Search our Database of Scientific Publications and Authors

I’m looking for a

    8253 results match your criteria Archives of general psychiatry[Journal]

    1 OF 166

    Amygdala volume changes in posttraumatic stress disorder in a large case-controlled veterans group.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Nov;69(11):1169-78
    Duke-University of North Carolina Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, 27710, USA.
    Context: Smaller hippocampal volumes are well established in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the relatively few studies of amygdala volume in PTSD have produced equivocal results.

    Objective: To assess a large cohort of recent military veterans with PTSD and trauma-exposed control subjects, with sufficient power to perform a definitive assessment of the effect of PTSD on volumetric changes in the amygdala and hippocampus and of the contribution of illness duration, trauma load, and depressive symptoms.

    Design: Case-controlled design with structural magnetic resonance imaging and clinical diagnostic assessments. Read More

    Emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide and its association with later symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety in soldiers deployed to Iraq.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Nov;69(11):1161-8
    Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, 78712, USA.
    Context: The identification of modifiable predeployment vulnerability factors that increase the risk of combat stress reactions among soldiers once deployed to a war zone offers significant potential for the prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other combat-related stress disorders. Adults with anxiety disorders display heightened emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide (CO(2)); however, data investigating prospective linkages between emotional reactivity to CO(2) and susceptibility to war-zone stress reactions are lacking.

    Objective: To investigate the association of soldiers' predeployment emotional reactivity to 35% CO(2) challenge with several indices of subsequent war-zone stress symptoms assessed monthly while deployed in Iraq. Read More

    Childhood adversities and first onset of psychiatric disorders in a national sample of US adolescents.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Nov;69(11):1151-60
    Division of General Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Boston, MA, USA.
    Context: Although childhood adversities (CAs) are known to be highly co-occurring, most research examines their associations with psychiatric disorders one at a time. However, recent evidence from adult studies suggests that the associations of multiple CAs with psychiatric disorders are nonadditive, arguing for the importance of multivariate analysis of multiple CAs. To our knowledge, no attempt has been made to perform a similar kind of analysis among children or adolescents. Read More

    Familial confounding of the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring substance use and problems.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Nov;69(11):1140-50
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, 47405, USA.
    Context: Previous epidemiological, animal, and human cognitive neuroscience research suggests that maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) causes increased risk of substance use/problems in offspring.

    Objective: To determine the extent to which the association between SDP and offspring substance use/problems depends on confounded familial background factors by using a quasi-experimental design.

    Design: We used 2 separate samples from the United States and Sweden. Read More

    Development of a computerized adaptive test for depression.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Nov;69(11):1104-12
    Center for Health Statistics, Departments of Medicine and Health Studies, University of Chicago, Illinois, USA.
    CONTEXT Unlike other areas of medicine, psychiatry is almost entirely dependent on patient report to assess the presence and severity of disease; therefore, it is particularly crucial that we find both more accurate and efficient means of obtaining that report. OBJECTIVE To develop a computerized adaptive test (CAT) for depression, called the Computerized Adaptive Test-Depression Inventory (CAT-DI), that decreases patient and clinician burden and increases measurement precision. DESIGN Case-control study. Read More

    Prefrontal cortical deficits in type 1 diabetes mellitus: brain correlates of comorbid depression.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Dec;69(12):1267-76
    CONTEXT Neural substrates that may be responsible for the high prevalence of depression in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have not yet been elucidated. OBJECTIVE To investigate neuroanatomic correlates of depression in T1DM. DESIGN Case-control study using high-resolution brain magnetic resonance images. Read More

    Clinical and functional outcome of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 33 years later.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Dec;69(12):1295-303
    CONTEXT Prospective studies of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not extended beyond early adulthood. OBJECTIVE To examine whether children diagnosed as having ADHD at a mean age of 8 years (probands) have worse educational, occupational, economic, social, and marital outcomes and higher rates of ongoing ADHD, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), substance use disorders (SUDs), adult-onset psychiatric disorders, psychiatric hospitalizations, and incarcerations than non-ADHD comparison participants at a mean age of 41 years. DESIGN Prospective, 33-year follow-up study, with masked clinical assessments. Read More

    Differential mental health effects of neighborhood relocation among youth in vulnerable families: results from a randomized trial.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Dec;69(12):1284-94
    CONTEXT Extensive observational evidence indicates that youth in high-poverty neighborhoods exhibit poor mental health, although not all children may be affected similarly. OBJECTIVE To use experimental evidence to assess whether gender and family health problems modify the mental health effects of moving from high- to low-poverty neighborhoods. DESIGN Randomized controlled trial. Read More

    Highly penetrant alterations of a critical region including BDNF in human psychopathology and obesity.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Dec;69(12):1238-46
    CONTEXT Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is suspected of being a causative factor in psychiatric disorders based on case reports or studies involving large structural anomalies. OBJECTIVE To determine the involvement of BDNF in human psychopathology. DESIGN Case-control study. Read More

    Amygdala volume in combat-exposed veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder: a cross-sectional study.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Oct;69(10):1080-6
    Department of Psychology, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Context: Data from animal models demonstrate a link between stress exposure and hypertrophic changes in the amygdala; however, studies of adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have failed to find analogous structural alterations.

    Objectives: To compare amygdala volumes between a sample of combat veterans with and without PTSD (analysis 1) and examine whether our observation of larger amygdala volume in individuals with PTSD could be accounted for by the presence of trauma exposure in childhood and the severity of combat exposure in adulthood (analysis 2).

    Design: Cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging. Read More

    Twenty-year depressive trajectories among older women.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Oct;69(10):1073-9
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA.
    Context: Despite the frequent occurrence of depressive symptoms among older adults, especially women, little is known about the long-term course of late-life depressive symptoms.

    Objective: To characterize the natural course of depressive symptoms among older women (from the young old to the oldest old) followed up for almost 20 years.

    Design: Using latent-class growth-curve analysis, we analyzed women enrolled in an ongoing prospective cohort study (1988 through 2009). Read More

    Functional brain basis of hypnotizability.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Oct;69(10):1064-72
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
    Context: Focused hypnotic concentration is a model for brain control over sensation and behavior. Pain and anxiety can be effectively alleviated by hypnotic suggestion, which modulates activity in brain regions associated with focused attention, but the specific neural network underlying this phenomenon is not known.

    Objective: To investigate the brain basis of hypnotizability. Read More

    The associations of insomnia with costly workplace accidents and errors: results from the America Insomnia Survey.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Oct;69(10):1054-63
    Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
    Context: Insomnia is a common and seriously impairing condition that often goes unrecognized.

    Objectives: To examine associations of broadly defined insomnia (ie, meeting inclusion criteria for a diagnosis from International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, DSM-IV, or Research Diagnostic Criteria/International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition) with costly workplace accidents and errors after excluding other chronic conditions among workers in the America Insomnia Survey (AIS).

    Design/setting: A national cross-sectional telephone survey (65. Read More

    Dopaminergic mechanisms of reduced basal ganglia responses to hedonic reward during interferon alfa administration.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Oct;69(10):1044-53
    Laboratory of Nutrition and Integrative Neurobiology, National Institute for Agricultural Research 1286 - University Victor Segalen Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
    Context: Inflammatory cytokines or cytokine inducers can alter basal ganglia activity, including reducing responsiveness to rewarding stimuli that may be mediated by cytokine effects on dopamine function.

    Objectives: To determine whether long-term administration of the inflammatory cytokine interferon alfa reduces the basal ganglia response to reward and whether such changes are associated with decreased presynaptic striatal dopamine function and altered behavior.

    Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Read More

    Prevalence and persistence of psychiatric disorders in youth after detention: a prospective longitudinal study.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Oct;69(10):1031-43
    Health Disparities and Public Policy, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.
    Context: Psychiatric disorders are prevalent among incarcerated juveniles. Most juveniles eventually return to their communities, where they become the responsibility of the community mental health system. However, no large-scale study has examined psychiatric disorders after youth leave detention. Read More

    Parametric modulation of neural activity by emotion in youth with bipolar disorder, youth with severe mood dysregulation, and healthy volunteers.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Dec;69(12):1257-66
    CONTEXT Youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with severe, nonepisodic irritability (severe mood dysregulation [SMD]) exhibit amygdala dysfunction during facial emotion processing. However, studies have not compared such patients with each other and with comparison individuals in neural responsiveness to subtle changes in facial emotion; the ability to process such changes is important for social cognition. To evaluate this, we used a novel, parametrically designed faces paradigm. Read More

    From perception to functional outcome in schizophrenia: modeling the role of ability and motivation.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Dec;69(12):1216-24
    CONTEXT Schizophrenia remains a highly disabling disorder, but the specific determinants and pathways that lead to functional impairment are not well understood. It is not known whether these key determinants of outcome lie on 1 or multiple pathways. OBJECTIVE To evaluate theoretically based models of pathways to functional outcome starting with early visual perception. Read More

    Randomized trial of long-acting sustained-release naltrexone implant vs oral naltrexone or placebo for preventing relapse to opioid dependence.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Sep;69(9):973-81
    Department of Pharmacology, St Petersburg Pavlov State Medical University, St Petersburg, Russia.
    CONTEXT Sustained-release naltrexone implants may improve outcomes of nonagonist treatment of opioid addiction. OBJECTIVE To compare outcomes of naltrexone implants, oral naltrexone hydrochloride, and nonmedication treatment. DESIGN Six-month double-blind, double-dummy, randomized trial. Read More

    Common and unique therapeutic mechanisms of stimulant and nonstimulant treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Sep;69(9):952-61
    Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.
    CONTEXT Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent and impairing psychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. There are Food and Drug Administration-approved stimulant and nonstimulant medications for treating ADHD; however, little is known about the mechanisms by which these different treatments exert their therapeutic effects. OBJECTIVE To contrast changes in brain activation related to symptomatic improvement with use of the stimulant methylphenidate hydrochloride vs the nonstimulant atomoxetine hydrochloride. Read More

    Reduced structural connectivity of a major frontolimbic pathway in generalized anxiety disorder.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Sep;69(9):925-34
    Waisman Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Highland Ave, Madison, WI 53705-2280, USA.
    Context: Emotion regulation deficits figure prominently in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and in other anxiety and mood disorders. Research examining emotion regulation and top-down modulation has implicated reduced coupling of the amygdala with prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting altered frontolimbic white matter connectivity in GAD.

    Objectives: To investigate structural connectivity between ventral prefrontal cortex or anterior cingulate cortex areas and the amygdala in GAD and to assess associations with functional connectivity between those areas. Read More

    Toward clinically useful neuroimaging in depression treatment: prognostic utility of subgenual cingulate activity for determining depression outcome in cognitive therapy across studies, scanners, and patient characteristics.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Sep;69(9):913-24
    Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3811 O’Hara St, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
    CONTEXT Among depressed individuals not receiving medication in controlled trials, 40% to 60% respond to cognitive therapy (CT). Multiple previous studies suggest that activity in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC; Brodmann area 25) predicts outcome in CT for depression, but these results have not been prospectively replicated. OBJECTIVE To examine whether sgACC activity is a reliable and robust prognostic outcome marker of CT for depression and whether sgACC activity changes in treatment. Read More

    Failure of neural responses to safety cues in schizophrenia.
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012 Sep;69(9):893-903
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, 149 13th St, Rm 2608, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA.
    CONTEXT Abnormalities in associative memory processes, such as Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction, have been observed in schizophrenia. The retrieval of fear extinction memories (safety signals) may be particularly affected; although schizophrenic patients can extinguish conditioned fear, they show a deficit in retrieving fear extinction memories after a delay. The neurobiological basis of this abnormality is unknown, but clues have emerged from studies in rodents and humans demonstrating that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is a key mediator of extinction memory retrieval. Read More

    1 OF 166