19,642 results match your criteria Arctic Antarctic And Alpine Research[Journal]


Facets of individual-specific health signatures determined from longitudinal plasma proteome profiling.

EBioMedicine 2020 Jul 3;57:102854. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Protein Science, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Tomtebodavägen 23, Stockholm 171 65, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: Precision medicine approaches aim to tackle diseases on an individual level through molecular profiling. Despite the growing knowledge about diseases and the reported diversity of molecular phenotypes, the descriptions of human health on an individual level have been far less elaborate.

Methods: To provide insights into the longitudinal protein signatures of well-being, we profiled blood plasma collected over one year from 101 clinically healthy individuals using multiplexed antibody assays. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.102854DOI Listing

Risk of bias in study on early antibiotics and necrotizing enterocolitis.

J Pediatr 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Paediatric Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.07.004DOI Listing

Watershed-scale climate influences productivity of Chinook salmon populations across southcentral Alaska.

Glob Chang Biol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Sport Fish, Palmer, AK, USA.

The ecosystems supporting Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are changing rapidly as a result of climate change and habitat alteration. Understanding how-and how consistently-salmon populations respond to changes at regional and watershed scales has major implications for fisheries management and habitat conservation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15155DOI Listing

Methods and Evaluation Criteria for Apps and Digital Interventions for Diabetes Self-Management: Systematic Review.

J Med Internet Res 2020 Jul 6;22(7):e18480. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Norwegian Centre for E-health Research, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Background: There is growing evidence that apps and digital interventions have a positive impact on diabetes self-management. Standard self-management for patients with diabetes could therefore be supplemented by apps and digital interventions to increase patients' skills. Several initiatives, models, and frameworks suggest how health apps and digital interventions could be evaluated, but there are few standards for this. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/18480DOI Listing

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Iceland according to KDIGO criteria and age-adapted estimated glomerular filtration rate thresholds.

Kidney Int 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Internal Medicine Services, Landspitali-The National University Hospital of Iceland; Division of Nephrology, Landspitali-The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. Electronic address:

Most epidemiological studies on chronic kidney disease (CKD) are based solely on estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR). Few studies have included proteinuria, while the chronicity criterion is usually omitted. To explore this, we examined the prevalence of CKD stages 1-5 in Iceland based on multiple markers of kidney damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.06.017DOI Listing

Peat burning - An important source of pyridines in the earth atmosphere.

Environ Pollut 2020 Jun 29;266(Pt 1):115109. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Laboratory of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Core Facility Center "Arktika", Northern (Arctic) Federal University. Nab, Severnoy Dviny, 17, Arkhangelsk, 163002, Russia; Department of Organic Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Leninskie Gory 1/3, Russia. Electronic address:

Studies of the chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols, rain water and snow in various regions of the globe quite often show the presence of pyridine and a number of its low mass derivatives. Nevertheless, the sources of those compounds in the environment have not yet been established and definitely require elucidation, supported by reliable experimental results. In the present work the chemical composition of peat combustion products as one of the important sources of atmospheric aerosol emission is studied by two-dimensional gas chromatography - high-resolution mass spectrometry with a focus on the detection of pyridine derivatives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115109DOI Listing

Management strategies for children with COVID-19: ESPR practical recommendations.

Pediatr Radiol 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Unidad de Radiología Pediátrica, Servicio de Radiodiagnóstico, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla, Spain.

During the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, guidelines have been issued by international, national and local authorities to address management and the need for preparedness. Children with COVID-19 differ from adults in that they are less often and less severely affected. Additional precautions required in the management of children address their increased radiosensitivity, need for accompanying carers, and methods for dealing with children in a mixed adult-paediatric institution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-020-04749-3DOI Listing

Screening for Cellulolytic Plant Enzymes Using Colorimetric and Fluorescence Methods.

Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2149:193-201

Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Cellulolytic activity can be measured using a variety of methods, the choice of which depends on the raw material and goals. An inexpensive, rapid, and reliable method, suitable for plants and other sources alike, is based on digestion of the easily degradable soluble cellulose derivative carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). Direct detection of CMC digestion by cellulolytic activity is based on the "negative staining principle," where undigested CMC is stained with appropriate colorimetric or fluorescent stains, while CMC exposed to digestion by cellulase shows a reduction in staining intensity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0621-6_11DOI Listing
January 2020

A model for the estimation of the mixing zone behind large sea vessels.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

SINTEF Ocean, Rockland, MA, USA.

One of the important tasks associated with reducing the concentration of contaminants in the sea surface layer is the determination of their mixing volume, as of the most active systems for mixing the sea surface layer are sea vessels. The wake of a ship is a highly mixed medium. The study of the wake development over time is important when evaluating the mixing of various pollutants in the wake with neutralizing chemicals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09890-yDOI Listing

The identification of sulfide oxidation as a potential metabolism driving primary production on late Noachian Mars.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 2;10(1):10941. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

AstrobiologyOU, Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.

The transition of the martian climate from the wet Noachian era to the dry Hesperian (4.1-3.0 Gya) likely resulted in saline surface waters that were rich in sulfur species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67815-8DOI Listing

Graves' disease.

Nat Rev Dis Primers 2020 Jul 2;6(1):52. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Medicine I, Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Centre, Mainz, Germany.

Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune disease that primarily affects the thyroid gland. It is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and occurs at all ages but especially in women of reproductive age. Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by autoantibodies to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) that act as agonists and induce excessive thyroid hormone secretion, releasing the thyroid gland from pituitary control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41572-020-0184-yDOI Listing

Analysis of medico-social factors for return to work among patients presenting with haematological malignancy (adamantine): results of a 'pilot study'.

BMC Res Notes 2020 Jul 2;13(1):313. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

INSERM U1086 « ANTICIPE », 14033, Caen Cedex, France.

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe return to work determinants in patients with haematological malignancy.

Results: This medico-social pilot study included patients with haematological malignancy in the département of Calvados, aged 18 to 55 years, diagnosed between 1st January and 31st December 2010 and alive at 1st January 2015. Patients were identified via consultation of the Lower Normandy haematological malignancy Registry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05149-4DOI Listing

Bioaccumulation potential of bisphenols and benzophenone UV filters: A multiresidue approach in raptor tissues.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 20;741:140330. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.. Electronic address:

Environmental exposure to bisphenols and benzophenone UV filters has received considerable attention due to the ubiquitous occurrence of these contaminants in the environment and their potential adverse health effects. The occurrence of bisphenols and benzophenone UV filters is well established in human populations, but data is scarce for wildlife, and especially for raptors (birds of prey, falcons and owls). In this study, concentrations of eight bisphenols and five benzophenone UV filters were determined in six raptor tissues, including muscle, kidney, liver, brain, preen gland (uropygial gland) and adipose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140330DOI Listing

Health assessment of harbour porpoises (PHOCOENA PHOCOENA) from Baltic area of Denmark, Germany, Poland and Latvia.

Environ Int 2020 Jun 29;143:105904. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bünteweg 17, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

Harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), the only resident cetacean species of the Baltic Sea is formed of two subpopulations populations, occurring in the western Baltic, Belt Seas and Kattegat and the Baltic Proper, respectively. Harbour porpoises throughout these areas are exposed to a large number of human activities causing direct and indirect effects on individuals, that might also harm this species on a population level. From Latvia, Poland, Germany and Denmark 385 out of 1769 collected dead harbour porpoises were suitable for extensive necropsy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105904DOI Listing

Offshore telementored ultrasound: a quality assessment study.

Ultrasound J 2020 Jul 2;12(1):33. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Quality and Health Technology, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.

Background: Telementored ultrasound (US) connects experts to novices through various types of communication and network technologies with the overall aim to bridge the medical imaging gap between patients' diagnostic needs and on-site user experience. The recurrent theme in previous research on remote telementored US is the limited access to US machines and experienced users. This study was conducted to determine whether telementored US was feasible in a remote offshore setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13089-020-00180-9DOI Listing

Data on distribution, demographic structure and grazing of the dominant mesozooplankton species in the Yenisei estuary and adjacent shelf in early summer.

Data Brief 2020 Aug 12;31:105856. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Shirshov institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 36 Nakhimovskii pr., Moscow 117997, Russia.

The data article refers to the paper "Distribution and grazing of the dominant mesozooplankton species in the Yenisei estuary and adjacent shelf in early summer (July 2016)" (Drits et al., 2020). The data were collected along quasi-longitudinal transect "Yenisei estuary - Kara Sea shelf" on 24-28 July 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317680PMC

Assessing the reliability of predicted plant trait distributions at the global scale.

Glob Ecol Biogeogr 2020 Jun 20;29(6):1034-1051. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Environmental Science Institute for Water and Wetland Research Radboud University Nijmegen the Netherlands.

Aim: Predictions of plant traits over space and time are increasingly used to improve our understanding of plant community responses to global environmental change. A necessary step forward is to assess the reliability of global trait predictions. In this study, we predict community mean plant traits at the global scale and present a systematic evaluation of their reliability in terms of the accuracy of the models, ecological realism and various sources of uncertainty. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/geb.13086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319484PMC

Temporal trends in the healthy soldier effect in a cohort of Royal Norwegian Navy servicemen followed for 67 years.

Occup Environ Med 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Norwegian Armed Forces Joint Medical Services, Institute of Military Medicine and Epidemiology, Norwegian Armed Forces, Ullensaker, Norway.

Objectives: To investigate temporal trends in the 'healthy soldier effect' (HSE) among 28 300 Royal Norwegian Navy servicemen who served during 1950-2004.

Methods: Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for all causes, diseases and external causes were calculated from national rates for the entire study period (1951-2017), and for seven successive follow-up periods after the first recorded day of Naval service, for the overall cohort and for two subgroups: land-based personnel and vessel crews. Poisson regression, expressed as rate ratios, was used to compare all-cause mortality between the subgroups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2020-106475DOI Listing

Cognitive impairment in breast cancer patients before surgery: results from a CANTO cohort subgroup.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

GRECAN, Université de Caen, EA1772 - IFR 146 ICORE et Service d'Oncologie médicale centre François Baclesse, Centre François Baclesse.

Background: 20-30% of breast cancer patients have cognitive impairment after surgery and before adjuvant treatment, but very few studies have focused on cognition before any treatment. The present study used a subgroup of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer patients from the French cancer and toxicities (CANTO) cohort to describe cognition before any treatment in comparison to a group of healthy controls (HC).

Methods: Cognitive assessment was performed before any breast cancer treatment (surgery or neoadjuvant treatment) on women with newly diagnosed invasive stage I-III breast cancer and HC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0346DOI Listing

The tipping times in an Arctic sea ice system under influence of extreme events.

Chaos 2020 Jun;30(6):063125

School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Fry Building, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, United Kingdom.

In light of the rapid recent retreat of Arctic sea ice, the extreme weather events triggering the variability in Arctic ice cover has drawn increasing attention. A non-Gaussian α-stable Lévy process is thought to be an appropriate model to describe such extreme events. The maximal likely trajectory, based on the nonlocal Fokker-Planck equation, is applied to a nonautonomous Arctic sea ice system under α-stable Lévy noise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0006626DOI Listing

A generalized few-state model for the first hyperpolarizability.

J Chem Phys 2020 Jun;152(24):244106

The Hylleraas Centre for Quantum Molecular Sciences, Department of Chemistry, University of Tromsø-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

The properties of molecules depend on their chemical structure, and thus, structure-property relations help design molecules with desired properties. Few-state models are often used to interpret experimental observations of non-linear optical properties. Not only the magnitude but also the relative orientation of the transition dipole moment vectors is needed for few-state models of the non-linear optical properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0010231DOI Listing

South Africa's COVID-19 Alcohol Sales Ban: The Potential for Better Policy-Making.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2020 Jun 10. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

School of Public Health & Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijhpm.2020.93DOI Listing

Baseline pain characteristics predict pain reduction after physical therapy in women with chronic pelvic pain. Secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial.

Scand J Pain 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Norwegian Advisory Unit on Complex Symptom Disorders, St. Olav's Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.

Background and aims Women with chronic pelvic pain represent a heterogeneous group, and it is suggested that the existence of sub-groups can explain varying results and inconclusiveness in clinical trials. Some predictors of treatment outcome are suggested, but the evidence is limited. The primary aim of this study was to explore if selected pre-treatment characteristics of the participants in a recently conducted randomized controlled trial were associated with treatment outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/sjpain-2020-0026DOI Listing

CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS IN THE SEA OTTER () POPULATION IN WASHINGTON STATE, USA.

J Wildl Dis 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

US Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, USA.

Before 2001, all serosurveys for morbilliviruses in sea otters () in California, Washington, and Alaska, USA, documented a 0% seroprevalence. The first published serologic detections of morbillivirus in sea otters occurred in 2001-02 in live-captured Washington sea otters, with a documented 80% seroprevalence. We conducted a retrospective study of sea otter cases from 1989 to 2010 compiled at the US Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center to identify cases of morbilliviral disease in Washington sea otters and to characterize the disease using immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, genetic sequencing, virus isolation, and serology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/JWD-D-19-00008DOI Listing

Expansion of shrubs could result in local loss of soil bacterial richness in Western Greenland.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Biodiversity Dynamics Research Group, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Climate warming in Greenland is facilitating the expansion of shrubs across wide areas of tundra. Given the close association between plants and soil microorganisms and the important role of soil bacteria in ecosystem functioning, it is of utmost importance to characterize microbial communities of arctic soil habitats and assess the influence of plant edaphic factors on their composition. We used 16S rRNA gene amplicons to explore the bacterial assemblages of three different soil habitats representative of a plant coverage gradient: bare ground, biological soil crusts dominated by mosses and lichens, and vascular vegetation dominated by shrubs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiaa089DOI Listing

A combined effect of anti-HPA-1a and anti-HLA Class I in pregnancy?

Transfusion 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Immunology Research Group, Institute of Medical Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Background: Maternal anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Class I is commonly detected alongside anti-human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a in fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). Little is known regarding whether the presence of anti-HLA Class I may exert an additive effect on the risk and severity of FNAIT.

Methods And Materials: We reanalyzed samples originally collected as part of a large Norwegian screening study on FNAIT during 1995-2004. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15944DOI Listing

A combined histo-score based on tumor differentiation and lymphocytic infiltrate is a robust prognostic marker for mobile tongue cancer.

Virchows Arch 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Medical Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

We wanted to evaluate the prognostic value of common histopathological variables in a large cohort of patients with cancer in the mobile tongue as such information can be important for treatment stratification of the individual patient, especially for patients with low-stage disease. In addition, we wanted to investigate whether an alternative scoring model with fewer options would compromise the prognostic value. One hundred fifty patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas that were treated in curative intent and with available HE-stained tumor sections were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-020-02875-9DOI Listing

Ringed seal () seasonal movements, diving, and haul-out behavior in the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering Seas (2011-2017).

Ecol Evol 2020 Jun 5;10(12):5595-5616. Epub 2020 May 5.

Alaska Department of Fish and Game Arctic Marine Mammal Program Fairbanks AK USA.

Continued Arctic warming and sea-ice loss will have important implications for the conservation of ringed seals, a highly ice-dependent species. A better understanding of their spatial ecology will help characterize emerging ecological trends and inform management decisions. We deployed satellite transmitters on ringed seals in the summers of 2011, 2014, and 2016 near Utqiaġvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska, to monitor their movements, diving, and haul-out behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319173PMC

Interspecific comparison of the fecal microbiota structure in three Arctic migratory bird species.

Ecol Evol 2020 Jun 18;10(12):5582-5594. Epub 2020 May 18.

Division of Polar Life Sciences Korea Polar Research Institute Incheon Korea.

The gut microbiota of birds is known to be characterized for different species, although it may change with feeding items. In this study, we compared the gut microbiota of birds with different feeding behaviors in the same habitat. We collected fecal samples from three Arctic species, snow buntings , sanderlings and pink-footed geese that are phylogenetically quite distant in different families to evaluate effects of diet on gut microbiota. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319242PMC

Does plant community plasticity mediate microbial homeostasis?

Ecol Evol 2020 Jun 24;10(12):5251-5258. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Biological Sciences University of Texas at El Paso El Paso TX USA.

Microbial homeostasis-constant microbial element ratios along resource gradients-is a core ecological tenet, yet not all systems display homeostasis. We suggest investigations of homeostasis mechanisms must also consider plant-microbial interactions. Specifically, we hypothesized that ecosystems with strong plant community plasticity to changing resources will have homeostatic microbial communities, with less microbial resource cost, because plants reduce variance in resource stoichiometry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319231PMC

Crustal processes sustain Arctic abiotic gas hydrate and fluid flow systems.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 30;10(1):10679. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

CAGE - Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate, Department of Geosciences, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, Dramsveien 201, 9037, Tromsø, Norway.

The Svyatogor Ridge and surroundings, located on the sediment-covered western flank of the Northern Knipovich Ridge, host extensive gas hydrate and related fluid flow systems. The fluid flow system here manifests in the upper sedimentary sequence as gas hydrates and free gas, indicated by bottom simulating reflections (BSRs) and amplitude anomalies. Using 2D seismic lines and bathymetric data, we map tectonic features such as faults, crustal highs, and indicators of fluid flow processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67426-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326923PMC

Discovery of Two Novel Negeviruses in a Dungfly Collected from the Arctic.

Viruses 2020 Jun 27;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 27.

State Key Laboratory for Managing Biotic and Chemical Threats to the Quality and Safety of Agro-Products, Key Laboratory of Biotechnology in Plant Protection of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Institute of Plant Virology, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China.

Negeviruses are a proposed group of insect-specific viruses that can be separated into two distinct phylogenetic clades, Nelorpivirus and Sandewavirus. Negeviruses are well-known for their wide geographic distribution and broad host range among hematophagous insects. In this study, the full genomes of two novel negeviruses from each of these clades were identified by RNA extraction and sequencing from a single dungfly () collected from the Arctic Yellow River Station, where these genomes are the first negeviruses from cold zone regions to be discovered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12070692DOI Listing

E-Health in Norway Before and During the Initial Phase of the Covid-19 Pandemic.

Authors:
Rolf Wynn

Stud Health Technol Inform 2020 Jun;272:9-12

UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

The use of e-health services has for many years gradually increased in Norway as in most European countries. Searching for information about health and illness has previously by far been the most popular service. In this study, we review the literature with the aim of examining any changes in e-health use during the Covid-19 pandemic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/SHTI200480DOI Listing

Thermal traits for reproduction and recruitment differ between Arctic and Atlantic kelp Laminaria digitata.

PLoS One 2020 30;15(6):e0235388. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Alfred-Wegener-Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany.

The plasticity of different kelp populations to heat stress has seldom been investigated excluding environmental effects due to thermal histories, by raising a generation under common garden conditions. Comparisons of populations in the absence of environmental effects allow unbiased quantification of the meta-population adaptive potential and resolution of population-specific differentiation. Following this approach, we tested the hypothesis that genetically distinct arctic and temperate kelp exhibit different thermal phenotypes, by comparing the capacity of their microscopic life stages to recover from elevated temperatures. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235388PLOS

Direct angiography demonstrates equal 8-12 years patency rates of radial artery and saphenous vein grafts.

Scand Cardiovasc J 2020 Jun 30:1-6. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital North Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

The benefits of coronary artery bypass surgery depend on lasting graft patency. To aid rational graft selection, the relative long-term merits of radial artery and saphenous vein grafts need to be determined by a gold standard method and with minimal clinically driven selection bias. The patency rates of various conduits were determined by direct angiography in 76 patients from a cohort of 119 undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting 7. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14017431.2020.1784454DOI Listing

Snow melt stimulates ecosystem respiration in Arctic ecosystems.

Glob Chang Biol 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA.

Cold seasons in Arctic ecosystems are increasingly important to the annual carbon balance of these vulnerable ecosystems. Arctic winters are largely harsh and inaccessible leading historic data gaps during that time. Until recently, cold seasons have been assumed to have negligible impacts on the annual carbon balance but as data coverage increases and the Arctic warms, the cold season has been shown to account for over half of annual methane (CH ) emissions and can offset summer photosynthetic carbon dioxide (CO ) uptake. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15193DOI Listing

Combined Influence of Waist and Hip Circumference on Risk of Death in a Large Cohort of European and Australian Adults.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 Jun 30:e015189. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, and Heart Centre Umeå University Umeå Sweden.

Background Waist circumference and hip circumference are both strongly associated with risk of death; however, their joint association has rarely been investigated. Methods and Results The MONICA Risk, Genetics, Archiving, and Monograph (MORGAM) Project was conducted in 30 cohorts from 11 countries; 90 487 men and women, aged 30 to 74 years, predominantly white, with no history of cardiovascular disease, were recruited in 1986 to 2010 and followed up for up to 24 years. Hazard ratios were estimated using sex-specific Cox models, stratified by cohort, with age as the time scale. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.015189DOI Listing

Temporal Trends in Polybrominated Diphenylethers (PBDEs) in Blubber of Ringed Seals (Pusa hispida) from Ulukhaktok, NT, Canada Between 1981 and 2015.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Olokhatomiut Hunters and Trappers Committee, Ulukhaktok, NT, X0E 0S0, Canada.

Blubber taken from ringed seals (Pusa hispida) during a subsistence hunt at Ulukhaktok, NT (formerly Holman, NWT) at intervals between 2002 and 2015 was analysed for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners. Results from these analyses were combined with others previously published to yield a data set of 18 tri- to hepta-substituted PBDE congeners in 102 animals sampled over a span of 19 year (females) and 34 year (males). In females, mean total PBDE concentrations increased between 1996 and 2015 by approximately 50%, from 1940 to 2780 pg/g wet wt. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-020-00749-4DOI Listing

Multiple transpolar auroral arcs reveal insight about coupling processes in the Earth's magnetotail.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong, 264209, China.

A distinct class of aurora, called transpolar auroral arc (TPA) (in some cases called "theta" aurora), appears in the extremely high-latitude ionosphere of the Earth when interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is northward. The formation and evolution of TPA offers clues about processes transferring energy and momentum from the solar wind to the magnetosphere and ionosphere during a northward IMF. However, their formation mechanisms remain poorly understood and controversial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2000614117DOI Listing

Functional Associations and Resilience in Microbial Communities.

Microorganisms 2020 Jun 24;8(6). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK.

Microbial communities have inherently high levels of metabolic flexibility and functional redundancy, yet the structure of microbial communities can change rapidly with environmental perturbation. To understand whether such changes observed at the taxonomic level translate into differences at the functional level, we analyzed the structure of taxonomic and functional gene distribution across Arctic and Antarctic locations. Taxonomic diversity (in terms of alpha diversity and species richness) differed significantly with location. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060951DOI Listing

BK Polyomavirus Evades Innate Immune Sensing by Disrupting the Mitochondrial Network and Promotes Mitophagy.

iScience 2020 Jun 10;23(7):101257. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Transplantation & Clinical Virology, Department Biomedicine (Haus Petersplatz), University of Basel, Petersplatz 10, CH-4009 Basel, Switzerland; Clinical Virology, Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Infectious Diseases & Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Immune escape contributes to viral persistence, yet little is known about human polyomaviruses. BK-polyomavirus (BKPyV) asymptomatically infects 90% of humans but causes premature allograft failure in kidney transplant patients. Despite virus-specific T cells and neutralizing antibodies, BKPyV persists in kidneys and evades immune control as evidenced by urinary shedding in immunocompetent individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101257DOI Listing

Comparison of the effects of whitening and conventional toothpastes on the wear rate of a composite resin.

Gen Dent 2020 Jul-Aug;68(4):32-35

Considering the importance of the effect of abrasion on a restoration's durability and the high volume of abrasive materials in whitening toothpastes, it is necessary to evaluate whitening toothpastes to determine the degree of abrasion they cause in composite resins. This in vitro study evaluated the abrasive effect of 3 bleaching toothpastes on Filtek Z250 composite resin. Three whitening toothpastes (Oral-B Pro-Expert Whitening, Signal White Now, and Crest 3D White Arctic Fresh) were studied, and Crest Complete 7 conventional daily toothpaste was used as a control group. Read More

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Pulsed food resources affect reproduction but not adult apparent survival in arctic foxes.

Oecologia 2020 Jun 28. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Canada Research Chair on Northern Biodiversity and Centre d'Études Nordiques, Université du Québec à Rimouski, 300 Allée des Ursulines, Rimouski, QC, G5L3A1, Canada.

As top or mesopredators, carnivores play a key role in food webs. Their survival and reproduction are usually thought to be influenced by prey availability. However, simultaneous monitoring of prey and predators is difficult, making it challenging to evaluate the impacts of prey on carnivores' demography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-020-04696-8DOI Listing

Earth's ionosphere D-region vertical electron density profile data during March 1-31, 2017 according to high-latitudinal Tumanny observatory partial reflection radar measurements and Polar Geophysical Institute's model.

Data Brief 2020 Aug 12;31:105848. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Murmansk Arctic State University, Murmansk, Murmansk Region, 183025 Russia.

The Earth's high-latitudinal D-Region ionosphere measurements are rarely performed continuously and with high temporal resolution. This data article provides the observed and modelled data on D-Region electron density variations during March 1-31, 2017 with 1-minute resolution. Both datasets share the same data-files' structure and naming conventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306606PMC

Two-Photon Absorption Cross-Sections in Fluorescent Proteins Containing Non-canonical Chromophores Using Polarizable QM/MM.

Front Mol Biosci 2020 12;7:111. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Multi-photon absorption properties, particularly two-photon absorption (2PA), of fluorescent proteins (FPs) have made them attractive tools in deep-tissue clinical imaging. Although the diversity of photophysical properties for FPs is wide, there are some caveats predominant among the existing FP variants that need to be overcome, such as low quantum yields and small 2PA cross-sections. From a computational perspective, Salem et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2020.00111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303285PMC

The cultural evolutionary trade-off of ritualistic synchrony.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2020 Aug 29;375(1805):20190432. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA.

From Australia to the Arctic, human groups engage in synchronous behaviour during communal rituals. Because ritualistic synchrony is widespread, many argue that it is functional for human groups, encouraging large-scale cooperation and group cohesion. Here, we offer a more nuanced perspective on synchrony's function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0432DOI Listing

Distribution of trace metals and an environmental risk assessment of the river sediments in the area of the Lomonosov diamond deposit (NW Russia).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

N. Laverov Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 109 Severnoj Dviny Emb, Arkhangelsk, 163000, Russia.

This article is devoted to the study of trace metals in the bottom sediments of watercourses in the area of the developed Lomonosov diamond deposit, which is the largest industrial diamond deposit in Europe. Samples of river sediments were taken from the Zolotitsa River and all its tributaries in the area of the diamond deposit. In addition, samples of kimberlites and rocks were selected from the quarries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09809-7DOI Listing

Presence of antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae serotype a in Alaska prior to and after the emergence of invasive infections.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jun 28. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Arctic Investigations Program, Division of Preparedness and Emerging Infections, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Background: Haemophilus influenzae bacteria can cause asymptomatic carriage and invasive disease. H. influenzae serotype a (Hia) is an emerging cause of invasive disease in Alaska, with greatest burden occurring among rural Alaska Native (AN) children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa369DOI Listing

Impact of distance from the glacier on the content of Cs and Sr in the lichen Cetrariella delisei.

Chemosphere 2020 Jun 19;259:127433. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Professor Z. Czeppe Department of Polar Research and Documentation, Institute of Botany, Faculty of Biology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 3, PL-30-387, Kraków, Poland. Electronic address:

The Arctic region is substantially a pristine area, but this unique part of the globe has also been contaminated by anthropogenic radioactive nuclides, and now there is still measurable activity of anthropogenic isotopes, even though more than 50 years have passed since the main source. Radionuclides in the Arctic, especially Sr have seldom been studied despite their considerable environmental importance. This manuscript covers the results of Sr and Cs measurements in soil and lichen Cetrariella delisei collected from the Svalbard in 2012. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127433DOI Listing