Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) diseases that are associated with high morbidity and mortality in humans. Accordingly, HF arenaviruses have been listed as top-priority emerging diseases for which countermeasures are urgently needed. Because arenavirus nucleoprotein (NP) plays critical roles in both virus multiplication and immune-evasion, we used an unbiased proteomic approach to identify NP-interacting proteins in human cells. Read More

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July 2018
6 Reads

Isolation and genomic characterization of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in ticks from northeastern China.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 10;65(6):1733-1739. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

School of Life Sciences and Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan, China.

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a rodent-borne arenavirus that is considered a neglected cause of neurologic diseases in humans. In this study, we described genomic characterization of newly isolated LCMVs in Haemaphysalis longicornis, Dermacentor nuttalli, Dermacentor silvarum and Ixodes persulcatus in Jilin Province, northeastern China. The complete sequences of the small (S) and large (L) segments of LCMVs in ticks contained 3,375 and 7,235-7,241 nucleotides, respectively. Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads

Serological Evidence for the Circulation of Ebolaviruses in Pigs From Sierra Leone.

J Infect Dis 2018 Nov;218(suppl_5):S305-S311

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Greifswald - Insel Riems, Germany.

Many human ebolavirus outbreaks have been linked to contact with wildlife including nonhuman primates and bats, which are assumed to serve as host species. However, it is largely unknown to what extent other animal species, particularly livestock, are involved in the transmission cycle or act as additional hosts for filoviruses. Pigs were identified as a susceptible host for Reston virus with subsequent transmission to humans reported in the Philippines. Read More

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November 2018
14 Reads

Transferrin and transferrin receptors update.

Authors:
Hiroshi Kawabata

Free Radic Biol Med 2018 Jun 30. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Department of Hematology and Immunology, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada-machi, Ishikawa-ken 920-0293, Japan. Electronic address:

In vertebrates, transferrin (Tf) safely delivers iron through circulation to cells. Tf-bound iron is incorporated through Tf receptor (TfR) 1-mediated endocytosis. TfR1 can mediate cellular uptake of both Tf and H-ferritin, an iron storage protein. Read More

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June 2018
17 Reads

Xapuri virus, a novel mammarenavirus: natural reassortment and increased diversity between New World viruses.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Jun 29;7(1):120. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Laboratory of Hantaviruses and Rickettsiosis, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro - RJ, 21040-360, Brazil.

Mammarenavirus RNA was detected in Musser's bristly mouse (Neacomys musseri) from the Amazon region, and this detection indicated that rodents were infected with a novel mammarenavirus, with the proposed name Xapuri virus (XAPV), which is phylogenetically related to New World Clade B and Clade C viruses. XAPV may represent the first natural reassortment of the Arenaviridae family and a new unrecognized clade within the Tacaribe serocomplex group. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Mitigation of the global impact of Lassa fever: Have we investigated enough about this Arenavirus? - A bibliometric analysis of Lassa Fever research.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2018 Jul - Aug;24:13-14. Epub 2018 Jun 23.

Public Health and Infection Research and Incubator Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia; Medical School, Universidad Franz Tamayo/UNIFRANZ, Bolivia. Electronic address:

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August 2018
14 Reads

Structure of the Lassa virus glycan shield provides a model for immunological resistance.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 07 25;115(28):7320-7325. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Centre for Biological Sciences and Institute of Life Sciences, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton, United Kingdom;

Lassa virus is an Old World arenavirus endemic to West Africa that causes severe hemorrhagic fever. Vaccine development has focused on the envelope glycoprotein complex (GPC) that extends from the virion envelope. The often inadequate antibody immune response elicited by both vaccine and natural infection has been, in part, attributed to the abundance of -linked glycosylation on the GPC. Read More

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July 2018
15 Reads

Baited vaccines: A strategy to mitigate rodent-borne viral zoonoses in humans.

Zoonoses Public Health 2018 Jun 21. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Zoonotic Diseases and Special Pathogens, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Rodents serve as the natural reservoir and vector for a variety of pathogens, some of which are responsible for severe and life-threatening disease in humans. Despite the significant impact in humans many of these viruses, including Old and New World hantaviruses as well as Arenaviruses, most have no specific vaccine or therapeutic to treat or prevent human infection. The recent success of wildlife vaccines to mitigate rabies in animal populations offers interesting insight into the use of similar strategies for other zoonotic agents of human disease. Read More

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June 2018
10 Reads

Screening and Identification of Lassa Virus Entry Inhibitors from an FDA-Approved Drug Library.

J Virol 2018 08 31;92(16). Epub 2018 Jul 31.

University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

(LASV) belongs to the genus (family ) and causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. At present, there are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs or vaccines specific for LASV. Here, high-throughput screening of an FDA-approved drug library was performed against LASV entry by using pseudotype virus bearing LASV envelope glycoprotein (GPC). Read More

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Description and characterization of a novel live-attenuated tri-segmented Machupo virus in Guinea pigs.

Virol J 2018 06 7;15(1):99. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Unité de virologie, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, 1 place Valérie André, 91220, Brétigny-sur-Orge, France.

Background: Machupo virus (MACV) is a member of the Mammarenavirus genus, Arenaviridae family and is the etiologic agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, which causes small outbreaks or sporadic cases. Several other arenaviruses in South America Junín virus (JUNV) in Argentina, Guanarito in Venezuela, Sabiá in Brazil and Chapare in Bolivia, also are responsible for human hemorrhagic fevers. Among these arenaviruses, JUNV caused thousands of human cases until 1991, when the live attenuated Candid #1 vaccine, was used. Read More

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June 2018
11 Reads

TIM-1 Mediates Dystroglycan-Independent Entry of Lassa Virus.

J Virol 2018 08 31;92(16). Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA

Lassa virus (LASV) is an Old World arenavirus responsible for hundreds of thousands of infections in West Africa every year. LASV entry into a variety of cell types is mediated by interactions with glycosyltransferase LARGE-modified O-linked glycans present on the ubiquitous receptor α-dystroglycan (αDG). However, cells lacking αDG are permissive to LASV infection, suggesting that alternative receptors exist. Read More

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August 2018
12 Reads

1-Benzyl-3-cetyl-2-methylimidazolium Iodide (NH125) Is a Broad-Spectrum Inhibitor of Virus Entry with Lysosomotropic Features.

Viruses 2018 06 5;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Institut für Virologie und Immunologie (IVI), Abteilung Virologie, CH-3147 Mittelhäusern, Switzerland.

Cellular kinases are crucial for the transcription/replication of many negative-strand RNA viruses and might serve as targets for antiviral therapy. In this study, a library comprising 80 kinase inhibitors was screened for antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a prototype member of the family . 1-Benzyl-3-cetyl-2-methylimidazolium iodide (NH125), an inhibitor of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinase, significantly inhibited entry of single-cycle VSV encoding a luciferase reporter. Read More

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June 2018
7 Reads

Lassa virus glycoprotein: stopping a moving target.

Curr Opin Virol 2018 Aug 26;31:52-58. Epub 2018 May 26.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA; Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA. Electronic address:

The structure of a prefusion arenavirus GPC was enigmatic for many years, owing to the metastable and non-covalent nature of the association between the receptor binding and fusion subunits. Recent engineering efforts to stabilize the glycoprotein of the Old World arenavirus Lassa in a native, yet cleaved state, allowed the first structure of any arenavirus prefusion GPC trimer to be determined. Comparison of this structure with the structures of other arenavirus glycoprotein subunits reveals surprising findings: that the receptor binding subunit, GP1, of Lassa virus is conformationally labile, while the GP1 subunit of New World arenaviruses is not, and that the arenavirus GPC adopts a trimeric state unlike other glycoproteins with similar fusion machinery. Read More

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Emerging Rodent-Borne Viral Zoonoses in Trento, Italy.

Ecohealth 2018 09 23;15(3):695-704. Epub 2018 May 23.

Department of Biodiversity and Molecular Ecology, Research and Innovation Center, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Via E. Mach, 1, 38010, San Michele all'Adige, TN, Italy.

Rodent-borne hanta- and arenaviruses are an emerging public health threat in Europe; however, their circulation in human populations is usually underestimated since most infections are asymptomatic. Compared to other European countries, Italy is considered 'low risk' for these viruses, yet in the Province of Trento, two pathogenic hantaviruses (Puumala and Dobrava-Belgrade virus) and one arenavirus (Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus) are known to circulate in rodent reservoirs. In this paper, we performed a follow-up serological screening in humans to detect variation in the prevalence of these three viruses compared to previous analyses carried out in 2002. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Epidemiology of acute febrile illness in Latin America.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 Aug 17;24(8):827-835. Epub 2018 May 17.

Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Pesquisa Clínica, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: The causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) in Latin America are diverse and their complexity increases as the proportion of fever due to malaria decreases, as malaria control measures and new pathogens emerge in the region. In this context, it is important to shed light on the gaps in the epidemiological characteristics and the geographic range for many AFI aetiologies.

Objectives: To review studies on community-acquired fever aetiology other than malaria in Latin America, and to highlight knowledge gaps and challenges needing further investigation. Read More

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August 2018
14 Reads

Crystal structures of endonuclease domain complexed with diketo-acid ligands.

IUCrJ 2018 Mar 22;5(Pt 2):223-235. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Aix-Marseille Université, AFMB UMR 7257, 13288 Marseille, France.

The family, together with the and families, is one of the three negative-stranded RNA viral families that encode an endonuclease in their genome. The endonuclease domain is at the N-terminus of the L protein, a multifunctional protein that includes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The synthesis of mRNA in arenaviruses is a process that is primed by capped nucleotides that are 'stolen' from the cellular mRNA by the endonuclease domain in cooperation with other domains of the L protein. Read More

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March 2018
6 Reads

Vaccine-elicited receptor-binding site antibodies neutralize two New World hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses.

Nat Commun 2018 05 14;9(1):1884. Epub 2018 May 14.

Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

While five arenaviruses cause human hemorrhagic fevers in the Western Hemisphere, only Junin virus (JUNV) has a vaccine. The GP1 subunit of their envelope glycoprotein binds transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) using a surface that substantially varies in sequence among the viruses. As such, receptor-mimicking antibodies described to date are type-specific and lack the usual breadth associated with this mode of neutralization. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

The adaptor molecule CD2AP in CD4 T cells modulates differentiation of follicular helper T cells during chronic LCMV infection.

PLoS Pathog 2018 05 7;14(5):e1007053. Epub 2018 May 7.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

CD4 T cell-mediated help to CD8 T cells and B cells is a critical arm of the adaptive immune system required for control of pathogen infection. CD4 T cells express cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules that support a sustained CD8 T cell response and also enhance generation of protective antibody by germinal center B cells. However, the molecular components that modulate CD4 T cell functions in response to viral infection or vaccine are incompletely understood. Read More

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Involvement of Pro-Inflammatory Macrophages in Liver Pathology of Pirital Virus-Infected Syrian Hamsters.

Viruses 2018 05 2;10(5). Epub 2018 May 2.

Arthropod-Borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

New World arenaviruses cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in South America. Pirital virus (PIRV), a mammarenavirus hosted by Alston’s cotton rat (), causes a disease in Syrian golden hamsters () (biosafety level-3, BSL-3) that has many pathologic similarities to the South American hemorrhagic fevers (BSL-4) and, thus, is considered among the best small-animal models for human arenavirus disease. Here, we extend in greater detail previously described clinical and pathological findings in Syrian hamsters and provide evidence for a pro-inflammatory macrophage response during PIRV infection. Read More

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May 2018
3 Reads

Antibodies to the Glycoprotein GP2 Subunit Cross-React between Old and New World Arenaviruses.

mSphere 2018 May-Jun;3(3). Epub 2018 May 2.

Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA

Arenaviruses pose a major public health threat and cause numerous infections in humans each year. Although most viruses belonging to this family do not cause disease in humans, some arenaviruses, such as Lassa virus and Machupo virus, are the etiological agents of lethal hemorrhagic fevers. The absence of a currently licensed vaccine and the highly pathogenic nature of these viruses both make the necessity of developing viable vaccines and therapeutics all the more urgent. Read More

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October 2018

Mitigating the risks of global spread of Lassa fever at the 2018 Hajj pilgrimage.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2018 May - Jun;23:99-100. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Prince Mohammed Bin Abdulaziz Hospital, Ministry of Health and College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

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October 2018
2 Reads

Novel Insights into Cell Entry of Emerging Human Pathogenic Arenaviruses.

J Mol Biol 2018 Jun 27;430(13):1839-1852. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Institute of Microbiology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne CH-1011, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Viral hemorrhagic fevers caused by emerging RNA viruses of the Arenavirus family are among the most devastating human diseases. Climate change, global trade, and increasing urbanization promote the emergence and re-emergence of these human pathogenic viruses. Emerging pathogenic arenaviruses are of zoonotic origin and reservoir-to-human transmission is crucial for spillover into human populations. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Role of the ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway in the Replication of Junín and Tacaribe Viruses.

Viruses 2018 04 17;10(4). Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Laboratorio de Virología, Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires C1428EGA, Argentina.

We have previously shown that the infection of cell cultures with the arenaviruses Junín (JUNV), Tacaribe (TCRV), and Pichindé promotes the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and that this activation is required for the achievement of a productive infection. Here we examined the contribution of ERK1/2 in early steps of JUNV and TCRV multiplication. JUNV adsorption, internalization, and uncoating were not affected by treatment of cultured cells with U0126, an inhibitor of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Read More

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Type I interferon signaling attenuates regulatory T cell function in viral infection and in the tumor microenvironment.

PLoS Pathog 2018 04 19;14(4):e1006985. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States of America.

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a cardinal role in the immune system by suppressing detrimental autoimmune responses, but their role in acute, chronic infectious diseases and tumor microenvironment remains unclear. We recently demonstrated that IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) signaling promotes Treg function in autoimmunity. Here we dissected the functional role of IFNAR-signaling in Tregs using Treg-specific IFNAR deficient (IFNARfl/flxFoxp3YFP-Cre) mice in acute LCMV Armstrong, chronic Clone-13 viral infection, and in tumor models. Read More

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April 2018
5 Reads

Arenaviral Nucleoproteins Suppress PACT-Induced Augmentation of RIG-I Function To Inhibit Type I Interferon Production.

J Virol 2018 07 13;92(13). Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

RIG-I is a major cytoplasmic sensor of viral pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) RNA and induces type I interferon (IFN) production upon viral infection. A double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding protein, PACT, plays an important role in potentiating RIG-I function. We have shown previously that arenaviral nucleoproteins (NPs) suppress type I IFN production via their RNase activity to degrade PAMP RNA. Read More

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July 2018
3 Reads

Replication-incompetent rabies virus vector harboring glycoprotein gene of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) protects mice from LCMV challenge.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 04 16;12(4):e0006398. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Department of virology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) causes a variety of diseases, including asymptomatic infections, meningitis, and congenital infections in the fetus of infected mother. The development of a safe and effective vaccine against LCMV is imperative. This study aims to develop a new candidate vaccine against LCMV using a recombinant replication-incompetent rabies virus (RV) vector. Read More

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April 2018
4 Reads

Role of PD-1 during effector CD8 T cell differentiation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 05 13;115(18):4749-4754. Epub 2018 Apr 13.

Emory Vaccine Center, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322;

PD-1 (programmed cell death-1) is the central inhibitory receptor regulating CD8 T cell exhaustion during chronic viral infection and cancer. Interestingly, PD-1 is also expressed transiently by activated CD8 T cells during acute viral infection, but the role of PD-1 in modulating T cell effector differentiation and function is not well defined. To address this question, we examined the expression kinetics and role of PD-1 during acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection of mice. Read More

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May 2018
9 Reads

Visualization of Arenavirus RNA Species in Individual Cells by Single-Molecule Fluorescence Hybridization Suggests a Model of Cyclical Infection and Clearance during Persistence.

J Virol 2018 06 29;92(12). Epub 2018 May 29.

Department of Medicine, Division of Immunobiology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, USA

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis mammarenavirus (LCMV) is an enveloped, negative-strand RNA virus that causes serious disease in humans but establishes an asymptomatic, lifelong infection in reservoir rodents. Different models have been proposed to describe how arenaviruses regulate the replication and transcription of their bisegmented, single-stranded RNA genomes, particularly during persistent infection. However, these models were based largely on viral RNA profiling data derived from entire populations of cells. Read More

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June 2018
14 Reads

Individually addressable and dynamic DNA gates for multiplexed cell sorting.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 04 9;115(17):4357-4362. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30332;

The ability to analyze and isolate cells based on the expression of specific surface markers has increased our understanding of cell biology and produced numerous applications for biomedicine. However, established cell-sorting platforms rely on labels that are limited in number due to biophysical constraints, such as overlapping emission spectra of fluorophores in FACS. Here, we establish a framework built on a system of orthogonal and extensible DNA gates for multiplexed cell sorting. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

Development and evaluation of antibody-capture immunoassays for detection of Lassa virus nucleoprotein-specific immunoglobulin M and G.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 03 29;12(3):e0006361. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

Department of Virology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: The classical method for detection of Lassa virus-specific antibodies is the immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using virus-infected cells as antigen. However, IFA requires laboratories of biosafety level 4 for assay production and an experienced investigator to interpret the fluorescence signals. Therefore, we aimed to establish and evaluate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) using recombinant Lassa virus nucleoprotein (NP) as antigen. Read More

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March 2018
9 Reads