45 results match your criteria Arctic Anthropology[Journal]

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Variations of late prehistoric houses in coastal Northwest Alaska: a view from Wales.

Authors:
Roger K Harritt

Arctic Anthropol 2010 ;47(1):57-70

A review of literature and archival images reveals a distinctive method of double-walled house construction that predominated at the Beach site at Wales, Alaska, minimally from early contact through ca. 1930. Prior studies have suggested that this house construction form was a widespread convention during the contact period; however, this paper demonstrates that this was not the case. Read More

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September 2010

The value of a polar bear: evaluating the role of a multiple-use resource in the Nunavut mixed economy.

Authors:
Martha Dowsley

Arctic Anthropol 2010 ;47(1):39-56

The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a common pool resource that contributes to both the subsistence and monetary aspects of the Nunavut mixed economy through its use as food, the sale of hides in the fur trade, and sport hunt outfitting. Sport hunting is more financially profitable than subsistence hunting; however, the proportion of the polar bear quota devoted to the sport hunt has become relatively stable at approximately 20% across Nunavut. This ratio suggests local Inuit organizations are not using a neoclassical economic model based on profit maximization. Read More

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September 2010
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The wisdom of elders: Inuvialuit social memories of continuity and change in the twentieth century.

Authors:
Natasha Lyons

Arctic Anthropol 2010 ;47(1):22-38

The Inuvialuit of the Canadian Western Arctic are no strangers to change. From the arrival of whalers ca. 1890, they underwent a century of monumental societal upheaval. Read More

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September 2010

"Qupirruit": insects and worms in Inuit traditions.

Arctic Anthropol 2010 ;47(1):1-21

Although small beings such as the "qupirruit" (insects and worms) appear in many different contexts in Inuit culture, they have not received much attention from scholars. In this paper we examine the symbolism associated with these small animals. We show that their small size makes them suitable to operate on the level of the "tarniq," a miniature image of a being. Read More

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September 2010

Holocene radiocarbon-dated sites in northeastern Siberia: issues of temporal frequency, reservoir age, and human-nature interaction.

Arctic Anthropol 2010 ;47(2):104-15

The existing corpus of data on radiocarbon dates for Holocene sites in Northeastern Siberia was used as proxy to reconstruct the chronology of human occupation of the region. The problem of reservoir age correction in the Bering Sea region complicated this task and this issue needs to be solved in order to obtain more reliable age determinations for coastal archaeological sites. Using a chronology built after excluding the questionable dates from the database, the major patterns of human population dynamics and their possible correlation with climatic fluctuations were examined. Read More

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June 2011
3 Reads

Cultural remains in local and regional context on the central Alaska Peninsula: housepits, language, and cultural affinities at Marraatuq after 1000 B.P.

Arctic Anthropol 2010 ;47(2):97-103

Professor Dumond's research on the Alaska Peninsula provided information that prior to 1,000 years ago people of both sides of the Alaska Peninsula shared material culture and exhibited subsistence interests that persisted into historic times, During the Late Precontact Era (ca. 1100 A.D. Read More

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The end of the Kachemak tradition on the Kenai Peninsula, southcentral Alaska.

Arctic Anthropol 2010 ;47(2):90-6

The Kachemak tradition was established by ca. 3000 B.P. Read More

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The distribution of alcohol among the natives of Russian America.

Authors:
Andrei V Grinëv

Arctic Anthropol 2010 ;47(2):69-79

The study of archival materials and published historical and ethnographic sources shows that alcohol played an insignificant role in contacts with the aboriginal population during the Russian colonization of Alaska. The Russian-American Company (RAC) tried to fight alcoholism and limited access of spirits to the natives of the Russian colonies partially for moral and partially for economic reasons. The only Alaskan natives to whom agents of the RAC supplied rum in large quantities were the Tlingit and Kaigani Haida in 1830–1842, and among them excessive drinking became a widespread problem. Read More

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Cugtun Alngautat: the history and development of a picture text among the Nuniwarmiut Eskimo, Nunivak Island, Alaska.

Authors:
Dennis G Griffin

Arctic Anthropol 2010 ;47(2):32-41

Native Americans have long relied on the oral transmission of their ideas rather than developing an alphabet and a reliance on written records. While the use of pictures to communicate basic concepts is found throughout Alaska during the historic contact period, the development of an alphabet or pictorial text among Natives in Alaska is extremely limited with examples found only in the Kuskokwim Delta (ca. 1901) and Seward Peninsula (ca. Read More

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The Beothuk on the eve of their extinction.

Authors:
D H Holly

Arctic Anthropol 2000 ;37(1):79-95

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September 2007
3 Reads

The social uses of history in the Russian Far East.

Authors:
Petra Rethmann

Arctic Anthropol 2002 ;39(1-2):122-33

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A tundra of sickness: the uneasy relationship between toxic waste, TEK, and cultural survival.

Authors:
Joslyn Cassady

Arctic Anthropol 2007 ;44(1):87-98

In 1992 an abandoned federal radioactive waste dump was discovered in Arctic Alaska. The discovery of this site, a byproduct of the Atomic Energy Commission program known as Project Chariot, sent shockwaves throughout Iñupiaq communities and ignited a heated controversy over the health effects of subsisting on a "tundra of sickness." Drawing on thirty months of ethnographic research in Arctic Alaska, this paper explores a host of environmental, social, and moral uncertainties sparked by toxic waste. Read More

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September 2011

Comparing Norse animal husbandry practices: paleoethnobotanical analyses from Iceland and Greenland.

Arctic Anthropol 2007 ;44(1):62-86

The popular view of the Norse settlement across the North Atlantic describes colonies with similar subsistence practices being established from the Faroe Islands in the west to L'Anse aux Meadows in the east. The importance of plant resources to the Norse animal husbandry strategies implemented by settlers upon arrival are not well established, nor are the changes these strategies underwent, eventually resulting in different cultural solutions to varying environmental and social factors. This paper compares archaeobotanical samples from two Icelandic archaeological sites, Svalbarð and Gjögur, and one Greenlandic site, Gården Under Sandet (GUS). Read More

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September 2011
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Close relatives and outsiders: village people in the city of Yakutsk, Siberia.

Arctic Anthropol 2007 ;44(1):51-61

The paper presents a snapshot of the city-village connections in the city of Yakutsk and an anthropological account of the dynamics of the relationship between the city and villages around it. Demographic changes that started in the 1980s, prompted by a decline in agriculture, initiated an exodus of the rural population from the countryside into the city of Yakutsk. This paper explores the migration dynamics of the rural population to the city. Read More

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September 2011
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Norse Greenland settlement: reflections on climate change, trade, and the contrasting fates of human settlements in the North Atlantic Islands.

Arctic Anthropol 2007 ;44(1):12-36

Changing economies and patterns of trade, rather than climatic deterioration, could have critically marginalized the Norse Greenland settlements and effectively sealed their fate. Counter-intuitively, the end of Norse Greenland might not be symptomatic of a failure to adapt to environmental change, but a consequence of successful wider economic developments of Norse communities across North Atlantic. Data from Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and medieval Iceland is used to explore the interplay of Norse society with climate, environment, settlement, and other circumstances. Read More

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September 2011
2 Reads

Agnaiyaaq: the autopsy of a frozen Thule mummy.

Arctic Anthropol 2000 ;37(2):52-9

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November 2006

Elder knowledge and sustainable livelihoods in post-Soviet Russia: finding dialogue across the generations.

Authors:
Susan A Crate

Arctic Anthropol 2006 ;43(1):40-51

Russia's indigenous peoples have been struggling with economic, environmental, and socio-cultural dislocation since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. In northern rural areas, the end of the Soviet Union most often meant the end of agro-industrial state farm operations that employed and fed surrounding rural populations. Most communities adapted to this loss by reinstating some form of pre-Soviet household-level food production based on hunting, fishing, and/or herding. Read More

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September 2011

The St. Lawrence Island famine and epidemic, 1878–80: a Yupik narrative in cultural and historical context.

Arctic Anthropol 2006 ;43(1):1-19

A collaborative study of the Smithsonian Institution's ethnology collections has inspired the narration of Alaska Native oral traditions, including Yupik Elder Estelle Oozevaseuk's re-telling (in 2001) of the story of Kukulek village and the St. Lawrence Island famine and epidemic of 1878–80. The loss of at least 1,000 lives and all but two of the island's villages was a devastating event that is well documented in historical sources and archaeology, as well as multiple Yupik accounts. Read More

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September 2011
2 Reads

Expanding the Kachemak: surplus production and the development of multi-season storage in Alaska's Kodiak Archipelago.

Arctic Anthropol 2006 ;43(2):93-129

Surplus production is a hallmark of Alaska's prehistoric coastal societies. Over the millennia, foragers procured greater quantities of resources with increasing efficiency, developing economies dependent upon storage and institutionalized exchange. In the central Gulf of Alaska, notable evidence of surplus production comes from the late phase of the Kachemak tradition. Read More

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September 2011
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Wage labor, housing policy, and the nucleation of Inuit households.

Authors:
Pamela Stern

Arctic Anthropol 2005 ;42(2):66-81

Public policy practices in the Canadian North, particularly those connected to housing and employment, are encouraging a reorganization of Inuit social organization to more closely resemble the insular and independent nuclear family household idealized by Eurocanadians. This has wide-ranging implications for the social stability of northern communities without sufficient employment opportunities. The paper examines the symbolic and structural effects of housing policies and employment on culturally valued social practices such as sharing in Holman, a community in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region of the Northwest Territories of Canada. Read More

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September 2011
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Housing policy, aging, and life course construction in a Canadian Inuit community.

Authors:
Peter Collings

Arctic Anthropol 2005 ;42(2):50-65

The provisioning and administration of social housing has been a continuous problem in the Canadian North since the 1960s, when the Canadian government began taking an active role in the welfare of Inuit. Some of these problems are quite basic and include high costs for construction and maintenance of units. An examination of the development and evolution of Canadian housing policy in the North demonstrates that changes to the administration of social housing programs and, since the mid-1980s, development of formal privatization schemes have steadily shifted housing costs onto local residents. Read More

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September 2011

Factors in the adaptation of reindeer herders to caribou on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska.

Arctic Anthropol 2005 ;42(2):36-49

Over the last century, reindeer herding has provided a major economic base in Eskimo villages on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, and has come to represent an important dimension of Native cultural identity. As a result of the current population explosion of caribou from the Western Arctic Caribou Herd, along with a shift in the herd's migratory patterns, reindeer ranges that were free of caribou for generations are now being flooded by tens of thousands. Reindeer join these migrating caribou and leave their ranges. Read More

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September 2011
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A Foucaultian approach to menstrual practices in the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada.

Authors:
Audrey R Giles

Arctic Anthropol 2005 ;42(2):9-21

In this paper, I explore the benefits of using a Foucaultian approach to examine research questions related to Dene women, menstrual traditions, and physical practices (the term physical practices is here used to encompass the contested terms sport, recreation, traditional games, and physical activity) in the Dehcho region of the Northwest Territories, Canada. While it is clear that Indigenous research frameworks have been marginalized in past research projects, this paper argues that the current approach of using almost exclusively Indigenous frameworks when conducting research with Indigenous communities has several drawbacks and relies on some troubling assumptions. After outlining the strengths of a Foucaultian approach, examples derived from fieldwork in the Dehcho region are used to illustrate the ways in which a Foucaultian approach can be operationalized, while also demonstrating the ways in which such an approach to research can complement Indigenous research frameworks and agendas. Read More

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September 2011
3 Reads

The economics of sheep and goat husbandry in Norse Greenland.

Arctic Anthropol 2005 ;42(1):103-20

Insight into the relative importance of sheep and goat herding and of the economic significance of each species (i.e., milk vs. Read More

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September 2011
9 Reads

The use of plants as regular food in ancient subarctic economies: a case study based on Sami use of Scots pine innerbark.

Arctic Anthropol 2004 ;41(1):1-13

This study combines ethnological, historical, and dendroecological data from areas north of the Arctic Circle to analyze cultural aspects of Sami use of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) inner bark as regular food. Bark was peeled in June when trees were at the peak of sapping, leaving a strip of undamaged cambium so the tree survived. Read More

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September 2011
10 Reads

A recovery story that heals.

Arctic Anthropol 2003 ;40(2):83-6

It is one thing to talk about intergenerational trauma and substance abuse in general terms, and quite another to get an experiential sense of what it is like for someone dealing with it firsthand. In a profoundly courageous presentation, Mabel Kudralook Smith, who is originally from Barrow, presents her personal story. She takes to heart the notion that to heal, you have to talk about those matters that are causing you pain. Read More

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September 2011

"It's been good, not drinking": Alaska Native narratives of lifetime sobriety.

Arctic Anthropol 2003 ;40(2):75-82

Alcohol abuse is closely connected with so much hurt and pain in northern communities that it had to be addressed in this session. Much of what is done in the way of prevention and treatment of alcohol abuse originates from outside indigenous cultures. However, many Native people have either remained sober or become sober without ever going into a formal treatment program. Read More

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September 2011
2 Reads

The transformative power of story for healing.

Arctic Anthropol 2003 ;40(2):59-64

One of our goals in this session was, not just to talk about the healing power of narrative, but to experience it as well. Louise Profeit-LeBlanc is one of the presenters we invited specifically because of her skills as a storyteller. She has been heavily involved for several years as both an organizer and a participant in the Yukon Storytelling Festival, held every year in late May in Whitehorse. Read More

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September 2011

Diving down: ritual healing in the tale of The Blind Man and the Loon.

Authors:
Craig Mishler

Arctic Anthropol 2003 ;40(2):49-55

Some stories enjoy a very widespread distribution in the North. Anthropologists and folklorists have long collected and analyzed these stories, and scrutinized their regional variants. Craig Mishler taps into this longstanding scholarly tradition as he looks at the widespread story of “The Blind Man and the Loon. Read More

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September 2011

Music as knowledge in Shamanism and other healing traditions of Siberia.

Authors:
Marilyn Walker

Arctic Anthropol 2003 ;40(2):40-8

Several presenters made the point that one cannot look at narrative alone, without taking into account the music, dance, and drumming that, in many settings, go along with it. One of these presenters was Marilyn Walker, who has had the good fortune to work with healers in Siberia. Although academic in approach, Marilyn’s paper also recognizes the importance of experiential ways of knowing. Read More

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September 2011

Healing the body, healing the self: the interrelationship of sickness, health, and faith in the lives of St. Lawrence Island Yupik residents.

Arctic Anthropol 2003 ;40(2):93-9

For about 15 years, Carol Jolles has been traveling to St. Lawrence Island, Alaska to study the role faith plays in the lives of Sivuqaq (Gambell) residents. From the outset, she was aware of the strong presence of two Christian faith traditions in the community. Read More

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September 2011
2 Reads

Healing the body and the soul through visualization: a technique used by the Community Healing Team of Cape Dorset, Nunavut.

Arctic Anthropol 2003 ;40(2):90-2

As Alice Kimiksana indicated, the Healing Circle or Healing Teams evolved to help First Nations people who attended residential schools deal with the aftermath of the abuse many of them suffered there. They use a variety of interventions, some traditional and some more Western in origin, for an innovative approach to a very serious problem. One technique developed by Western psychology, but very useful and adaptable in other cultural settings, is guided imagery or visualization. Read More

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September 2011

Life, death, and humor: approaches to storytelling in Native America.

Authors:
Edith Turner

Arctic Anthropol 2003 ;40(2):23-9

Edith Turner has been studying healing as a sensitive, spiritually attuned participant-observer for a long time. Despite her academic background, experiential learning and knowing are important parts of Turner’s approach to research. Her efforts to understand healing have taken her on journeys to Africa, Mexico, Ireland, and more recently, Alaska’s North Slope. Read More

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September 2011

Circle of healing: traditional storytelling, part three.

Authors:
Lisa Dolchok

Arctic Anthropol 2003 ;40(2):19-22

Southcentral Foundation had to overcome several organizational and procedural hurdles when developing their Circle of Healing program. Among these hurdles was finding a way to credential Alaska Native healers so the Foundation could be reimbursed for their services and pay the healers, and so the healers could work in the hospital along with the staff delivering Western and alternative medical treatment. Southcentral Foundation chose to develop a process for certifying Alaska Native healers as tribal doctors. Read More

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September 2011

Woman of the house: gender, architecture, and ideology in Dorset prehistory.

Arctic Anthropol 2003 ;40(1):121-38

The role of women in Paleoeskimo households has rarely been examined. Careful application of analogies to Inuit culture reveal that there are both similarities and differences in how Late Dorset and Inuit gender roles are expressed in household organization. On an ideological level, Late Dorset women probably had a similar role to that of women in Inuit society, as the soul of the house and an important intermediary between hunters and the souls of the animals they hunted. Read More

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September 2011

Changing subsistence practices at the Dorset Paleoeskimo site of Phillip's Garden, Newfoundland.

Arctic Anthropol 2003 ;40(1):106-20

A comparison of identified faunal assemblages from the Dorset site of Phillip's Garden indicates that harp seal hunting was the main focus of activity throughout the site's occupation. Despite the highly specialized nature of site use, it appears that reliance on harp seal decreased over time while fish and birds became increasingly important. These changes may reflect longer seasonal occupations at the site in later centuries, and/or a decrease in the local availability of harp seal. Read More

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September 2011

A burial cave in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

Arctic Anthropol 2003 ;40(1):70-86

During the 1998 field season, the Western Aleutians Archaeological and Paleobiological Project (WAAPP) team located a cave in the Near Islands, Alaska. Near the entrance of the cave, the team identified work areas and sleeping/sitting areas surrounded by cultural debris and animal bones. Human burials were found in the cave interior. Read More

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September 2011
2 Reads

Changing patterns of health and disease among the Aleuts.

Authors:
Anne Keenleyside

Arctic Anthropol 2003 ;40(1):48-69

Compared to other regions of North America, there have been relatively few paleopathological studies of arctic populations to date, particularly those aimed at elucidating patterns of health and disease prior to contact, and assessing temporal changes in disease patterns. In the present study, four Aleut skeletal samples representing one pre-contact population from Umnak Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands (N=65), and three late pre-contact/early contact period populations from Umnak, Kagamil, and Shiprock Islands (N=227), were examined macroscopically for indicators of health status. The analysis revealed some evidence of declining health in the late pre-contact/early contact period. Read More

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September 2011
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Circle of healing: traditional storytelling, part two.

Authors:
Walter Porter

Arctic Anthropol 2003 ;40(2):14-8

For decades, Bible stories have been a source of both conflict and healing. In earlier days, Christian missionaries often went to considerable lengths to question the accuracy of traditional northern Native stories, especially those with supernatural dimensions, and to discredit traditional Native spiritual leaders, such as medicine men and women, angakoks, and shamans. The missionaries’ efforts often undercut Native culture and sometimes contributed to the intergenerational trauma that creates widespread hurt and pain in northern Native communities today. Read More

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September 2011
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Circle of healing: traditional storytelling, part one.

Authors:
LouAnn Benson

Arctic Anthropol 2003 ;40(2):9-13

The session began with three presenters - LouAnn Benson, Walter Porter, and Lisa Dolchok - all of whom are or have been affiliated with the Circle of Healing Program at Southcentral Foundation in Anchorage, Alaska. The Southcentral Foundation is a Native Health Corporation that administers what used to be the Indian Health Service Hospital and Medical Center. In the Circle of Healing Program, the Southcentral Foundation has designed and implemented an approach to health care that allows its patients simultaneously to access Western medicine, traditional Native healing, and other alternative approaches to health care, such as acupuncture. Read More

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https://muse.jhu.edu/journals/arctic_anthropology/v040/40.2.
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September 2011

The integrative role of seals in an East Greenlandic hunting village.

Arctic Anthropol 1999 ;36(1-2):37-50

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Memory eternal: orthodox Christianity and the Tlingit mortuary complex.

Authors:
S Kan

Arctic Anthropol 1987 ;24(1):32-55

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Lancets of stone: traditional methods of surgery among the Alaska natives.

Authors:
R Fortuine

Arctic Anthropol 1985 ;22(1):23-45

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November 1986
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