4,409 results match your criteria Arenaviruses


Assessment of the function and intergenus-compatibility of Ebola and Lloviu virus proteins.

J Gen Virol 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

1 Institute for Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald - Insel Riems, Germany.

Sequences for Lloviu virus (LLOV), a putative novel filovirus, were first identified in Miniopterus schreibersii bats in Spain following a massive bat die-off in 2002, and also recently found in bats in Hungary. However, until now it is unclear if these sequences correspond to a fully functional, infectious virus, and whether it will show a pathogenic phenotype like African filoviruses, such as ebola- and marburgviruses, or be apathogenic for humans, like the Asian filovirus Reston virus. Since no infectious virus has been recovered, the only opportunity to study infectious LLOV is to use a reverse genetics-based full-length clone system to de novo generate LLOV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001261DOI Listing

Evaluation of rodent control to fight Lassa fever based on field data and mathematical modelling.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2019 ;8(1):640-649

e Bernhard-Nocht-Institute for Tropical Medicine , Hamburg , Germany.

The Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) is the reservoir host of Lassa virus, an arenavirus that causes Lassa haemorrhagic fever in humans in West Africa. Because no vaccine exists and therapeutic options are limited, preventing infection through rodent control and human behavioural measures is currently considered to be the only option. In order to assess the efficacy of rodent control, we performed a 4-year field experiment in rural Upper Guinea and developed a mathematical model to simulate different control strategies (annual density control, continuous density control, and rodent vaccination). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2019.1605846DOI Listing
January 2019

Identification of a clinical compound losmapimod that blocks Lassa virus entry.

Antiviral Res 2019 Apr 4;167:68-77. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, China; Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, China. Electronic address:

Lassa virus (LASV) causes Lassa hemorrhagic fever in humans and poses a significant threat to public health in West Africa. Current therapeutic treatments for Lassa fever are limited, making the development of novel countermeasures an urgent priority. In this study, we identified losmapimod, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, from 102 screened compounds as an inhibitor of LASV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.03.014DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Biochemical characterization of the Lassa virus L protein.

J Biol Chem 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Bernhard-Nocht-Institute for Tropical Medicine, Germany.

The L protein of arena- and bunyaviruses is structurally and functionally related to the orthomyxovirus polymerase complex. It plays a central role in the viral life cycle, as it replicates the virus genome and generates viral mRNA via a cap-snatching mechanism. Here, we aimed to biochemically characterize the L protein of Lassa virus, a human-pathogenic arenavirus endemic in West Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.006973DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Hemorrhagic Fever-Causing Arenaviruses: Lethal Pathogens and Potent Immune Suppressors.

Front Immunol 2019 13;10:372. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, United States.

Hemorrhagic fevers (HF) resulting from pathogenic arenaviral infections have traditionally been neglected as tropical diseases primarily affecting African and South American regions. There are currently no FDA-approved vaccines for arenaviruses, and treatments have been limited to supportive therapy and use of non-specific nucleoside analogs, such as Ribavirin. Outbreaks of arenaviral infections have been limited to certain geographic areas that are endemic but known cases of exportation of arenaviruses from endemic regions and socioeconomic challenges for local control of rodent reservoirs raise serious concerns about the potential for larger outbreaks in the future. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00372
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6424867PMC
March 2019
8 Reads

Dynamic Dystroglycan Complexes Mediate Cell Entry of Lassa Virus.

MBio 2019 03 26;10(2). Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Institute of Microbiology, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland

Recognition of functional receptors by viruses is a key determinant for their host range, tissue tropism, and disease potential. The highly pathogenic Lassa virus (LASV) currently represents one of the most important emerging pathogens. The major cellular receptor for LASV in human cells is the ubiquitously expressed and evolutionary highly conserved extracellular matrix receptor dystroglycan (DG). Read More

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http://mbio.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/mBio.02869-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02869-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437060PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

Autophagy Promotes Infectious Particle Production of Mopeia and Lassa Viruses.

Viruses 2019 Mar 23;11(3). Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Unité de Biologie des Infections Virales Emergentes, Institut Pasteur, 69007 Lyon, France.

Lassa virus (LASV) and Mopeia virus (MOPV) are two closely related Old-World mammarenaviruses. LASV causes severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality in humans, whereas no case of MOPV infection has been reported. Comparing MOPV and LASV is a powerful strategy to unravel pathogenic mechanisms that occur during the course of pathogenic arenavirus infection. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/11/3/293
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11030293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466445PMC
March 2019
8 Reads

Diagnostic applications for Lassa fever in limited-resource settings.

BMJ Glob Health 2019 7;4(Suppl 2):e001119. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND), Emerging Threats Programme, Geneva, Switzerland.

Lassa fever, caused by arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV), is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease that affects up to an estimated 300 000 individuals and causes up to 5000 deaths per year in West Africa. Currently available LASV diagnostic methods are difficult to operationalise in low-resource health centres and may be less sensitive to detecting all known or emerging LASV strains. To prioritise diagnostic development for LASV, we assessed the diagnostic applications for case detection, clinical management, surveillance, outbreak response, and therapeutic and vaccine development at various healthcare levels. Read More

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http://gh.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001119
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407552PMC
February 2019
4 Reads

Gamma Irradiation as an Effective Method for Inactivation of Emerging Viral Pathogens.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Division of Intramural Research (DIR), Laboratory of Virology, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Hamilton, Montana.

Gamma irradiation using a cobalt-60 source is a commonly used method for the inactivation of infectious specimens to be handled safely in subsequent laboratory procedures. Here, we determined irradiation doses to safely inactivate liquid proteinaceous specimens harboring different emerging/reemerging viral pathogens known to cause neglected tropical and other diseases of regional or global public health importance. By using a representative arenavirus, bunyavirus, coronavirus, filovirus, flavivirus, orthomyxovirus, and paramyxovirus, we found that these enveloped viruses differed in their susceptibility to irradiation treatment with adsorbed doses for inactivation of a target dose of 1 × 10 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID)/mL ranging from 1 to 5 MRads. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0937DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Cryo-EM structure of the human ferritin-transferrin receptor 1 complex.

Nat Commun 2019 03 8;10(1):1121. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Biochemical Sciences "Alessandro Rossi Fanelli", Sapienza University of Rome, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy.

Human transferrin receptor 1 (CD71) guarantees iron supply by endocytosis upon binding of iron-loaded transferrin and ferritin. Arenaviruses and the malaria parasite exploit CD71 for cell invasion and epitopes on CD71 for interaction with transferrin and pathogenic hosts were identified. Here, we provide the molecular basis of the CD71 ectodomain-human ferritin interaction by determining the 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09098-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6408514PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

A functional subset of CD8 T cells during chronic exhaustion is defined by SIRPα expression.

Nat Commun 2019 02 15;10(1):794. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Laboratory of Persistent Viral Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, MT, 59840, USA.

Prolonged exposure of CD8 T cells to antigenic stimulation, as in chronic viral infections, leads to a state of diminished function termed exhaustion. We now demonstrate that even during exhaustion there is a subset of functional CD8 T cells defined by surface expression of SIRPα, a protein not previously reported on lymphocytes. On SIRPα CD8 T cells, expression of co-inhibitory receptors is counterbalanced by expression of co-stimulatory receptors and it is only SIRPα cells that actively proliferate, transcribe IFNγ and show cytolytic activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08637-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377614PMC
February 2019
5 Reads

Confocal Imaging of Double-Stranded RNA and Pattern Recognition Receptors in Negative-Sense RNA Virus Infection.

J Vis Exp 2019 Jan 26(143). Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Department of Pathology and Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch.

Double-stranded (ds) RNA is produced as a replicative intermediate during RNA virus infection. Recognition of dsRNA by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the retinoic acid (RIG-I) like receptors (RLRs) RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA-5) leads to the induction of the innate immune response. The formation and intracellular distribution of dsRNA in positive-sense RNA virus infection has been well characterized by microscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/59095DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Differential Antibody-Based Immune Response against Isolated GP1 Receptor-Binding Domains from Lassa and Junín Viruses.

J Virol 2019 Apr 3;93(8). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Structural Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel

There are two predominant subgroups in the family of viruses, the Old World and the New World viruses, that use distinct cellular receptors for entry. While New World viruses typically elicit good neutralizing antibody responses, the Old World viruses generally evade such responses. Antibody-based immune responses are directed against the glycoprotein spike complexes that decorate the viruses. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.00090-19
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00090-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450128PMC
April 2019
7 Reads

TLR4 signaling improves PD-1 blockade therapy during chronic viral infection.

PLoS Pathog 2019 02 6;15(2):e1007583. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States of America.

CD8 T cells are necessary for the elimination of intracellular pathogens, but during chronic viral infections, CD8 T cells become exhausted and unable to control the persistent infection. Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) blockade therapies have been shown to improve CD8 T cell responses during chronic viral infections. These therapies have been licensed to treat cancers in humans, but they have not yet been licensed to treat chronic viral infections because limited benefit is seen in pre-clinical animal models of chronic infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6380600PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

TRIM2, a novel member of the antiviral family, limits New World arenavirus entry.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 6;17(2):e3000137. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, UIC College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins belong to a large family with many roles in host biology, including restricting virus infection. Here, we found that TRIM2, which has been implicated in cases of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTD) in humans, acts by blocking hemorrhagic fever New World arenavirus (NWA) entry into cells. We show that Trim2-knockout mice, as well as primary fibroblasts from a CMTD patient with mutations in TRIM2, are more highly infected by the NWAs Junín and Tacaribe virus than wild-type mice or cells are. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6380604PMC
February 2019
13 Reads

Virus⁻Host Interactions Involved in Lassa Virus Entry and Genome Replication.

Pathogens 2019 Jan 29;8(1). Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Centro de Virología Animal (CEVAN), CONICET-SENASA, Av Sir Alexander Fleming 1653, Martínez, Provincia de Buenos Aires B1640CSI, Argentina.

Lassa virus (LASV) is the causative agent of Lassa fever, a human hemorrhagic disease associated with high mortality and morbidity rates, particularly prevalent in West Africa. Over the past few years, a significant amount of novel information has been provided on cellular factors that are determinant elements playing a role in arenavirus multiplication. In this review, we focus on host proteins that intersect with the initial steps of the LASV replication cycle: virus entry and genome replication. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2076-0817/8/1/17
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8010017DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Assessing cross-reactivity of Junín virus-directed neutralizing antibodies.

Antiviral Res 2019 Mar 19;163:106-116. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

Junior Research Group Arenavirus Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald, Insel Riems, Germany; Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Hamilton, MT, USA. Electronic address:

Arenaviruses cause several viral hemorrhagic fevers endemic to Africa and South America. The respective causative agents are classified as biosafety level (BSL) 4 pathogens. Unlike for most other BSL4 agents, for the New World arenavirus Junín virus (JUNV) both a highly effective vaccination (Candid#1) and a post-exposure treatment, based on convalescent plasma transfer, are available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.01.006DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Lassa Fever in Travelers from West Africa, 1969-2016.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 02;25(2):245-248

Lassa virus is a rodentborne arenavirus responsible for human cases of Lassa fever, a viral hemorrhagic fever, in West Africa and in travelers arriving to non-Lassa-endemic countries from West Africa. We describe a retrospective review performed through literature search of clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of all imported Lassa fever cases worldwide during 1969-2016. Our findings demonstrate that approximately half of imported cases had distinctive clinical features (defined as fever and >1 of the following: pharyngitis, sore throat, tonsillitis, conjunctivitis, oropharyngeal ulcers, or proteinuria). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2502.180836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346466PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Lassa fever: Time to eradicate the deadly disease in Nigeria.

Niger J Clin Pract 2019 Jan;22(1):144-145

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Ituku Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/njcp.njcp_116_18DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Attenuated Replication of Lassa Virus Vaccine Candidate ML29 in STAT-1 Mice.

Pathogens 2019 Jan 15;8(1). Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292, USA.

Lassa virus (LASV), a highly prevalent mammalian arenavirus endemic in West Africa, can cause Lassa fever (LF), which is responsible for thousands of deaths annually. LASV is transmitted to humans from naturally infected rodents. At present, there is not an effective vaccine nor treatment. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2076-0817/8/1/9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8010009DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Expression of novel long noncoding RNAs defines virus-specific effector and memory CD8 T cells.

Nat Commun 2019 01 14;10(1):196. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30307, USA.

In response to viral infection, CD8 T cells undergo expansion and differentiate into distinct classes of effector cells. After clearance of the virus, a small population of long-lived memory cells persists. Comprehensive studies have defined the protein-coding transcriptional changes associated with this process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-07956-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331603PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 blocks fusion of sensitive but not resistant viruses by partitioning into virus-carrying endosomes.

PLoS Pathog 2019 01 14;15(1):e1007532. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States of America.

Late endosome-resident interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) inhibits fusion of diverse viruses, including Influenza A virus (IAV), by a poorly understood mechanism. Despite the broad antiviral activity of IFITM3, viruses like Lassa virus (LASV), are fully resistant to its inhibitory effects. It is currently unclear whether resistance arises from a highly efficient fusion machinery that is capable of overcoming IFITM3 restriction or the ability to enter from cellular sites devoid of this factor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347298PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Identification of Clotrimazole Derivatives as Specific Inhibitors of Arenavirus Fusion.

J Virol 2019 Mar 5;93(6). Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Institute of Microbiology, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland

Arenaviruses are a large family of emerging enveloped negative-strand RNA viruses that include several causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fevers. For cell entry, human-pathogenic arenaviruses use different cellular receptors and endocytic pathways that converge at the level of acidified late endosomes, where the viral envelope glycoprotein mediates membrane fusion. Inhibitors of arenavirus entry hold promise for therapeutic antiviral intervention and the identification of "druggable" targets is of high priority. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.01744-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01744-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6401469PMC
March 2019
15 Reads

A Minigenome Study of Hazara Nairovirus Genomic Promoters.

J Virol 2019 Mar 5;93(6). Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan

Hazara nairovirus (HAZV) is a trisegmented RNA virus most closely related to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in the order The terminal roughly 20 nucleotides (nt) of its genome ends are highly complementary, similar to those of other segmented negative-strand RNA viruses (sNSV), and act as promoters for RNA synthesis. These promoters contain two elements: the extreme termini of both strands (promoter element 1 [PE1]) are conserved and virus specific and are found bound to separate sites on the polymerase surface in crystal structures of promoter-polymerase complexes. The following sequences (PE2) are segment specific, with the potential to form double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), and the latter aspect is also important for promoter activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02118-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6401441PMC

Understanding Lassa fever.

Authors:
Nahid Bhadelia

Science 2019 01;363(6422):30

Section of Infectious Diseases, Boston University School of Medicine and National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aav8958DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Identification of Residues in Lassa Virus Glycoprotein Subunit 2 That Are Critical for Protein Function.

Pathogens 2018 Dec 26;8(1). Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Department of Population Health, Center for Vaccines and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

Lassa virus (LASV) is an Old World arenavirus, endemic to West Africa, capable of causing hemorrhagic fever. Currently, there are no approved vaccines or effective antivirals for LASV. However, thorough understanding of the LASV glycoprotein and entry into host cells could accelerate therapeutic design. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2076-0817/8/1/1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8010001DOI Listing
December 2018
11 Reads

A potent Lassa virus antiviral targets an arenavirus virulence determinant.

PLoS Pathog 2018 12 21;14(12):e1007439. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Kineta, Inc., Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Arenaviruses are a significant cause of hemorrhagic fever, an often-fatal disease for which there is no approved antiviral therapy. Lassa fever in particular generates high morbidity and mortality in West Africa, where the disease is endemic, and a recent outbreak in Nigeria was larger and more geographically diverse than usual. We are developing LHF-535, a small-molecule viral entry inhibitor that targets the arenavirus envelope glycoprotein, as a therapeutic candidate for Lassa fever and other hemorrhagic fevers of arenavirus origin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322784PMC
December 2018
12 Reads

Report of a fatal case of Lassa fever in Parakou in 2018: clinical, therapeutic and diagnostic aspects.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 17;18(1):667. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Medicine and Medical Specialities Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Parakou, P. O Box 123, Parakou, Republic of Benin.

Background: Lassa fever is one of the most lethal neglected tropical diseases in West Africa. It is a serious public health problem in this region of Africa where it is endemic in several countries. However, it remains a very little known disease by healthcare workers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3587-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296101PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Metal chelators for the inhibition of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus endonuclease domain.

Antiviral Res 2019 Feb 14;162:79-89. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS UMR 7257, Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Arenaviridae is a viral family whose members are associated with rodent-transmitted infections to humans responsible of severe diseases. The current lack of a vaccine and limited therapeutic options make the development of efficacious drugs of high priority. The cap-snatching mechanism of transcription of Arenavirus performed by the endonuclease domain of the L-protein is unique and essential, so we developed a drug design program targeting the endonuclease activity of the prototypic Lymphocytic ChorioMeningitis Virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2018.12.008DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

LARGE expression in different types of muscular dystrophies other than dystroglycanopathy.

BMC Neurol 2018 Dec 15;18(1):207. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Medical Biology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, 06100 Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Alpha-dystroglycan (αDG) is an extracellular peripheral glycoprotein that acts as a receptor for both extracellular matrix proteins containing laminin globular domains and certain arenaviruses. An important enzyme, known as Like-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (LARGE), has been shown to transfer repeating units of -glucuronic acid-β1,3-xylose-α1,3- (matriglycan) to αDG that is required for functional receptor as an extracellular matrix protein scaffold. The reduction in the amount of LARGE-dependent matriglycan result in heterogeneous forms of dystroglycanopathy that is associated with hypoglycosylation of αDG and a consequent lack of ligand-binding activity. Read More

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https://bmcneurol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12883-
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-018-1207-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6295086PMC
December 2018
17 Reads

Host-Driven Phosphorylation Appears to Regulate the Budding Activity of the Lassa Virus Matrix Protein.

Pathogens 2018 Dec 9;7(4). Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Medicine, Division of Immunobiology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA.

Lassa mammarenavirus (LASV) is an enveloped RNA virus that can cause Lassa fever, an acute hemorrhagic fever syndrome associated with significant morbidity and high rates of fatality in endemic regions of western Africa. The arenavirus matrix protein Z has several functions during the virus life cycle, including coordinating viral assembly, driving the release of new virus particles, regulating viral polymerase activity, and antagonizing the host antiviral response. There is limited knowledge regarding how the various functions of Z are regulated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7040097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6313517PMC
December 2018

Standardized focus assay protocol for biosafety level four viruses.

J Virol Methods 2019 02 1;264:51-54. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Spiez Laboratory, Federal Office for Civil Protection, Austrasse, 3700, Spiez, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Working in accordance with biosafety level four practices is highly complex and time-consuming. Therefore, the respective laboratory protocols should be as uniform as possible, simple to perform and straightforward in readout. Here we describe the successful application of a standardized 24-well plate focus assay protocol for the titration of Zaire ebolavirus (two isolates), Marburg virus (three isolates), Lassa virus (two isolates), Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (one isolate), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (two isolates). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2018.12.002DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Genetic characterization of Lassa virus strains isolated from 2012 to 2016 in southeastern Nigeria.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 11 30;12(11):e0006971. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic in parts of West Africa where it causes Lassa fever (LF), a viral hemorrhagic fever with frequent fatal outcomes. The diverse LASV strains are grouped into six major lineages based on the geographical location of the isolated strains. In this study, we have focused on the lineage II strains from southern Nigeria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267959PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Arenavirus genomics: novel insights into viral diversity, origin, and evolution.

Curr Opin Virol 2019 Feb 27;34:18-28. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Scientific Institute, IRCCS E. MEDEA, Bioinformatics, 23842 Bosisio Parini, Lecco, Italy. Electronic address:

Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized our knowledge of virus diversity and evolution. In the case of arenaviruses, which are the focus of this review, metagenomic/metatranscriptomic approaches identified reptile-infecting and fish-infecting viruses, also showing that bi-segmented genomes are not a universal feature of the Arenaviridae family. Novel mammarenaviruses were described, allowing inference of their geographic origin and evolutionary dynamics. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S18796257183010
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2018.11.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Cell-to-cell transmission of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus MX strain during persistent infection and its influence on cell migration.

Acta Virol 2018;62(4):424-434

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can establish in its host a persistent infection, without any prominent symptoms. Even during this infection, when the infectious virions are not released, the virus still disseminates effectively. A very effective and fast way of infection of neighboring cells utilized by many viruses is cell-to-cell transmission. Read More

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http://www.elis.sk/index.php?page=shop.product_details&f
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4149/av_2018_411DOI Listing
April 2019
10 Reads

Recombinant Lassa Virus Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein as a Tool for High-Throughput Drug Screens and Neutralizing Antibody Assays.

Viruses 2018 11 20;10(11). Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick (IRF-Frederick), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), B-8200 Research Plaza, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

Lassa virus (LASV), a mammarenavirus, infects an estimated 100,000⁻300,000 individuals yearly in western Africa and frequently causes lethal disease. Currently, no LASV-specific antivirals or vaccines are commercially available for prevention or treatment of Lassa fever, the disease caused by LASV. The development of medical countermeasure screening platforms is a crucial step to yield licensable products. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10110655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266387PMC
November 2018
24 Reads

Evaluation of the capacities of mouse TCR profiling from short read RNA-seq data.

PLoS One 2018 15;13(11):e0207020. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, New York, United States of America.

Profiling T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire via short read transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) has a unique advantage of probing simultaneously TCRs and the genome-wide RNA expression of other genes. However, compared to targeted amplicon approaches, the shorter read length is more prone to mapping error. In addition, only a small percentage of the genome-wide reads may cover the TCR loci and thus the repertoire could be significantly under-sampled. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207020PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6237323PMC
April 2019
21 Reads

Characterization of Haartman Institute snake virus-1 (HISV-1) and HISV-like viruses-The representatives of genus Hartmanivirus, family Arenaviridae.

PLoS Pathog 2018 11 14;14(11):e1007415. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

The family Arenaviridae comprises three genera, Mammarenavirus, Reptarenavirus and the most recently added Hartmanivirus. Arenaviruses have a bisegmented genome with ambisense coding strategy. For mammarenaviruses and reptarenaviruses the L segment encodes the Z protein (ZP) and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and the S segment encodes the glycoprotein precursor and the nucleoprotein. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007415
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6261641PMC
November 2018
10 Reads

Lassa virus activates myeloid dendritic cells but suppresses their ability to stimulate T cells.

PLoS Pathog 2018 11 12;14(11):e1007430. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Unité de Biologie des Infections Virales Emergentes, Institut Pasteur; Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie (INSERM, CNRS, ENS Lyon, Université Lyon I), Lyon, France.

Lassa virus (LASV) is responsible for a viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and the death of 3,000 to 5,000 people every year. The immune response to LASV is poorly understood, but type I interferon (IFN-I) and T-cell responses appear to be critical for the host. We studied the response of myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) to LASV, as mDCs are involved in both IFN-I production and T-cell activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6258464PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Rodent control to fight Lassa fever: Evaluation and lessons learned from a 4-year study in Upper Guinea.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 11 6;12(11):e0006829. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Virology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany.

Lassa fever is a viral haemorrhagic fever caused by an arenavirus. The disease is endemic in West African countries, including Guinea. The rodents Mastomys natalensis and Mastomys erythroleucus have been identified as Lassa virus reservoirs in Guinea. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006829
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6219765PMC
November 2018
6 Reads

Tangeretin, an extract from Citrus peels, blocks cellular entry of arenaviruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 16;160:87-93. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China; Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, China. Electronic address:

The family Arenaviridae consists of numerous enveloped RNA viruses with ambisense coding strategies. Eight arenaviruses, including Lassa virus, are known to cause severe and fatal viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in humans, yet vaccines and treatments for disease caused by arenaviruses are very limited. In this study, we screened a natural product library consisting of 131 compounds and identified tangeretin, a polymethoxylated flavone widely present in citrus fruit peels, as a Lassa virus entry inhibitor that blocks viral fusion. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01663542183040
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2018.10.011DOI Listing
December 2018
23 Reads

Genomic Analysis of Lassa Virus during an Increase in Cases in Nigeria in 2018.

N Engl J Med 2018 11 17;379(18):1745-1753. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

From the Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Harvard University (K.J.S., K.G.B., S.M., S.F.S., S.M.W., R.R.S., J.Q., S.W., P.B., S.Y., B.C., D.K., A.C., A.G.-Y., C.A.F., D.J.P., N.L.Y., B.L.M., P.C.S.), the Center for Systems Biology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology (K.J.S., K.G.B., S.F.S., S.W., B.C., D.K., C.A.F., N.L.Y., P.C.S.), and the Faculty of Arts and Sciences (M.N.), Harvard University, Harvard University Extension School (R.R.S.), and Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology, MIT (S.Y., P.C.S.), Cambridge, and the Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (K.G.B., S.F.S., B.L.M., P.C.S., C.T.H.), and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Division of Infectious Diseases (S.M.), Boston - all in Massachusetts; the African Center of Excellence for Genomics of Infectious Diseases (P.E., J.U.O., E.U., T.K., F.A., J.U., A.G., M.M., I.N., P.O., O.T., O.A.F., C.T.H.) and the Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences (J.U.O., E.U., T.K., F.A., J.U., P.O., O.A.F., C.T.H.), Redeemer's University, Ede, the Institute of Lassa Fever Research and Control (I.O., C. Iruolagbe, J.A., E.U., P.A., G.O., O.O., B.O., E.B.M., M.A., R.E., B.E., E.O.-E., G.A., S.O., P.O.O., C.T.H.) and the Department of Medicine (P.O.O.), Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, the Nigeria Center for Disease Control, Abuja (C. Ihekweazu), and the Department of Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma (P.O.O.) - all in Nigeria; the Laboratory of Parasitology/Mycology HALD, Cheikh Anta Diop University of Dakar, Dakar, Senegal (A.G.); Kenema Government Hospital, Kenema, Sierra Leone (M.M.); Tulane Health Sciences Center, Tulane University, New Orleans (R.F.G.); the Departments of Immunology and Microbial Science and Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, Scripps Research Institute, and the Scripps Translational Science Institute, La Jolla, CA (K.G.A.); and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD (P.C.S.).

During 2018, an unusual increase in Lassa fever cases occurred in Nigeria, raising concern among national and international public health agencies. We analyzed 220 Lassa virus genomes from infected patients, including 129 from the 2017-2018 transmission season, to understand the viral populations underpinning the increase. A total of 14 initial genomes from 2018 samples were generated at Redeemer's University in Nigeria, and the findings were shared with the Nigerian Center for Disease Control in real time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1804498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6181183PMC
November 2018
44 Reads
55.873 Impact Factor

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus meningoencephalitis in a renal transplant recipient following exposure to mice.

Transpl Infect Dis 2018 Dec 5;20(6):e13013. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Division of Infectious Disease, St. John Hospital and Medical Center, Grosse Pointe Woods, Michigan.

Solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR) are at increased risk for a wide variety of typical and atypical infections as a consequence of impaired cell mediated and humoral immunity. We report a case of meningoencephalitis in a renal transplant recipient caused by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) acquired by exposure to mice excreta. The clinical course was complicated by the development of hydrocephalus, requiring a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13013DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Does exploratory behavior or activity in a wild mouse explain susceptibility to virus infection?

Curr Zool 2018 Oct 12;64(5):585-592. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Evolutionary Ecology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Exploration and activity are often described as trade-offs between the fitness benefits of gathering information and resources, and the potential costs of increasing exposure to predators and parasites. More exploratory individuals are predicted to have higher rates of parasitism, but this relationship has rarely been examined for virus infections in wild populations. Here, we used the multimammate mouse to investigate the relationship between exploration, activity, and infection with Morogoro virus (MORV). Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cz/article/64/5/585/4139746
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cz/zox053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6178786PMC
October 2018
9 Reads
1.814 Impact Factor

CD8 T Cell Priming in Established Chronic Viral Infection Preferentially Directs Differentiation of Memory-like Cells for Sustained Immunity.

Immunity 2018 10 9;49(4):678-694.e5. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, M5G 2M9 Canada; Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8 Canada. Electronic address:

CD8 T cell exhaustion impedes control of chronic viral infection; yet how new T cell responses are mounted during chronic infection is unclear. Unlike T cells primed at the onset of infection that rapidly differentiate into effectors and exhaust, we demonstrate that virus-specific CD8 T cells primed after establishment of chronic LCMV infection preferentially generate memory-like transcription factor TCF1 cells that were transcriptionally and proteomically distinct, less exhausted, and more responsive to immunotherapy. Mechanistically, adaptations of antigen-presenting cells and diminished T cell signaling intensity promoted differentiation of the memory-like subset at the expense of rapid effector cell differentiation, which was now highly dependent on IL-21-mediated CD4 T cell help for its functional generation. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10747613183034
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2018.08.002DOI Listing
October 2018
35 Reads

Non-neutralizing antibodies elicited by recombinant Lassa-Rabies vaccine are critical for protection against Lassa fever.

Nat Commun 2018 10 11;9(1):4223. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, 19107, USA.

Lassa fever (LF), caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is a viral hemorrhagic fever for which no approved vaccine or potent antiviral treatment is available. LF is a WHO priority disease and, together with rabies, a major health burden in West Africa. Here we present the development and characterization of an inactivated recombinant LASV and rabies vaccine candidate (LASSARAB) that expresses a codon-optimized LASV glycoprotein (coGPC) and is adjuvanted by a TLR-4 agonist (GLA-SE). Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-06741-w
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06741-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6181965PMC
October 2018
5 Reads

Structure-Based Classification Defines the Discrete Conformational Classes Adopted by the Arenaviral GP1.

J Virol 2019 Jan 10;93(1). Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

The emergence of Old and New World arenaviruses from rodent reservoirs persistently threatens human health. The GP1 subunit of the envelope-displayed arenaviral glycoprotein spike complex (GPC) mediates host cell recognition and is an important determinant of cross-species transmission. Previous structural analyses of Old World arenaviral GP1 glycoproteins, alone and in complex with a cognate GP2 subunit, have revealed that GP1 adopts two distinct conformational states distinguished by differences in the orientations of helical regions of the molecule. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.01048-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01048-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6288339PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Bacterial coinfection restrains antiviral CD8 T-cell response via LPS-induced inhibitory NK cells.

Nat Commun 2018 10 8;9(1):4117. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Institute for Immunology, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg, Germany.

Infection of specific pathogen-free mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a widely used model to study antiviral T-cell immunity. Infections in the real world, however, are often accompanied by coinfections with unrelated pathogens. Here we show that in mice, systemic coinfection with E. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-06609-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06609-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6175863PMC
October 2018
13 Reads

Critical role for cholesterol in Lassa fever virus entry identified by a novel small molecule inhibitor targeting the viral receptor LAMP1.

PLoS Pathog 2018 09 28;14(9):e1007322. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Lassa fever virus (LASV) is endemic in West Africa and causes severe hemorrhagic fever and sensorineural hearing loss. We identified a small molecule inhibitor of LASV and used it to analyze the mechanism of entry. Using a photo-reactive analog that retains antiviral activity as a probe, we identified the inhibitor target as lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1), a host factor that binds to the LASV glycoprotein (GP) during infection. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007322
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6179309PMC
September 2018
16 Reads

Lupus acceleration by a MAVS-activating RNA virus requires endosomal TLR signaling and host genetic predisposition.

PLoS One 2018 10;13(9):e0203118. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

Viruses have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, yet their contribution remains circumstantial partly due to the lack of well-documented information on infections prior to autoimmune disease onset. Here, we used the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) as a model to mechanistically dissect the impact of viral infection on lupus-like autoimmunity. Virus persistence strongly enhanced disease in mice with otherwise weak genetic predisposition but not in highly predisposed or non-autoimmune mice, indicating a synergistic interplay between genetic susceptibility and virus infection. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0203118PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6130858PMC
February 2019
12 Reads