4,630 results match your criteria Arenaviruses


Upregulation of CD47 Is a Host Checkpoint Response to Pathogen Recognition.

mBio 2020 06 23;11(3). Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Laboratory of Persistent Viral Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, USA

It is well understood that the adaptive immune response to infectious agents includes a modulating suppressive component as well as an activating component. We now show that the very early innate response also has an immunosuppressive component. Infected cells upregulate the CD47 "don't eat me" signal, which slows the phagocytic uptake of dying and viable cells as well as downstream antigen-presenting cell (APC) functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01293-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315125PMC
June 2020
6.786 Impact Factor

PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS OF PLASMA SAMPLES FROM BOA CONSTRICTORS WITH AND WITHOUT REPTARENAVIRUS INFECTION.

J Zoo Wildl Med 2020 Jun;51(2):350-356

Laboklin GmbH & Co. KG, Steubenstraße 4, 97688 Bad Kissingen, Germany.

Reptarenaviruses infect a variety of boid and pythonid snake species worldwide and have been shown to be the cause of inclusion body disease (IBD). Little is known about the correlations between virus infection and clinical disease, as well as the effects of viral infection on the immune system and the blood protein fractions. The goal of this study was to examine the differences in the plasma protein fractions in reptarenavirus reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-negative and -positive tested snakes with and without clinical signs of disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2019-0189DOI Listing

Identification of the dietary supplement capsaicin as an inhibitor of Lassa virus entry.

Acta Pharm Sin B 2020 May 5;10(5):789-798. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China.

The limited treatment options for the increasing occurrence of Lassa hemorrhagic fever in West Africa poses an urgent need for the discovery and development of novel therapeutics. Dietary supplements, especially natural products that are edible and safe for human use, are a good source of drug discovery with potential for uncovering novel applications. In this study, we tested 40 natural products of dietary supplements and identified capsaicin, a common dietary supplement abundant in chili peppers, as an inhibitor of Lassa virus (LASV) entry with EC of 6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2020.02.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7276894PMC

Lassa Fever: Viral Replication, Disease Pathogenesis, and Host Immune Modulations.

Authors:
Hinh Ly

Pathogens 2020 Jun 3;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, 1988 Fitch Ave., Ste. 295, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA.

Despite major discoveries made in the last few decades about Lassa fever, there are still many unresolved key issues that hamper the development of effective vaccines and therapies against this deadly disease that is endemic in several West African countries. Some of these issues include the lack of a detailed understanding of the viral and participating host factors in completing the virus life cycle, in mediating disease pathogenesis or protection from disease, and in activating or suppressing host innate and cellular immunity against virus infection, as well as of the animal models required for testing vaccines and therapeutics. This Special Issue is devoted to understanding some of these important issues and to exploring the current status of the research and development in combating Lassa fever. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060437DOI Listing

Natural History of Aerosol Induced Lassa Fever in Non‑Human Primates.

Viruses 2020 May 29;12(6). Epub 2020 May 29.

US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

Lassa virus (LASV), an arenavirus causing Lassa fever, is endemic to West Africa with up to 300,000 cases and between 5000 and 10,000 deaths per year. Rarely seen in the United States, Lassa virus is a CDC category A biological agent inasmuch deliberate aerosol exposure can have high mortality rates compared to naturally acquired infection. With the need for an animal model, specific countermeasures remain elusive as there is no FDA-approved vaccine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12060593DOI Listing

Complete genome sequence of Tacaribe virus.

Arch Virol 2020 Aug 27;165(8):1899-1903. Epub 2020 May 27.

Junior Research Group Arenavirus Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Südufer 10, Greifswald, Insel Riems, Germany.

Tacaribe virus (TCRV) is the prototype of the New World arenaviruses (also known as TCRV serocomplex viruses). While TCRV is not itself a human pathogen, many closely related members of this group cause hemorrhagic fever, and thus TCRV has long served as an important BSL2 system for research into diverse areas of arenavirus biology. Due to its widespread use, a coding-complete sequence for both the S and L segments of the bipartite genome has been publically available for almost 30 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04681-9DOI Listing

Households as hotspots of Lassa fever? Assessing the spatial distribution of Lassa virus-infected rodents in rural villages of Guinea.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 Dec;9(1):1055-1064

Bernhard-Nocht-Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany.

The Natal multimammate mouse () is the reservoir host of Lassa virus (LASV), an arenavirus that causes Lassa haemorrhagic fever in humans in West Africa. While previous studies suggest that spillover risk is focal within rural villages due to the spatial behaviour of the rodents, the level of clustering was never specifically assessed. Nevertheless, detailed information on the spatial distribution of infected rodents would be highly valuable to optimize LASV-control campaigns, which are limited to rodent control or interrupting human-rodent contact considering that a human vaccine is not available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1766381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7336995PMC
December 2020

Type I interferon underlies severe disease associated with Junín virus infection in mice.

Elife 2020 May 26;9. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, United States.

Junín virus (JUNV) is one of five New World mammarenaviruses (NWMs) that causes fatal hemorrhagic disease in humans and is the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). The pathogenesis underlying AHF is poorly understood; however, a prolonged, elevated interferon-α (IFN-α) response is associated with a negative disease outcome. A feature of all NWMs that cause viral hemorrhagic fever is the use of human transferrin receptor 1 (hTfR1) for cellular entry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.55352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297529PMC

Sabiá Virus-Like Mammarenavirus in Patient with Fatal Hemorrhagic Fever, Brazil, 2020.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 Jun;26(6):1332-1334

New World arenaviruses can cause chronic infection in rodents and hemorrhagic fever in humans. We identified a Sabiá virus-like mammarenavirus in a patient with fatal hemorrhagic fever from São Paulo, Brazil. The virus was detected through virome enrichment and metagenomic next-generation sequencing technology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2606.200099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7258484PMC
June 2020
6.751 Impact Factor

Is the COVID-19 pandemic masking the deadlier Lassa fever epidemic in Nigeria?

J Clin Virol 2020 07 13;128:104434. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Microbiology, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria.

With the COVID-19 officially declared a pandemic, Nigeria alongside other countries is directing all its resources and manpower to contain this pandemic. However, the existence of Lassa fever (LF), a more severe, zoonotic, endemic and viral haemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus with higher case fatality ratio (CFR) rages on across Nigeria while receiving little or no public health attention. The simultaneously increasing cases of COVID-19 and LF across Nigeria would be catastrophic unless infection prevention and control measures toward both LF and COVID-19 outbreaks are considered alongside. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7219398PMC

Lassa Virus Genetics.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2020 May 17. Epub 2020 May 17.

Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA.

In a pattern repeated across a range of ecological niches, arenaviruses have evolved a compact four-gene genome to orchestrate a complex life cycle in a narrow range of susceptible hosts. A number of mammalian arenaviruses cross-infect humans, often causing a life-threatening viral hemorrhagic fever. Among this group of geographically bound zoonoses, Lassa virus has evolved a unique niche that leads to significant and sustained human morbidity and mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2020_212DOI Listing

Human BST-2/tetherin inhibits Junin virus release from host cells and its inhibition is partially counteracted by viral nucleoprotein.

J Gen Virol 2020 Jun 24;101(6):573-586. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

National Research Center for the Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases (CCPID), Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

Bone marrow stromal cell antigen-2 (BST-2), also known as tetherin, is an interferon-inducible membrane-associated protein. It effectively targets enveloped viruses at the release step of progeny viruses from host cells, thereby restricting the further spread of viral infection. Junin virus (JUNV) is a member of which causes Argentine haemorrhagic fever that is associated with a high rate of mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001414DOI Listing

Selected Emerging Infectious Diseases of Squamata: An Update.

Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2020 May;23(2):353-371

Zoological Medicine Service, University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine, PO Box 100126, 2015 Southwest 16th Avenue, Gainesville, FL 32608-0125, USA.

This article details emerging infectious diseases that have devastating impacts on captive and wild squamates. Treatment advances have been attempted for Cryptosporidium infections in squamates. Gram-positive bacteria, Devriesea agamarum and Austwickia chelonae, are contributing to severe disease in captive and now in wild reptiles, some critically endangered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvex.2020.01.009DOI Listing

Patent landscape of novel technologies for combating category-A Arenavirus infections.

Expert Opin Ther Pat 2020 Apr 20:1-9. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Molecular Connections Private Limited, Bengaluru, India.

: Arenavirus are unique category-A pathogens that are also classified as Orphan diseases. Very few options exist currently for treating Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) caused by viruses belonging to the Arenaviridae family [1]. The current review provides detailed patent landscape and a description of selected technologies developed for combating category-A . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13543776.2020.1755255DOI Listing

Clinical Management of Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever using Ribavirin and Favipiravir, Belgium, 2020.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 Jul 21;26(7):1562-1566. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

We report a case of Argentine hemorrhagic fever diagnosed in a woman in Belgium who traveled from a disease-endemic area. Patient management included supportive care and combination therapy with ribavirin and favipiravir. Of 137 potential contacts, including friends, relatives, and healthcare and laboratory workers, none showed development of clinical symptoms of this disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2607.200275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323566PMC

Identification of Common CD8 T Cell Epitopes from Lassa Fever Survivors in Nigeria and Sierra Leone.

J Virol 2020 Jun 1;94(12). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Viral Immunobiology Laboratory, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA

Early and robust T cell responses have been associated with survival from Lassa fever (LF), but the Lassa virus-specific memory responses have not been well characterized. Regions within the virus surface glycoprotein (GPC) and nucleoprotein (NP) are the main targets of the Lassa virus-specific T cell responses, but, to date, only a few T cell epitopes within these proteins have been identified. We identified GPC and NP regions containing T cell epitopes and HLA haplotypes from LF survivors and used predictive HLA-binding algorithms to identify putative epitopes, which were then experimentally tested using autologous survivor samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00153-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307091PMC
June 2020
4.439 Impact Factor

Differences in Tissue and Species Tropism of Reptarenavirus Species Studied by Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Pseudotypes.

Viruses 2020 Apr 2;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Medicum, Department of Virology, University of Helsinki, 00100 Helsinki, Finland.

Reptarenaviruses cause Boid Inclusion Body Disease (BIBD), and co-infections by several reptarenaviruses are common in affected snakes. Reptarenaviruses have only been found in captive snakes, and their reservoir hosts remain unknown. In affected animals, reptarenaviruses appear to replicate in most cell types, but their complete host range, as well as tissue and cell tropism are unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12040395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232232PMC

Identification of Reptarenaviruses, Hartmaniviruses, and a Novel Chuvirus in Captive Native Brazilian Boa Constrictors with Boid Inclusion Body Disease.

J Virol 2020 May 18;94(11). Epub 2020 May 18.

Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a transmissible viral disease of captive snakes that causes severe losses in snake collections worldwide. It is caused by reptarenavirus infection, which can persist over several years without overt signs but is generally associated with the eventual death of the affected snakes. Thus far, reports have confirmed the existence of reptarenaviruses in captive snakes in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia, but there is no evidence that it also occurs in wild snakes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00001-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7269426PMC

Markov State Model of Lassa Virus Nucleoprotein Reveals Large Structural Changes during the Trimer to Monomer Transition.

Structure 2020 05 31;28(5):548-554.e3. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. Electronic address:

Lassa virus contains a nucleoprotein (NP) that encapsulates the viral genomic RNA forming the ribonucleoprotein (RNP). The NP forms trimers that do not bind RNA, but a structure of only the NP N-terminal domain was co-crystallized with RNA bound. These structures suggested a model in which the NP forms a trimer to keep the RNA gate closed, but then is triggered to undergo a change to a form competent for RNA binding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.str.2020.03.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205590PMC

Structural insight into arenavirus replication machinery.

Nature 2020 03 18;579(7800):615-619. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Arenaviruses can cause severe haemorrhagic fever and neurological diseases in humans and other animals, exemplified by Lassa mammarenavirus, Machupo mammarenavirus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, posing great threats to public health. These viruses encode a large multi-domain RNA-dependent RNA polymerase for transcription and replication of the viral genome. Viral polymerases are one of the leading antiviral therapeutic targets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2114-2DOI Listing

DETECTION OF AN ARENAVIRUS IN A GROUP OF CAPTIVE WAGLER'S PIT VIPERS ().

J Zoo Wildl Med 2020 Mar;51(1):236-240

Laboklin GmbH & Co. KG, Steubenstrasse 4, 97688 Bad Kissingen, Germany,

A group of eight Wagler's pit vipers () from a private collection died with respiratory signs within 6 mo of one another. The group consisted of an adult breeding pair that was wild caught and six offspring from this pair. Four of the dead snakes were submitted for gross and histopathology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2018-0179DOI Listing

A Lassa Virus Live-Attenuated Vaccine Candidate Based on Rearrangement of the Intergenic Region.

mBio 2020 03 24;11(2). Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA

Lassa virus (LASV) poses a significant public health problem within the regions of Lassa fever endemicity in Western Africa. LASV infects several hundred thousand individuals yearly, and a considerable number of Lassa fever cases are associated with high morbidity and lethality. No approved LASV vaccine is available, and current therapy is limited to an off-label usage of ribavirin that is only partially effective and associated with significant side effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00186-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7157513PMC
March 2020
6.786 Impact Factor

Snake Deltavirus Utilizes Envelope Proteins of Different Viruses To Generate Infectious Particles.

mBio 2020 03 17;11(2). Epub 2020 Mar 17.

University of Helsinki, Medicum, Department of Virology, Helsinki, Finland.

Satellite viruses, most commonly found in plants, rely on helper viruses to complete their replication cycle. The only known example of a human satellite virus is the hepatitis D virus (HDV), and it is generally thought to require hepatitis B virus (HBV) to form infectious particles. Until 2018, HDV was the sole representative of the genus and was thought to have evolved in humans, the only known HDV host. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.03250-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7078484PMC

Animal Models of Lassa Fever.

Pathogens 2020 Mar 6;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd., Galveston, TX 77555-0609, USA.

Lassa virus (LASV), the causative agent of Lassa fever, is estimated to be responsible for up to 300,000 new infections and 5000 deaths each year across Western Africa. The most recent 2018 and 2019 Nigerian outbreaks featured alarmingly high fatality rates of up to 25.4%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7157617PMC

TIGIT limits immune pathology during viral infections.

Nat Commun 2020 03 9;11(1):1288. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Institute of Experimental Immunology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057, Zurich, Switzerland.

Co-inhibitory pathways have a fundamental function in regulating T cell responses and control the balance between promoting efficient effector functions and restricting immune pathology. The TIGIT pathway has been implicated in promoting T cell dysfunction in chronic viral infection. Importantly, TIGIT signaling is functionally linked to IL-10 expression, which has an effect on both virus control and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15025-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7062903PMC

High crossreactivity of human T cell responses between Lassa virus lineages.

PLoS Pathog 2020 03 6;16(3):e1008352. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Viral-Immunobiology Laboratory, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

Lassa virus infects hundreds of thousands of people each year across rural West Africa, resulting in a high number of cases of Lassa fever (LF), a febrile disease associated with high morbidity and significant mortality. The lack of approved treatments or interventions underscores the need for an effective vaccine. At least four viral lineages circulate in defined regions throughout West Africa with substantial interlineage nucleotide and amino acid diversity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7080273PMC

Bivalent Junin & Machupo experimental vaccine based on alphavirus RNA replicon vector.

Vaccine 2020 Mar 25;38(14):2949-2959. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Center for Predictive Medicine for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, NIH Regional Bio-containment Laboratory, University of Louisville, KY, USA. Electronic address:

Junin (JUNV) and Machupo (MACV), two mammalian arenaviruses placed on the 2018 WHO watch list, are prevalent in South America causing Argentine and Bolivian hemorrhagic fevers (AHF and BHF), respectively. The live attenuated JUNV vaccine, Candid #1, significantly reduced the incidence of AHF. Vaccination induces neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses which effectively target GP1 (the viral attachment glycoprotein) pocket which accepts the tyrosine residue of the cellular receptor, human transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.02.053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7112472PMC

A Lassa Fever Live-Attenuated Vaccine Based on Codon Deoptimization of the Viral Glycoprotein Gene.

mBio 2020 02 25;11(1). Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA

Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic in Western Africa and is estimated to infect hundreds of thousands of individuals annually. A considerable number of these infections result in Lassa fever (LF), which is associated with significant morbidity and a case-fatality rate as high as 69% among hospitalized confirmed patients. U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00039-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042690PMC
February 2020
6.786 Impact Factor

Chronic virus infection drives CD8 T cell-mediated thymic destruction and impaired negative selection.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 03 24;117(10):5420-5429. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University Health Network, Toronto, ON M5G 2M9, Canada;

Chronic infection provokes alterations in inflammatory and suppressive pathways that potentially affect the function and integrity of multiple tissues, impacting both ongoing immune control and restorative immune therapies. Here we demonstrate that chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection rapidly triggers severe thymic depletion, mediated by CD8 T cell-intrinsic type I interferon (IFN) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (Stat2) signaling. Occurring temporal to T cell exhaustion, thymic cellularity reconstituted despite ongoing viral replication, with a rapid secondary thymic depletion following immune restoration by anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PDL1) blockade. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1913776117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071912PMC

Spatiotemporal regulation of type I interferon expression determines the antiviral polarization of CD4 T cells.

Nat Immunol 2020 03 17;21(3):321-330. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Differentiation of CD4 T cells into either follicular helper T (T) or type 1 helper T (T1) cells influences the balance between humoral and cellular adaptive immunity, but the mechanisms whereby pathogens elicit distinct effector cells are incompletely understood. Here we analyzed the spatiotemporal dynamics of CD4 T cells during infection with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), which induces early, potent neutralizing antibodies, or recombinant lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), which induces a vigorous cellular response but inefficient neutralizing antibodies, expressing the same T cell epitope. Early exposure of dendritic cells to type I interferon (IFN), which occurred during infection with VSV, induced production of the cytokine IL-6 and drove T cell polarization, whereas late exposure to type I IFN, which occurred during infection with LCMV, did not induce IL-6 and allowed differentiation into T1 cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41590-020-0596-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7043938PMC

Clinical features of fatal cases of Chapare virus hemorrhagic fever originating from rural La Paz, Bolivia, 2019: A cluster analysis.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2020 Feb 17:101589. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Universidad Franz Tamayo/UNIFRANZ, Cochabamba, Bolivia; Public Health and Infection Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia; Grupo de Investigación Biomedicina, Faculty of Medicine, Fundación Universitaria Autónoma de las Américas, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia. Electronic address:

Introduction: In 2003 an emerging mammarenavirus (formerly arenaviruses) was discovered in Bolivia and named Chapare (CHAPV). It was associated with severe and fatal hemorrhagic fever, being similar in clinical features to Machupo (MACV). In mid-2019, CHAPV was the cause of a cluster of five cases, two of them laboratory confirmed, three of them fatal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101589DOI Listing
February 2020

Lassa Virus, but Not Highly Pathogenic New World Arenaviruses, Restricts Immunostimulatory Double-Stranded RNA Accumulation during Infection.

J Virol 2020 Apr 16;94(9). Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Department of Pathology, Galveston National Laboratory and Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA

The arenaviruses Lassa virus (LASV), Junín virus (JUNV), and Machupo virus (MACV) can cause severe and fatal diseases in humans. Although these pathogens are closely related, the host immune responses to these virus infections differ remarkably, with direct implications for viral pathogenesis. LASV infection is immunosuppressive, with a very low-level interferon response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02006-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7163147PMC
April 2020
4.439 Impact Factor

Synanthropic rodents as virus reservoirs and transmitters.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2020 7;53:e20190486. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

This review focuses on reports of hepatitis E virus, hantavirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, and arenavirus in synanthropic rodents (Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus, and Mus musculus) within urban environments. Despite their potential impact on human health, relatively few studies have addressed the monitoring of these viruses in rodents. Comprehensive control and preventive activities should include actions such as the elimination or reduction of rat and mouse populations, sanitary education, reduction of shelters for the animals, and restriction of the access of rodents to residences, water, and food supplies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0486-2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7083353PMC

Arenavirus as a potential etiological agent of odontogenic tumours in humans.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2020 Feb 10;39(1):34. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Oncogenomic and Epigenetic Unit, Department of Diagnostic Research and Technological Innovation, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, 00144, Rome, Italy.

Odontogenic tumors (OT) are considered rare events and their epidemiologic data are scarce and under-estimated in developing countries because there is no systematic collection of clinical features including histological analyses of the tissue samples. Furthermore, there is an underestimation of the disease relevance and affected people are often marginalized in spite of severe functional impairment of aero-digestive tract. Etiology of OT in humans is still unknown and it represents an important therapeutic and diagnostic challenge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-020-1540-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7011367PMC
February 2020

The Glycoprotein of the Live-Attenuated Junin Virus Vaccine Strain Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Forms Aggregates prior to Degradation in the Lysosome.

J Virol 2020 Mar 31;94(8). Epub 2020 Mar 31.

University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA

Argentine hemorrhagic fever is a potentially lethal disease that is caused by Junin virus (JUNV). There are currently around 5 million individuals at risk of infection within regions of endemicity in Argentina. The live attenuated vaccine strain Candid #1 (Can) is approved for use in regions of endemicity and has substantially decreased the number of annual Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01693-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7108856PMC

Chronic Viral Infection Promotes Efficient Germinal Center B Cell Responses.

Cell Rep 2020 Jan;30(4):1013-1026.e7

Department of Biomedicine, Division of Experimental Virology, University of Basel, Haus Petersplatz, 4009 Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Persistent viral infections subvert key elements of adaptive immunity. To compare germinal center (GC) B cell responses in chronic and acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection, we exploit activation-induced deaminase (AID) fate-reporter mice and perform adoptive B cell transfer experiments. Chronic infection yields GC B cell responses of higher cellularity than acute infections do, higher memory B cell and antibody secreting cell output for longer periods of time, a better representation of the late B cell repertoire in serum immunoglobulin, and higher titers of protective neutralizing antibodies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.12.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6996002PMC
January 2020

Investigations into the presence of nidoviruses in pythons.

Virol J 2020 01 17;17(1). Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Südufer 10, D-17493, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

Background: Pneumonia and stomatitis represent severe and often fatal diseases in different captive snakes. Apart from bacterial infections, paramyxo-, adeno-, reo- and arenaviruses cause these diseases. In 2014, new viruses emerged as the cause of pneumonia in pythons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-020-1279-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6969405PMC
January 2020

Virus-Induced Interferon Regulates the Urea Cycle.

Immunity 2019 12;51(6):975-977

Immunology Section, Liver Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Integrating transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data, Lercher et al. show in a mouse model of LCMV infection that type I interferon alters the expression and function of key enzymes of the urea cycle in hepatocytes. This results in altered systemic metabolism, attenuating antiviral T cell responses and ameliorating liver injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2019.11.012DOI Listing
December 2019

E3 Ligase ITCH Interacts with the Z Matrix Protein of Lassa and Mopeia Viruses and Is Required for the Release of Infectious Particles.

Viruses 2019 12 31;12(1). Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Unité de Biologie des Infections Virales Emergentes, Institut Pasteur, 69365 Lyon, France.

Lassa virus (LASV) and Mopeia virus (MOPV) are two closely related, rodent-born mammarenaviruses. LASV is the causative agent of Lassa fever, a deadly hemorrhagic fever endemic in West Africa, whereas MOPV is non-pathogenic in humans. The Z matrix protein of arenaviruses is essential to virus assembly and budding by recruiting host factors, a mechanism that remains partially defined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12010049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7019300PMC
December 2019

Rational design of universal immunotherapy for TfR1-tropic arenaviruses.

Nat Commun 2020 01 3;11(1):67. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Department of Structural Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 7610001, Israel.

Certain arenaviruses that circulate in rodent populations can cause life-threatening hemorrhagic fevers when they infect humans. Due to their efficient transmission, arenaviruses pose a severe risk for outbreaks and might be exploited as biological weapons. Effective countermeasures against these viruses are highly desired. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13924-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6941993PMC
January 2020

Immunometabolism of infections.

Authors:
Janelle S Ayres

Nat Rev Immunol 2020 02;20(2):79-80

Molecular and Systems Physiology Lab, Gene Expression Lab and Nomis Center for Immunobiolgy and Microbial Pathogenesis, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41577-019-0266-9DOI Listing
February 2020

Case 40-2019: A 26-Year-Old Returning Traveler with Headache.

N Engl J Med 2019 Dec;381(26):2553-2560

From the Departments of Medicine (G.S.S., N.J.), Radiology (M.G.), and Pathology (M.M.S.), Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Departments of Medicine (G.S.S., N.J.), Radiology (M.G.), and Pathology (M.M.S.), Harvard Medical School - both in Boston.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMcpc1904042DOI Listing
December 2019

The antifungal isavuconazole inhibits the entry of lassa virus by targeting the stable signal peptide-GP2 subunit interface of lassa virus glycoprotein.

Antiviral Res 2020 02 23;174:104701. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, China; Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Lassa virus (LASV) is the causative agent of Lassa hemorrhagic fever in humans, and the limited therapeutic treatment for Lassa fever poses significant threat to public health in West Africa. Using an HIV based pseudovirus platform, we identified isavuconazole, a triazole antifungal for systemic use, as a LASV entry inhibitor with an EC of 1.2 μM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.104701DOI Listing
February 2020

Delayed-onset paraparesis in Lassa fever: A case report.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Mar 19;92:49-52. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Lassa fever response team, Infection Control and Research Centre, Federal Medical Centre Owo, Michael Adekun Ajasin Road, PMB 1053, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Electronic address:

Lassa fever (LF) is an endemic viral hemorrhagic fever in West Africa. Among the serious complications of the disease are neurological manifestations whose spectrum is incompletely known. Here we report the case of a 61-year-old man who developed a delayed-onset paraparesis a few weeks after getting infected with Lassa virus, thereby suggesting a possible association between LF and spinal cord disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.12.022DOI Listing

Seroprevalence of arenavirus and hantavirus in indigenous populations from the Caribbean, Colombia.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2019 20;53:e20190132. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Universidad de Córdoba, Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas del Trópico, Montería, Córdoba, Colombia.

Introduction: In Colombia, there is insufficient epidemiological surveillance of zoonotic hemorrhagic viruses.

Methods: We performed a sero-epidemiological study in indigenous populations of Wayuü, Kankuamos, and Tuchin communities using Maciel hantavirus and Junin arenavirus antigens for IgG detection by ELISA.

Results: IgG antibodies to hantavirus and arenavirus were found in 5/506 (1%) and 2/506 (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0132-2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7083376PMC
February 2020

Molecular Detection and Genetic Characterization of Novel RNA Viruses in Wild and Synanthropic Rodents and Shrews in Kenya.

Front Microbiol 2019 21;10:2696. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

The majority of emerging and reemerging zoonotic viral pathogens are RNA viruses. Pathogen discovery programs of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in wildlife have implicated rodents and shrews as hosts of diverse human pathogens, such as hantaviruses, arenaviruses, paramyxoviruses, etc. Despite these threats, little is known about the diversity of viruses circulating among rodents and shrews in Kenya, meaning the risk of infectious disease outbreak from these small mammals could be oblivious. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.02696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6881279PMC
November 2019

Quadrivalent VesiculoVax vaccine protects nonhuman primates from viral-induced hemorrhagic fever and death.

J Clin Invest 2020 01;130(1):539-551

Galveston National Laboratory and.

Recent occurrences of filoviruses and the arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) in overlapping endemic areas of Africa highlight the need for a prophylactic vaccine that would confer protection against all of these viruses that cause lethal hemorrhagic fever (HF). We developed a quadrivalent formulation of VesiculoVax that contains recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vectors expressing filovirus glycoproteins and that also contains a rVSV vector expressing the glycoprotein of a lineage IV strain of LASV. Cynomolgus macaques were vaccinated twice with the quadrivalent formulation, followed by challenge 28 days after the boost vaccination with each of the 3 corresponding filoviruses (Ebola, Sudan, Marburg) or a heterologous contemporary lineage II strain of LASV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI131958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6934204PMC
January 2020

Lassa virus RNA detection from suspected cases in Nigeria, 2011-2017.

Pan Afr Med J 2019 6;34:76. Epub 2019 Oct 6.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos (CMUL), PM.B. 12003, Lagos, Nigeria.

Introduction: The diagnosis of Lassa fever is crucial to confirm cases, as well as to control/prevent nosocomial and community-based transmission and initiation of treatment, which is still limited in the country. Thus, we aimed at providing some information on the laboratory detection of Lassa from suspected cases in Nigeria.

Methods: This was a retrospective study of seasonal Lassa fever outbreaks data from 1,263 samples analyzed using Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) at the Virology Research Laboratory, College of Medicine, University of Lagos/Lagos University Teaching Hospital between year 2011 and 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2019.34.76.16425DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6884721PMC
December 2019
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Proliferating Transitory T Cells with an Effector-like Transcriptional Signature Emerge from PD-1 Stem-like CD8 T Cells during Chronic Infection.

Immunity 2019 12 3;51(6):1043-1058.e4. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30033, USA. Electronic address:

T cell dysfunction is a characteristic feature of chronic viral infection and cancer. Recent studies in chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection have defined a PD-1 Tcf-1 CD8 T cell subset capable of self-renewal and differentiation into more terminally differentiated cells that downregulate Tcf-1 and express additional inhibitory molecules such as Tim3. Here, we demonstrated that expression of the glycoprotein CD101 divides this terminally differentiated population into two subsets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2019.11.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6920571PMC
December 2019

Monoclonal Antibodies with Neutralizing Activity and Fc-Effector Functions against the Machupo Virus Glycoprotein.

J Virol 2020 Feb 14;94(5). Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA

Machupo virus (MACV), the causative agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), is a New World arenavirus that was first isolated in Bolivia from a human spleen in 1963. Due to the lack of a specific vaccine or therapy, this virus is considered a major risk to public health and is classified as a category A priority pathogen by the U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01741-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7022345PMC
February 2020