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    6067 results match your criteria Archivos espanoles de urologia[Journal]

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    Future of Urology training.
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jan;71(1):158-163
    Department of Urology. La Paz University Hospital. Madrid. Spain. European Association of Urology/Young Academics Urologists. Uro-Technology and communications working party. (ESUT-YAUwp). Arnhem. The Netherlands.
    Urology has become more complex through the years, as it comprises increasingly sophisticated medical and surgical technologies such as advanced medical tumour therapies, and endourological, laparoscopicand robotic surgical techniques. Training in urology starts during medical school and once a medical student chooses to specialize on it, becomes life-long. Becoming a good urologist requires a highly qualified education and sufficient experience. Read More

    [The role of social media in academic training in Urology. Adequate use.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jan;71(1):150-157
    European Association of Urology/Young Academics Urologists. Uro-Technology and communications working party. (ESUT-YAUwp). Arnhem. The Netherlands.Department of Urology. University of California. Irvine. California. USA.Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS). School of Medicine. University of Minho. Braga. Portugal. ICVS/3B's. PT Government Associate Laboratory. Braga. Guimarães. Portugal.
    Social media is characterized because all its services are participative. Users of 2.0 technologies can interact easily and openly with other people, share resources and communicate immediately and simultaneously. Read More

    [The urologist of the future and new technologies.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jan;71(1):142-149
    Servicio de Urología. Complejo Hospitalario Ruber. Madrid. España.
    The last 25 years have brought about revolutionary changes for medicine and in particular for urology: internet was only in its infancy, medical records were written on paper, searches for medical information were done in the hospital library, medical articles were photocopied and our relationship with patients only existed face to face. Social networks had not yet appeared and even Google did not exist. Just imagine what might happen during the next 25 years, we're going to see even more radical changes. Read More

    [On line learning in urologic surgery. The value of the 2.0 Web tools.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jan;71(1):134-141
    Servicio de Urología. Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda. Hospital Universitario Madrid Torrelodones. España.
    The field of Surgery is under the pressure of accelerated change where technological cycles get shorter and shorter, sometimes transformational. Learning and training have gotten a key role because learning curves for new techniques directly affect patient's safety and learning cycles are slower. The traditional learning model within the urology department is overwhelmed. Read More

    [Academic opportunities for Urology residents in Spain.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jan;71(1):119-128
    Servicio de Urología. Hospital Clínic. Universitat de Barcelona. Barcelona. España.
    The development of an academic career gives a new dimension to the chosen specialty. It consists in combining clinical activity with teaching and research activity. In the area of surgical specialties there is currently a lack of academic positions which is necessary to overcome to maintain the quality standards. Read More

    [Training program on medical urology: Future perspectives.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jan;71(1):114-118
    Servicio de Urología y Unidad de Andrología. Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre. Madrid. España.
    Urology is defined as the medical-surgical specialty that includes the study, diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions of the urinary system. It is well specified by the National Commission of Specialties that we must know the medical pathology that concerns us. However, on occasions, resident training focuses on the surgical field and oncological pathology, which, although one of the main pillars of the specialty, is usually to the detriment of training in medical and functional pathology. Read More

    [Training program in oncologic urology. Future prospectives.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jan;71(1):108-113
    Servicio de Urología. Hospital Nacional de Parapléjicos de Toledo. España.
    Urology is a medical-surgical specialty that deals with the study, diagnosis and treatment of the medical and surgical diseases of the urinary apparatus and retroperitoneum in both sexes and the male genital apparatus without age limit, due to congenital, traumatic, septic, metabolic, obstructive and oncological conditions. Urologic oncology is the broadest urological part, where research and new advances make continuous learning essential. In this chapter we treat all academic features related with training in the field of Urooncology. Read More

    Training in urological robotic surgery. Future perspectives.
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jan;71(1):97-107
    Department of Urology. University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. Modena. Italy.
    As robotics are becoming more integrated into the medical field, robotic training is becoming more crucial in order to overcome the lack of experienced robotic surgeons. However, there are several obstacles facing the development of robotic training programs like the high cost of training and the increased operative time during the initial period of the learning curve, which, in turn increase the operative cost. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy is the most commonly performed robotic surgery. Read More

    [Training program in endourological surgery. Future perspectives.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jan;71(1):89-96
    Unidad de Endoscopia de la Fundación Centro de Cirugía de Mínima Invasión Jesús Usón. Cáceres. España.
    Current training in urological endoscopy lacks a specific training program. However, there is a clear need for a specific and uniform program, which will ensure the training, regardless of the unit where it is carried out. So, the goal is to first evaluate the current model and then bring improvements for update. Read More

    [Training program in urological laparoscopic surgery. Future perspective.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jan;71(1):85-88
    Servicio de Urología. Hospital Universitario La Paz. Madrid. España.
    Nowadays in urology, laparoscopic surgery is a reality that implies a very high percentage of the daily surgical activity. The interest in laparoscopy in urological pathology is undeniable, and the advantages for our patients with this approach are clear in most cases. But how do we deal with learning curve of this technique? What is the difficulty in laparoscopy training? What future perspectives might offer this approach? Difficulties in learning laparoscopy are easily identified and clear. Read More

    [Evaluation of competencies in urology. Esscolap® basic, as aproximation to urologists skills improvement.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jan;71(1):73-84
    Director Científico.Centro de Cirugía de Mínima Invasión Jesús Usón (CCMIJU). Cáceres. España.
    Urology needs models of competencies assessment, although there is a wide range of tools not yet integrated into the official training programs.

    Context: At present, there is no universal framework for measuring surgeons' level of competence. Urology training programs should provide and consider knowledge, pyschomotor/cognitive skills, and simulator, cadaver or animal models-based training. Read More

    [Training in basic and advanced laparoscopy: Evaluation of a 30-year experience in a training program in Spain.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jan;71(1):63-72
    Servicio de Urología. Hospital Universitario San Carlos. Madrid. España. Director del Programa de Formación en Urología del Centro de Cirugía de Mínima Invasión Jesús Usón (CCMIJU). Cáceres. España.
    The lack of globally established standards for learning urological laparoscopy has not prevented laparoscopic techniques from evolution and continuous development. Laparoscopy coexists with robotic surgery today, and in the last decade there have been many techniques that have undergone a boom with the use of a laparoscopic approach (total and partial nephrectomy, pyeloplasty, colposacropexy, etc.). Read More

    Simulation and training in Urology - in collaboration with ESU/ESUT.
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jan;71(1):55-62
    University of California LA. USA.
    Being a Surgeon today means taking on your shoulders countless responsibilities. It is definitely a high-stakes job but, even though the professionals do not go through the intense, focused and demanding training schedule as followed by the other equally risky fields, it doesn't yet require any practical training certification. Simulation was introduced in the aviation field in the early '30s with the "Link Trainer", designed to reproduce the most difficult flying case scenario: landing on an air-carrier. Read More

    [Fatigue syndrome: Stress, Burnout and depression in Urology.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jan;71(1):46-54
    Servicio de Urología. Hospital Universitario La Paz. Madrid. España. European Association of Urology/Young Academics Urologists. Uro-Technology and communications working party. (ESUT-YAUwp). Arnhem. The Netherlands.
    Objective: To determine the factors related to stress, Burnout and depression in urology, as well as consequences in residents and urologists, in addition to the possible applicable strategies to diminish and treat them.

    Acquisition Of The Evidence: Depression, stress and Burnout syndrome has become a problem in urology specialty. These topics have gained interest in international congresses and urological associations. Read More

    [Job status after the resident training period in Spain. Analysis of a national survey.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jan;71(1):40-45
    Servicio de Urología. Hospital Universitario La Paz. Madrid. España.
    Objectives: Since the establishment of specialization of medicine through the residency system, Spanish health care has sought to maintain a balance between established needs and trained professionals, with the aim of avoiding the deficit or excess of health specialists with its consequences. The objective of the present review is to know the working conditions of urologist specialists at the end of the residency training period.

    Methods: The results of a survey for urologist who completed their residency contract from 2012 to 2016 are presented, assessing working status, academic and working data during the first months after the completion of specialized training. Read More

    [The current urological training program in Spain. Urology National Specialty Commission.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jan;71(1):34-39
    Servicio de Urología. Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid. Valladolid. España.
    Objectives: 44/2003 Law involved the creation of the National Council of Specialties in Health Sciences and the National Commissions of the Specialties in Health Sciences.

    Methods: Analysis of the main laws implicated in Specialized Training and the role of the National Specialty Commission.

    Discussion: 44/2003 Law regulates the training of health professionals and establishes the procedure for the training programs creation by the National Specialty Commission and its later approval and publication in the BOE. Read More

    [Current status of urological training in Latin America.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jan;71(1):23-33
    Bowman Gray School of Medicine. Wake Forest University. Winston Salem. North Carolina. EEUU.
    Objective: Achieving residents' medical training of quality is a constant concern in the Confederación Americana de Urología (CAU), the third Urological Society worldwide. We aim to analyze the diversity of state training programs, with the intention to identify opportunities for global improvement within them and also to analyse the professional reality in different countries.

    Methods: Data from 2nd and 3rd Foro Educativo CAU regarding postgraduate training and labour implications are reviewed. Read More

    Needs, realities and expectations for urology training: Questionaire-based study.
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jan;71(1):18-22
    Department of Urology. Gulhane Research and Training Hospital. Ankara. Turkey.
    Objective: Urology residency training is a difficult and complex education period for urology residents. This education period differs in countries and mainly for 5 years. In this study, we aimed to assess the expectations and the realities for Turkish urology residents and to evaluate the adequacy of their education in the field of urology. Read More

    Current status of urological training in Europe.
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jan;71(1):11-17
    European Society of Residents in Urology (ESRU).Department of Urology. Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev. Copenhagen.Denmark.
    Modern urological training has changed drastically in the past years, due to the global surgical training trends, advances in technology, subspecialization of the field and, working hour regulations for doctors. The lack of a standardized curriculum across Europe, puts in evidence the great difference in the requirements in every country, from the start of the residency, to obtaining the accreditation. We sought to identify problems related to medical, scientific and surgical activity during urological training, and summarize data obtained from surveys realized during the European Urology Residents Education Programme (EUREP) in 2013, and from countries such as Germany, Italy and Spain. Read More

    [Current status of Urological Education in Spain.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jan;71(1):4-10
    Servicio de Urología. Hospital de Parapléjicos de Toledo. Toledo. España.
    Introduction: Urology is a medicalsurgical specialty that deals with the study, diagnosis and treatment of medical and surgical conditions of the urinary tract and retroperitoneum in both sexes and of the male genital tract without age limit. The traditional method of training is based on the imitation of the skills and behaviors of the tutors, creating variability in the training between different centers and giving a passive role to resident internal physicians (MIR).

    Legislative Framework: The 2006 BOE establishes the specific formative content in its theoretical, practical and scientific facets. Read More

    [Surgical and academic education in Urology.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2018 Jan;71(1):1-3
    Servicio de Urología. Hospital Universitario La Paz. Madrid. España.Chairman of the European Society of Residents in Urology (ESRU). Coordinador del Grupo de trabajo de Residentes y Jóvenes Urólogos de la Asociación Española de Urología (RAEU). Member of the Young Urologist Office (YUO) and the Young Academics Urologists (YAU) of the European Association of Urology (EAU).

    Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in fecal flora before transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy and the clinical impact of targeted antibiotic prophylaxis.
    Arch Esp Urol 2017 Dec;70(10):852-858
    Department of Urology. Istanbul Medeniyet University Goztepe Training and Research Hospital. Turkey.
    Objectives: In this study, we aimed to evaluate ciprofloxacin resistance and the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing organisms (ESBLs) in the population of patients with indication to undergo prostate biopsy. Our additional aim was to compare the targeted antibiotic prophylaxis and sepsis rates after transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy in patients who received routine ciprofloxacin prophylaxis and to evaluate the predictive factors of antibiotic resistance.

    Methods: Between September 2012 and January 2014, 300 patients were randomized to two groups. Read More

    Genital reconstruction with Integra™ artificial dermis after radical resection in a boy with diffuse lymphangiomatosis.
    Arch Esp Urol 2017 Dec;70(10):847-851
    Hospital Universitario Gregorio Marañón. Madrid. España.
    Objective: Lymphangiomatosis is a rare disease affecting lymphatic vessels that causes a marked increase of them in the affected area. The final objective of treatment of the genital disease is to preserve sexual function and voiding with a satisfactory aesthetic result with the aim to minimize the emotional impact.

    Methods: For the first time in children, we report a case of local reconstruction using artificial dermis after the excision of a genital lymphatic malformation in an eight year old patient. Read More

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the testicle.
    Arch Esp Urol 2017 Dec;70(10):845-847
    Department of Urology. Hospital Universitario La Paz. Madrid. Spain.
    Objective: We present the case of a patient diagnosed with a testicular extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP), and perform a brief review of the literature of this pathology.

    Methods: A 64 year-old male patient, with history of multiple myeloma successfully treated three years before, presented with left testicular swelling. Initial work-up was compatible with a testicular tumor and radical inguinal orchiectomy was performed. Read More

    Multiparametric-MRI-Guided Biopsy in the Era of Precision Medicine.
    Arch Esp Urol 2017 Dec;70(10):833-844
    Servicio de Urología. Hospital Universitario de Essen. Universidad de Duisburg-Essen. Essen. Alemania.
    Objective: Technical improvements in prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have resulted in the use of MRI to target prostate biopsy. This allowed urologists to progress from blind biopsies to target biopsies with a better performance in prostate cancer (PC) diagnosis. We herein review the current status of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guided Biopsy (MRGB) for the detection of PC. Read More

    [Low dose rate brachytherapy in low and middle risk prostate cancer: Results and impact on quality of life with 5 year follow up.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2017 Dec;70(10):824-832
    Dirección Académica. Clínica Santa María. Chile.
    Low dose rate brachytherapy (LDR-Br) with radioactive isotopes is a curative treatment and has shown to be comparable for the management of localized prostate cancer (PCa) to more conventional treatments such as radical prostatectomy or external beam radiotherapy, but with fewer side effects. The aim of this study is to show the global, specific and biochemical recurrence-free survival in 193 patients undergoing low dose rate Brachytherapy with permanent implants with iodine 125 and analyze the quality of life impact. 193 patients with localized PCa were consecutively treated over a period of 10 years (2005-2015). Read More

    [Experience with third, fourth and fifth kidney transplants and their complications.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2017 Dec;70(10):815-823
    Servicio de Urología. Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla. Santander. España.
    Objectives: Kidney transplant may be a good choice to treat chronic renal failure even in patients with two or more previous renal grafts. However, there might be several surgical complications and other difficulties we have to deal with. The aim of this report is to analyze the third, fourth and fifth transplants performed in our center focusing on the surgical complications and graft and patient survivals. Read More

    Does using alprazolam during outpatient flexible cystoscopy decrease anxiety and pain?
    Arch Esp Urol 2017 Nov;70(9):800-805
    Department of Urology and Anesthesiology. YeniYuzyil University School of Medicine. Istanbul. Turkey.
    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of pre-operative alprazolam medication on anxiety and pain in flexible cystoscopy for bladder cancer follow-up.

    Methods: A total of 86 male patients who had flexible cystoscopy for bladder cancer follow-up at 6th and 9th months were included in the study. A visual analog scale (VAS) pain score and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used. Read More

    [Neurofibromas in the urogenital system: Report of two cases and literature review.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2017 Nov;70(9):796-799
    Servicio de Urología. Hospital General Universitario de Elche. Elche. Alicante. España.
    Objective: We introduce two cases of a 46 and 66-year-old patient, both diagnosed with pelvic neurofibroma (One located in a seminal vesicle, the other in the bladder). The first patient had been diagnosed with Neurofibromatosis type 1 while the other was diagnosed with a sporadic neurofibroma.

    Methods: During a study for lower urinary tract symptoms referred, these patients were diagnosed seminal vesicle and bladder neurofibroma, respectively, using image and histological tests. Read More

    [Adenoma metanephric: Report of 2 cases and bibliographic review.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2017 Nov;70(9):792-796
    Servicio de Anatomía Patológica. Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena. Sevilla. España.
    Objective: Two cases of metanephric adenoma are presented, a rare benign renal tumor, and a literature review is done under the current WHO classification (2016).

    Methods: Standard histopathological study was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression of WT, Vimentin, Racemase, CK7, CD10 and RCC.

    Results: Neoplasms of 3 and 4. Read More

    [Consensus on castration-resistant prostate cancer management in Spain.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2017 Nov;70(9):777-791
    Hospital Universitario Basurto. Bilbao. España.
    Objectives: To move towards a more standardized approach in clinical practice to manage patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in Spain.

    Methods: A panel of 18 Spanish experts in Urology with expertise managing CRPC followed a modified Delphi process with two rounds and a final face-to-face consensus meeting. The panel considered a total of 106 clinical questions divided into the following 6 sections: definition of CRPC, diagnosis of metastases by imaging techniques, symptoms of CRPC, progression of CRPC, M0 and M1 management and therapeutic sequencing. Read More

    [Complications of radical prostatectomy.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2017 Nov;70(9):766-776
    Institut Mutualiste Montsouris. Paris. Francia.
    Objectives: The aim of this article is to classify and describe the different types of complications of radical prostatectomy, their frequency of appearance, as well as the different factors that may influence their development.

    Methods: A systematic review of the literature was carried out, based on the search of published articles between 2002 and 2015.

    Results: Laparoscopic or robotic radical prostatectomy may require conversion into open surgery, and these cases are significantly associated with longer hospital stay and greater rate of complications. Read More

    [Prognostic factors predicting failure of the trial without catheter after tamsulosin in patients with acute urinary retention.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2017 Nov;70(9):759-765
    Servicio de Urología. Hospital de Trauma y Emergencias Dr. Federico Abete de Malvinas Argentinas. Buenos Aires. Argentina.
    Objective: To analyze prognostic variables that impact on the trial without catheter after tamsulosin in patients with acute urine retention.

    Methods: Retrospective analysis of a prospective database of a cohort of successive patients with acute urinary retention due to benign prostatic hyperplasia attended at the urology emergency room during one year time period. We analyzed the clinical and radiological characteristics and the international prostatic symptom score questionnaire of a total 65 male patients. Read More

    [Mid-term safety and efficacy of high power thulium laser vaporization.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2017 Nov;70(9):751-758
    Unidad Litotricia y Endourología. Servicio Urología. Hospital Universitario de La Ribera (Alzira), Valencia. España.
    Objective: Thulium laser vaporization of the prostate (TL-PVP) has been performed for almost 10 years. However, there are very few studies focused on high power (150 W) applications. Published sources have short follow-up periods, few cases and small prostatic volumes. Read More

    Comparison of tubularized incised plate urethroplasty and onlay island flap urethroplasty techniques in the repair of primarily proximal hypospadias.
    Arch Esp Urol 2017 Oct;70(8):740-745
    Department of Urology. Ankara Training and Research Hospital. Ankara. Turkey.
    Objectives: To compare the success of the 'tubularized incised plate urethroplasty' (TIPU) and 'Onlay island flap urethroplasty' (OIFU) techniques for the repair of primary proximal hypospadias.

    Material And Methods: A retrospective evaluation was made of the medical records of 68 patients with primary, non-complicated hypospadias, who were operated on in the Department of Urology, Ministry of Health Ankara Education and Research Hospital, between January 1997 and December 2012. Patients who underwent hypospadias surgery with TIPU were labelled as Group 1 and the OIFU technique as Group 2. Read More

    [Uretero-arterial fistula secondary to renal artery aneurysm. Unusual complication of a low prevalence disease.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2017 Oct;70(8):736-739
    Servicio de Urología. Hospital Universitario Son Espases. Palma de Mallorca. España.
    To review the presentation, diagnosis and treatment of the renal artery aneurysms. Also, to report a non-described complication like the presence of an ureteroarterial fistula, its diagnosis, treatment and complications.

    Methods: We report the case of a patient with a renal artery aneurysm that presents a ureteroarterial microfistula on a CT scan, his presenting symptoms, the diagnosis, treatment and management of the subsequent complications. Read More

    [Renal Cell Carcinoma metastases in the maxillofacial area: Case series.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2017 Oct;70(8):732-735
    Servicio de Urología. Hospital Universitario Cruces. Barakaldo. España.
    Renal cell carcinoma is an unpredictable malignancy. Sometimes, metastases are the disease debut. On the other hand, metastases could present years after treatment of the primary tumor. Read More

    [Lithogenic risk index in urinary lithiasis patients and their evolution after treatment.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2017 Oct;70(8):725-731
    Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud. Universidad Nacional de Asunción. Paraguay.
    Objective: To determine the lithogenic risk index and its evolution after treatment of paraguayan lithiasic patients.

    Methods: This experimental study of temporal series included 28 lithiasic patients of both sexes that attended to the Instituto de Prevision Social in 2012. Basal evaluation included metabolic study and urinary saturation indexes determined by EQUIL software. Read More

    [Analysis of success predictive factors in the treatment of urinary lithiasis by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. patient optimization: ESWL score.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2017 Oct;70(8):715-724
    Servicio de Urología. Hospital Sanitas La Moraleja. Madrid. España.
    Objective: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) represents one of the most frequently used methods to treat urinary tract calculi. However, sometimes we do not obtain the fragmentation expected. The aim of this study is to evaluate the parameters that may influence ESWL final results, developing a classification for better patient's selection and outcome optimization. Read More

    [Impact of a goal directed therapy in the implementation of an ERAS (Enhanced recovery after surgery) protocol in laparoscopic radical cystectomy.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2017 Oct;70(8):707-714
    Servicio de Anestesiologia y Reanimación. Hospital Universitario La Paz. Madrid. España.
    Objectives: The intraoperative goaldirected fluid therapy (GDT) has become the base of perioperative management in the fast-track protocols. This program using technology to estimate cardiac output, with the aim of minimizing splanchnic hypoperfusion. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm its application in radical laparoscopic cystectomy. Read More

    [Laparoscopic adenomectomy: Evolution of the technique and results.]
    Arch Esp Urol 2017 Oct;70(8):695-706
    Servicio de Urología. Hospital General Universitario de Elche. Alicante. España.
    Objective: Laparoscopic adenomectomy (LA) is an effective procedure for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which reproduces the surgical steps of the open adenomectomy (OA) by a minimally invasive approach to obtain the favorable results of open surgery in combination with the benefits offered by laparoscopic techniques. We performed a comprehensive bibliographic review of the technique and its current results in order to describe the evolution of the surgical technique and present the current evidence on the LA.

    Methods: A comprehensive review about LA was conducted from 2002 to 2016 in PubMed and Google Scholar. Read More

    Urodynamics before surgery for stress urinary incontinence in female patients: An open debate.
    Arch Esp Urol 2017 Oct;70(8):691-694
    Urology and Andrology Clinic. Department of Surgical and Biomedical Sciences. University of Perugia. Italy.
    Currently the debate on the role of urodynamic tests in the preoperative evaluation of female stress urinary incontinence is alight. Although urodynamic investigation (UDI) has been considered mandatory before surgery in all female patients affected by stress urinary incontinence, nowadays international guidelines are more cautious. Literature on this topic has been reviewed in order to clarify the role of UDI before surgery for "complicated" and "uncomplicated" stress urinary incontinence in female patients. Read More

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