17,329 results match your criteria Arctic Antarctic And Alpine Research[Journal]


Reducing ethnic disparity in access to high-quality HLA-matched cord blood units for transplantation: analysis of the Canadian Blood Services' Cord Blood Bank inventory.

Transfusion 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Canadian Blood Services' Cord Blood Bank, Ottawa, Ontario.

Background: Launched in 2013, Canadian Blood Services' Cord Blood Bank (CBS' CBB) has built a high-quality, ethnically diverse cord blood repository that aims to reduce ethnic disparity in accessing suitable units for transplantation.

Methods And Results: As of December 2016, 2000 units have been banked. The self-reported maternal ethnicity was 58% non-Caucasian. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15313DOI Listing

The Thrill of Speedy Descents: A Pilot Study on Differences in Facially Expressed Online Emotions and Retrospective Measures of Emotions During a Downhill Mountain-Bike Descent.

Front Psychol 2019 2;10:566. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Psychology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

When extreme sport athletes explain the engagement behind their taxing and risky endeavors, they often refer to the happiness generated by the activities. However, during the activity, these athletes seem neither pleased nor happy. This article proposes some answers from a study of facially expressed emotions measured moment by moment during downhill mountain biking. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00566
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454103PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Adult Mental Health Outpatients Who Have Minor Children: Prevalence of Parents, Referrals of Their Children, and Patient Characteristics.

Front Psychiatry 2019 2;10:163. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Health Services Research, SINTEF, Trondheim, Norway.

A strong connection exists between parental mental illness and lifetime mental health risk for their children. Thus, it is important to determine, when parents attend for treatment for their illness, the prevalence and characteristics of parents with a mental illness and identify referral actions for their children. Previous studies indicate that 12-45% of adult mental health service patients are parents with minor children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456127PMC

Functional attributes of epilithic diatoms for palaeoenvironmental interpretations in South-West Greenland lakes.

J Paleolimnol 2018 9;60(2):273-298. Epub 2017 Jun 9.

5School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, William Smith Building, Keele, Staffs ST55BG UK.

Benthic diatoms are commonly used for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction in Arctic regions, but interpretation of their ecology remains challenging. We studied epilithic diatom assemblages from the shallow margins of 19 lakes from three areas (coast-inland-ice sheet margin) along a climate gradient in Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland during two periods; shortly after ice-off (spring) and in the middle of the growth season (summer). We aimed to understand the distribution of Arctic epilithic diatoms in relation to water chemistry gradients during the two seasons, to investigate their incorporation into lake sediments and to assess their applicability as palaeoenvironmental indicators. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10933-017-9968-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10933-017-9968-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6435045PMC
June 2017
3 Reads

The advective origin of an under-ice spring bloom in the Arctic Ocean using multiple observational platforms.

Polar Biol 2018 13;41(6):1197-1216. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

1Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Technology and Science (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim, Norway.

Under-ice blooms of phytoplankton in the Chukchi Sea have been observed, with strong implications for our understanding of the production regimes in the Arctic Ocean. Using a combination of satellite remote sensing of phytoplankton biomass, in situ observations under sea ice from an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), and in vivo photophysiology, we examined the composition, magnitude and origin of a bloom detected beneath the sea ice Northwest of Svalbard (Southern Yermak Plateau) in May 2010. In situ concentration of up to 20 mg chlorophyll a [Chl ] m, were dominated by the northern planktonic spring species of diatoms, , var. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00300-018-2278-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00300-018-2278-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438636PMC
February 2018
1 Read

Nasal CPAP on paediatric air transport in the Canadian Arctic: A case series.

Paediatr Child Health 2019 May 13;24(2):e94-e97. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Department of Anaesthesia, Qikiqtani General Hospital, Iqaluit, Nunavut.

Aims: Paediatric transport in remote regions of Canada represents a huge challenge given the acuity of the patients, immense distances, weather and lack of road infrastructure. Transport of patients in the Baffin region of Nunavut is completed entirely by air transport. Two very common paediatric transports are in regards to lower respiratory tract infections and premature deliveries in small rural communities north of Iqaluit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pch/pxy088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462123PMC

Injury registration for primary prevention in a provincial Russian region: setting up a new trauma registry.

Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2019 Apr 17;27(1):47. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Community Medicine, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, Hansine Hansens veg 18, 9019 Tromsø, Norway.

Background: The Shenkursk Injury Registry (SHIR) was established in the Shenkursk District, Northwestern Russia in 2015 for the purposes of primary prevention. The SHIR covers all injuries (ICD-10 diagnoses from S00 to T78) for which medical aid is given at the Shenkursk central district hospital and includes data about injury circumstances. We used the SHIR data to assess the quality of the SHIR as an evidence basis and for the local preventive applications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13049-019-0627-1DOI Listing

Closely-related Photobacterium strains comprise the majority of bacteria in the gut of migrating Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

Microbiome 2019 Apr 17;7(1):64. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Chemistry and the Center for Bioinformatics (SfB), Faculty of Science and Technology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037, Tromsø, Norway.

Background: The population of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), also known as Northeast Arctic cod, migrating Atlantic cod, or simply "skrei," lives mainly in the Barents Sea and Svalbard waters and migrates in annual cycles to the Norwegian coast in order to spawn eggs during late winter. It is the world's largest population of Atlantic cod, and the population is distinct from the Norwegian coastal cod (or "fjord" cod). Despite the biological, economic, and cultural importance of migrating Atlantic cod, current knowledge on the associated microbiota is very limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-019-0681-yDOI Listing

Botulism in Native Peoples - An Economic Study.

Authors:
Ewenc D Todd

J Food Prot 1988 Jul;51(7):581-587

Bureau of Microbial Hazards, Food Directorate, Health Protection Branch, Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, KIA 0L2, Canada.

Type E botulism occurs regularly in scattered locations in the Canadian Arctic and northern coastal British Columbia from the consumption of improperly fermented fish and marine mammal products by native peoples, with an average of eight cases and 1.5 deaths each year. Local treatment at nursing stations is often followed by the evacuation of the patients to the main northern hospitals, e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-51.7.581DOI Listing

Climatic adaptation in human inferior nasal turbinate morphology: Evidence from Arctic and equatorial populations.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Anthropology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.

Objectives: The nasal turbinates directly influence the overall size, shape, and surface area of the nasal passages, and thus contribute to intranasal heat and moisture exchange. However, unlike the encapsulating walls of the nasal cavity, ecogeographic variation in nasal turbinate morphology among humans has not yet been established. Here we investigate variation in inferior nasal turbinate morphology in two populations from climatically extreme environments. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajpa.23840
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23840DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The effect of myo-inositol/di-chiro-inositol on markers of ovarian reserve in women with PCOS undergoing IVF/ICSI: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Women's Health and Perinatology Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Introductio: High levels of anti-Mullerian hormone and a high antral follicle count in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, reflecting increased ovarian antral follicles, predisposes them to have a high number of retrieved oocytes at in-vitro fertilisation (IVF)/ intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and an increased risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Inositols, which act as insulin sensitizers have the potential to alter folliculogenesis and the functional ovarian reserve with subsequent benefits to reproductive outcomes following IVF/ICSI treatment. Published literature is however unable to provide definitive evidence of its efficacy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aogs.13625DOI Listing

The evolution of the plastid phosphate translocator family.

Planta 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Biologibygget, Framstredet 39, 9037, Tromsø, Norway.

Main Conclusion: The plastid phosphate translocators evolved in algae but diversified into several groups, which adopted different physiological functions by extensive gene duplications and losses in Streptophyta. The plastid phosphate translocators (pPT) are a family of transporters involved in the exchange of metabolites and inorganic phosphate between stroma and cytosol. Based on their substrate specificities, they were divided into four subfamilies named TPT, PPT, GPT and XPT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-019-03161-yDOI Listing

Antibacterial prescription in Italian preschool children: analysis of 7 years of data from the Emilia-Romagna region reimbursement database.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Unit of Pharmacology, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, via Irnerio 48, 40126, Bologna, Italy.

Objectives: To describe antibacterial prescribing patterns in outpatients aged 0-5 years from 2007 to 2013 in the Emilia-Romagna region, assessing sex- and age-specific consumption over time.

Methods: All children aged 0-5 years resident in the Emilia-Romagna region who received at least one prescription of a systemic antibacterial in the period 2007-13 were enrolled. The prescriptions of systemic antibacterials to children were collected from the regional prescription database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz153DOI Listing

Public Dental Service personnel facing a major health care reform in Finland.

BDJ Open 2019 11;5. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

1Department of Clinical Dentistry, Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Objectives: A health care reform will replace the health care and social services centred on public provision with a market-oriented system and enhanced competition between public and private sectors. The aim was to ascertain Public Dental Services (PDS) changes personnel anticipated and how dental services in the new "public" undertakings could be made more cost-efficient.

Materials And Methods: An electronic questionnaire was sent to the Chief Dentists of a random sample of 12 PDS units in southern and northern Finland for distribution to their personnel; 71. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41405-019-0012-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459875PMC

Convolutional Neural Network for Breathing Phase Detection in Lung Sounds.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Apr 15;19(8). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Computer Science, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway.

We applied deep learning to create an algorithm for breathing phase detection in lung sound recordings, and we compared the breathing phases detected by the algorithm and manually annotated by two experienced lung sound researchers. Our algorithm uses a convolutional neural network with spectrograms as the features, removing the need to specify features explicitly. We trained and evaluated the algorithm using three subsets that are larger than previously seen in the literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19081798DOI Listing

Gastric Cancer in Northern Canadian Populations: A Focus on Cardia and Non-Cardia Subsites.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 15;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

The CANHelp Working Group, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.

In northern Canada where there is a high prevalence of infection, there is a paucity of information on gastric cancer by the topographical subsites cardia (CGC) and non-cardia (NCGC). Here we describe the incidence of CGC and NCGC, separately, among northern Canadian populations. We used data from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Volumes X (CI5X) and XI (CI5XI) to obtain CGC and NCGC incidence for Canada and for Yukon (YT), a northern Canadian territory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040534DOI Listing

Contrasting vegetation states do not diverge in soil organic matter storage: evidence from historical sites in tundra.

Ecology 2019 Apr 16:e02731. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Sweden.

Ecosystems where severe disturbance has induced permanent shifts in vegetation and soil processes may represent alternative stable states. To date, little is known on how long-lasting changes in soil processes are following such disturbances, and how the changes in plant and soil processes between the alternative states eventually manifest themselves in soil organic matter (SOM) storage. Here, we analyzed plant density, the shrub:forb -ratio, microbial respiration, extracellular enzyme activities and SOM stocks in soils of subarctic tundra and historical milking grounds, where reindeer herding induced a vegetation transition from deciduous shrubs to graminoids several centuries earlier but were abandoned a century ago. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2731DOI Listing
April 2019
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Iodine in Edible Seaweed, Its Absorption, Dietary Use, and Relation to Iodine Nutrition in Arctic People.

J Med Food 2019 Apr;22(4):421-426

3 Ilisimatusarfik, University of Greenland, Nuuk, Greenland.

Dietary iodine is important to human health, and both low and high iodine intake levels increase the risk of disease. Seaweed is rich in iodine and it is a common component in both Asian and in Arctic cuisines. While the intake and impact are known for Asian people, data are lacking for Arctic people. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2018.0187DOI Listing
April 2019
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Biosynthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles by the Arctic anti-oxidative bacterium Paracoccus sp. Arc7-R13.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2019 Dec;47(1):1488-1495

a Key Lab of Marine Bioactive Substances , The First Institute of Oceanography, SOA , Qingdao , China.

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted wide interest due to its broad range of applications. This study aims to describe the biosynthesis of AgNPs using an Arctic anti-oxidative bacterium Arc7-R13 and to study its characteristics and antibacterial activity. The biosynthesis of AgNPs was verified using UV-Vis spectrum with the maximum absorption at 416 nm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2019.1601631DOI Listing
December 2019

"Automatic assumption of your gender, sexuality and sexual practices is also discrimination": Exploring sexual healthcare experiences and recommendations among sexually and gender diverse persons in Arctic Canada.

Health Soc Care Community 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Fostering Open eXpression Among Youth (FOXY), Yellowknife, NT, Canada.

Sexual and mental health disparities are reported in Arctic Canada as in other Arctic regions that experience shared challenges of insufficient healthcare resources, limited transportation, and a scarcity of healthcare research. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer persons (LGBTQ+) report sexual and mental health disparities in comparison with their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts, and these disparities may be exacerbated in rural versus urban settings. Yet limited research has explored sexual healthcare experiences among LGBTQ+ persons in the Arctic who are at the juncture of Arctic and LGBTQ+ health disparities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12757DOI Listing

Defining compulsive exercise in eating disorders: acknowledging the exercise paradox and exercise obsessions.

J Eat Disord 2019 4;7. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

3Department of Psychology, UiT -The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Recently Dittmer et al. (JED 6:1-9, 2018). suggested a transdiagnostic definition and a clinical assessment for compulsive exercise in adolescents and adults with eating disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40337-019-0238-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448210PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Author Correction: Evaluation of Hypoglycaemia with Non-Invasive Sensors in People with Type 1 Diabetes and Impaired Awareness of Hypoglycaemia.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 16;9(1):6347. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Endocrinology, Morbid Obesity and Preventive Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42218-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6465255PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Physical activity and risk of recurrence and mortality after incident venous thromboembolism.

J Thromb Haemost 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

K.G. Jebsen - Thrombosis Research and Expertise Center (TREC), Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Background: Limited data exist on the relationship between physical activity and major complications after incident venous thromboembolism (VTE).

Objectives: To investigate whether physical activity was associated with risk of recurrence and mortality in VTE patients recruited from the general population.

Methods: Patients with incident VTE (n=786) derived from the Tromsø Study surveys 4-6 (1994-95, 2001-02 and 2007-08) were included, and data on physical activity was dichotomized according to the activity level reported in the survey preceding the incident VTE (inactive: <1h per week, active: ≥1h per week). Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jth.14449
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.14449DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

The FMRpolyGlycine Protein Mediates Aggregate Formation and Toxicity Independent of the CGG mRNA Hairpin in a Cellular Model for FXTAS.

Front Genet 2019 28;10:249. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Molecular Cancer Research Group, Department of Medical Biology, University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CGG-repeat expansion in the 5' UTR of the FMR1 gene on the X-chromosome. Both elevated levels of the expanded FMR1 mRNA and aberrant expression of a polyglycine protein (FMRpolyG) from the CGG-repeat region are hypothesized to trigger the pathogenesis of FXTAS. While increased expression of FMRpolyG leads to higher toxicity in FXTAS models, the pathogenic effect of this protein has only been studied in the presence of CGG-containing mRNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.00249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447689PMC

Editorial: Responses to Climate Change in the Cold Biomes.

Front Plant Sci 2019 28;10:347. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Biological Sciences and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.00347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447700PMC

Discrepancies in data reporting of zoonotic infectious diseases across the Nordic countries - a call for action in the era of climate change.

Int J Circumpolar Health 2019 Dec;78(1):1601991

e Department of Clinical Microbiology , Umeå University , Umeå , Sweden.

Emerging infections have in recent years caused enormous health problems. About 70% of these infections are zoonotic e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22423982.2019.1601991DOI Listing
December 2019

NIPSNAP1 and NIPSNAP2 Act as "Eat Me" Signals for Mitophagy.

Dev Cell 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences and Centre for Cancer Cell Reprogramming, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, 1112 Blindern, Oslo 0317, Norway. Electronic address:

The clearance of damaged or dysfunctional mitochondria by selective autophagy (mitophagy) is important for cellular homeostasis and prevention of disease. Our understanding of the mitochondrial signals that trigger their recognition and targeting by mitophagy is limited. Here, we show that the mitochondrial matrix proteins 4-Nitrophenylphosphatase domain and non-neuronal SNAP25-like protein homolog 1 (NIPSNAP1) and NIPSNAP2 accumulate on the mitochondria surface upon mitochondrial depolarization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2019.03.013DOI Listing

Metal Resistance in Bacteria from Contaminated Arctic Sediment is Driven by Metal Local Inputs.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d'Alcontres 31, 98166, Messina, Italy.

Anthropogenic impact over the Pasvik River (Arctic Norway) is mainly caused by emissions from runoff from smelter and mine wastes, as well as by domestic sewage from the Russian, Norwegian, and Finnish settlements situated on its catchment area. In this study, sediment samples from sites within the Pasvik River area with different histories of metal input were analyzed for metal contamination and occurrence of metal-resistant bacteria in late spring and summer of 2014. The major differences in microbial and chemical parameters were mostly dependent on local inputs than seasonality. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00244-019-00628-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-019-00628-7DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

BioRad BioPlex® HIV Ag-Ab assay: Incidence of false positivity in a low-prevalence population and its effects on the current HIV testing algorithm.

J Clin Virol 2019 Apr 6;116:1-3. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health, Alaska State Public Health Virology Laboratory, Fairbanks, Alaska, United States; Department of Biology and Wildlife, Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska -Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, United States.

Background: The BioPlex® HIV Ag-Ab assay, unlike other HIV 1/2 antigen/antibody immunoassays, is capable of differentiating positive HIV-1 antibodies (Groups M and O) from HIV-2 antibodies and/or HIV-1 p24 antigen in a single test.

Objective: The Alaska State Virology Laboratory (ASVL) adopted the BioPlex® HIV Ag-Ab assay early 2017 and can report on its performance in terms of false positivity in a low-prevalence population and its effects on the current HIV testing algorithm recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Study Design: Specimens received between March 2017 and August 2018 were screened using the BioPlex® HIV Ag-Ab assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Cortical Thickness and Cognitive Performance After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2019 Apr;33(4):296-306

1 University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Background: Cognitive impairment is common in long-term survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) but corresponding neuroimaging data are lacking.

Objectives: This study explored the relationship among the cortical brain structure, cognitive performance, and clinical variables after OHCA.

Methods: Three months after resuscitation, 13 OHCA survivors who had recovered from a coma to living independently and 19 healthy controls were assessed by cerebral magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological tests quantifying memory, fine-motor coordination, and attention/executive functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1545968319834904DOI Listing
April 2019
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The inflammatory potential of diet in determining cancer risk; A prospective investigation of two dietary pattern scores.

PLoS One 2019 12;14(4):e0214551. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sustainable Health/Nutritional Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Purpose: Inflammation-related mechanisms may contribute to the link between diet and cancer. We sought to investigate the inflammatory impact of diet on cancer risk using the Dietary inflammatory index (DII) and an adapted Mediterranean diet score (MDS).

Methods: This population-based, prospective cohort study used self-reported dietary data from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme, including 100,881 participants, of whom 35,393 had repeated measures. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214551PLOS
April 2019
5 Reads

Rodent population cycle as a determinant of gastrointestinal nematode abundance in a low-arctic population of the red fox.

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2019 Aug 22;9:36-41. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Education, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037, Tromsø, Norway.

We analyzed an 11-year time series (2005-2015) of parasite abundance for three intestinal nematode species in the red fox () as a function of the multi-annual rodent population cycle in low-arctic Norway, while correcting for other potential covariates that could influence prevalence and abundance. Rodents are paratenic and facultative intermediate hosts for the two Ascarididae species and , respectively and key prey for the red fox. Still the relative importance of indirect transmission through rodents and direct transmission through free-living stages is unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2019.03.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441723PMC

Early maladaptive schemas as predictors of maternal bonding to the unborn child.

BMC Psychol 2019 Apr 11;7(1):23. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037, Tromsø, Norway.

Background: The quality of an expectant mother's bonding to the fetus has been shown to be associated with important developmental outcomes. Previous studies suggest that bonding quality is predicted by, for example, social support, psychological well-being, and depression. However, little is known regarding the role of maternal cognition in maternal-fetal bonding. Read More

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https://bmcpsychology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40359-019-0297-9DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Why and How Should We Integrate Biomarkers into Complex Trials? A Discussion on Paradigms and Clinical Research Strategies.

Complement Med Res 2019 Apr 11:1-10. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Internal and Complementary Medicine, Immanuel Hospital and Institute of Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité - University Medical Center, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Research in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) encounters a variety of challenges, such as potentially synergistic, multimodal, and complex interventions which are often dependent on the relationship between practitioner and patient, on specific settings, and on patients' individual preferences, expectations, beliefs, and motivations. Moreover, patients seeking CAM care often suffer from chronic disease conditions, and multiple symptoms and/or pathologies. On the other hand, CAM interventions are often challenged as being solely dependent on subjective and nonspecific factors without biologically based mechanisms of action. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000498981DOI Listing

Spatial Variability of Antarctic Surface Snow Bacterial Communities.

Front Microbiol 2019 26;10:461. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University at Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

It was once a long-held view that the Antarctic was a pristine environment with low biomass, low biodiversity and low rates of microbial activity. However, as the intensity of scientific investigation has increased, so these views have started to change. In particular, the role and impact of human activity toward indigenous microbial communities has started to come under more intense scrutiny. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00461
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443967PMC
March 2019
5 Reads

Lipid normalization and stable isotope discrimination in Pacific walrus tissues.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 10;9(1):5843. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Water and Environmental Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1764 Tanana Loop, Fairbanks, Alaska, 99775-5860, USA.

Analysis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values (δC and δN) of animal tissues can provide important information about diet, physiology, and movements. Interpretation of δC and δN values, however, is influenced by factors such as sample lipid content, tissue-specific isotope discrimination, and tissue turnover rates, which are typically species- and tissue-specific. In this study, we generated lipid normalization models for δC and investigated the effects of chemical lipid extractions on δC and δN in Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) muscle, liver, and skin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42095-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458160PMC
April 2019
7 Reads

Careful expressions of social aspects: How local professionals in high school settings, municipal services, and general practice communicate care to youth presenting persistent bodily complaints.

Health Soc Care Community 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Community Medicine, General Practice Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Persistent health complaints pose communicative dilemmas in care encounters, adversely affecting patient experiences and pathways. Little is known about the impact and role of professionals in encounters with young people with incipient, debilitating, and persistent symptoms. This study aims to explore communicative dilemmas and the role of language in care provided by local professionals in high school settings, municipal services, and general practice to young people presenting persistent bodily complaints. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12762DOI Listing

Insights into graphene wettability transparency by locally probing its surface free energy.

Nanoscale 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Laboratory for Energy and Nano Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. and Department of Physics and Technology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9010, Tromsø, Norway.

In this work, we study the surface energy of monolayer, bilayer and multilayer graphene coatings, produced through exfoliation of natural graphite flakes and chemical vapor deposition. We employ bimodal atomic force microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy for high spatial resolution and large area scanning of force of adhesion on the regions of the graphene/SiO2 surface with different graphene layers. Our measurements show that the interface conditions between graphene and SiO2 dominate the experimentally observed graphene surface energy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9nr00155gDOI Listing
April 2019
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Author Correction: Partially spatially coherent digital holographic microscopy and machine learning for quantitative analysis of human spermatozoa under oxidative stress condition.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 10;9(1):6102. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Physics and Technology, UiT The Arctic Univ. of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42490-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456572PMC

Family history of cancer and risk of paediatric and young adult's testicular cancer: A Norwegian cohort study.

Br J Cancer 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, P.O Box 1130 Blindervn, 0318, Oslo, Norway.

Background: The aim of this study was to examine the association of a family history of cancer with the risk of testicular cancer in young adults.

Methods: This is a prospective cohort study including 1,974,287 males born 1951-2015, of whom 2686 were diagnosed with TC before the age of 30.

Results: A history of TC in male relatives was significantly associated with a diagnosis of TC among children and young adults, including brothers (6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-019-0445-2DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Boreal marine fauna from the Barents Sea disperse to Arctic Northeast Greenland.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 9;9(1):5799. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Norwegian College of Fishery Science, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

As a result of ocean warming, the species composition of the Arctic seas has begun to shift in a boreal direction. One ecosystem prone to fauna shifts is the Northeast Greenland shelf. The dispersal route taken by boreal fauna to this area is, however, not known. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42097-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456728PMC

p38 MAPK activation through B7-H3-mediated DUSP10 repression promotes chemoresistance.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 9;9(1):5839. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Tumor Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital Radiumhospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

Immunoregulatory protein B7-H3 is involved in the oncogenic and metastatic potential of cancer cells, as well as in drug resistance. Resistance to conventional chemotherapy is an important aspect of melanoma treatment, and a better understanding of how B7-H3 enhances drug resistance may lead to the development of more effective therapies. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo sensitivity of chemotherapeutic agents dacarbazine (DTIC) and cisplatin in sensitive and drug resistant melanoma cells with knockdown expression of B7-H3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42303-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456585PMC

Evaluation of an untargeted nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach to expand coverage of low molecular weight dissolved organic matter in Arctic soil.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 9;9(1):5810. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research & Graduate Education, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA.

Characterizing low molecular weight (LMW) dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soils and evaluating the availability of this labile pool is critical to understanding the underlying mechanisms that control carbon storage or release across terrestrial systems. However, due to wide-ranging physicochemical diversity, characterizing this complex mixture of small molecules and how it varies across space remains an analytical challenge. Here, we evaluate an untargeted approach to detect qualitative and relative-quantitative variations in LMW DOM with depth using water extracts from a soil core from the Alaskan Arctic, a unique system that contains nearly half the Earth's terrestrial carbon and is rapidly warming due to climate change. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42118-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456581PMC

Recent summer warming in northwestern Canada exceeds the Holocene thermal maximum.

Nat Commun 2019 04 9;10(1):1631. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Eastern Beringia is one of the few Western Arctic regions where full Holocene climate reconstructions are possible. However, most full Holocene reconstructions in Eastern Beringia are based either on pollen or midges, which show conflicting early Holocene summer temperature histories. This discrepancy precludes understanding the factors that drove past (and potentially future) climate change and calls for independent proxies to advance the debate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09622-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456611PMC

Resolving the controls of water vapour isotopes in the Atlantic sector.

Nat Commun 2019 04 9;10(1):1632. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, 27570, Germany.

Stable water isotopes are employed as hydrological tracers to quantify the diverse implications of atmospheric moisture for climate. They are widely used as proxies for studying past climate changes, e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09242-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456600PMC

Extraction Optimization, Purification, Antioxidant Activity, and Preliminary Structural Characterization of Crude Polysaccharide from an Arctic Chlorella sp.

Polymers (Basel) 2018 Mar 9;10(3). Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biology, College of Resources and Environmental Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Tongwei Road, Nanjing 210095, China.

The arctic strain of sp. (-Arc) exists in the coldest and driest arctic ecosystems, and it is a new resource of active polysaccharides. The extraction of crude polysaccharide from -Arc was optimized using the response surface methodology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym10030292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6414885PMC
March 2018
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Maternal longevity and offspring sex in wild ungulates.

Proc Biol Sci 2019 Feb;286(1896):20181968

1 Département de Biologie, Université de Sherbrooke , Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada J1K 2R1.

In species with sexual size dimorphism, the offspring of the larger sex usually have greater energy requirements and may lead to greater fitness costs for parents. The effects of offspring sex on maternal longevity, however, have only been tested in humans. Human studies produced mixed results and considerable debate mainly owing to the difficulty of distinguishing the effects of sexual dimorphism from sociocultural factors. Read More

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http://www.royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.1968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6408606PMC
February 2019
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Stress behaviour and physiology of developing Arctic barnacle goslings ( Branta leucopsis) is affected by legacy trace contaminants.

Proc Biol Sci 2018 Dec;285(1893):20181866

1 Behavioural and Physiological Ecology, Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen , 9747 AG Groningen , The Netherlands.

Natural populations are persistently exposed to environmental pollution, which may adversely impact animal physiology and behaviour and even compromise survival. Responding appropriately to any stressor ultimately might tip the scales for survival, as mistimed behaviour and inadequate physiological responses may be detrimental. Yet effects of legacy contamination on immediate physiological and behavioural stress coping abilities during acute stress are virtually unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.1866DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304058PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Local snowmelt and temperature - but not regional sea-ice - explain variation in spring phenology in coastal Arctic tundra.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Grand Valley State University, Allendale, MI, USA.

The Arctic is undergoing dramatic environmental change with rapidly rising surface temperatures, accelerating sea-ice decline and changing snow regimes, all of which influence tundra plant phenology. Despite these changes, no globally consistent direction of trends in spring phenology has been reported across the Arctic. While spring has advanced at some sites, spring has delayed or not changed at other sites, highlighting substantial unexplained variation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14639DOI Listing
April 2019
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Identifying hybrids & the genomics of hybridization: Mallards & American black ducks of Eastern North America.

Ecol Evol 2019 Mar 27;9(6):3470-3490. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Biology University of Miami Coral Gables Florida.

Resolving evolutionary relationships and establishing population structure depends on molecular diagnosability that is often limited for closely related taxa. Here, we use 3,200 ddRAD-seq loci across 290 mallards, American black ducks, and putative hybrids to establish population structure and estimate hybridization rates. We test between traditional assignment probability and accumulated recombination events based analyses to assign hybrids to generational classes. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ece3.4981
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434578PMC
March 2019
1 Read