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    Development of a nanogold slot blot inhibition assay for the detection of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus type 1.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência Animal, Escola de Veterinária e Zootecnia (PPGCA/EVZ), Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO, Brazil.
    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is recognized as an important pathogen causing respiratory, reproductive, and neurological disorders in cattle and is associated with economic losses to animal industry. Accurate diagnostic methods are needed for prevention of disease transmission. While the virus neutralization test is considered the gold standard method, it requires maintenance of the virus and cell cultures, which is time consuming and expensive. Read More

    Establishment of a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid identification of H6 subtype avian influenza viruses.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003, China.
    The H6 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) possess the capacity for zoonotic transmission from avian species to humans. Establishment of a specific, rapid and sensitive method to screen H6 AIVs is necessary. Based on the conserved domain of the matrix and H6 AIV hemagglutinin genes, two TaqMan minor-groove-binder probes and multiplex real-time RT-PCR primers were designed in this study. Read More

    Detection and phylogenetic analysis of a new adenoviral polymerase gene in reptiles in Korea.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Laboratory of histopathology, Department of clinical laboratory science, Semyung University, Jecheon, Chungbuk, 27136, Republic of Korea.
    Over a period of 7 years (2004-2011), samples from 34 diseased reptiles provided by local governments, zoos, and pet shops were tested for viral infection. Animals were diagnosed based on clinical signs, including loss of appetite, diarrhea, rhinorrhea, and unexpected sudden death. Most of the exotic animals had gastrointestinal problems, such as mucosal redness and ulcers, while the native animals had no clinical symptoms. Read More

    New tetrameric forms of the rotavirus NSP4 with antiparallel helices.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 17. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.
    Rotavirus nonstructural protein 4, the first viral enterotoxin to be identified, is a multidomain, multifunctional glycoprotein. Earlier, we reported a Ca-bound coiled-coil tetrameric structure of the diarrhea-inducing region of NSP4 from the rotavirus strains SA11 and I321 and a Ca-free pentameric structure from the rotavirus strain ST3, all with a parallel arrangement of α-helices. pH was found to determine the oligomeric state: a basic pH favoured a tetramer, whereas an acidic pH favoured a pentamer. Read More

    Development of a luminescence syncytium induction assay (LuSIA) for easily detecting and quantitatively measuring bovine leukemia virus infection.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 17. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Virus Infectious Diseases Unit, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan.
    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to the human T cell leukemia virus. Since BLV infection mostly occurs via cell-to-cell transmission, BLV infectivity is generally measured by culturing BLV-infected cells with reporter cells that form syncytia upon BLV infection. However, this method is time-consuming and requires skill. Read More

    Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Aleutian mink disease virus isolates in north-east China.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 17. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    College of Chinese Medicine Material, Jilin Agricultural University, No. 2888, Xincheng Street, Changchun, 130118, People's Republic of China.
    Aleutian mink disease is the most important disease in the mink-farming industry worldwide. So far, few large-scale molecular epidemiological studies of AMDV, based on the NS1 and VP2 genes, have been conducted in China. Here, eight new Chinese isolates of AMDV from three provinces in north-east China were analyzed to clarify the molecular epidemiology of AMDV. Read More

    Construction of a reverse genetic system for porcine astrovirus.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, No. 100 Daxue Road, Nanning, 530004, People's Republic of China.
    In order to construct a full-length infectious cDNA clone of porcine astrovirus, three fragments covering the complete genome of PAstV1-GX1 strain were amplified by RT-PCR. All three PCR-amplified fragments were cloned into T-Vector pMD19 (Simple), and subsequently assembled into a full-length cDNA clone by subcloning. A silent nucleotide change creating a PstI site was engineered into the full-length cDNA clone to distinguish the rescued virus from the parental virus. Read More

    Viral shedding and clinical status of feline-norovirus-infected cats after reinfection with the same strain.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Laboratory of Veterinary Infectious Disease, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, Towada, Aomori, 034-8628, Japan.
    Norovirus (NoV) infection is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans of all ages worldwide. When cats are experimentally infected with feline norovirus (FNoV), they develop symptoms of acute gastroenteritis. Therefore, FNoV infection may serve as an animal model for the disease caused by human norovirus infection. Read More

    The complete genome sequence of CrRV-Ch01, a new member of the family Rhabdoviridae in the parasitic copepod Caligus rogercresseyi present on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Chile.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Department of Biology, University of Bergen, 5020, Bergen, Norway.
    We have determined the complete genome sequence of a new rhabdovirus, tentatively named Caligus rogercresseyi rhabdovirus Ch01 (CrRV-Ch01), which was found in the parasite Caligus rogercresseyi, present on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Chile. The genome encodes the five canonical rhabdovirus proteins in addition to an unknown protein, in the order N-P-M-U (unknown)-G-L. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus clusters with two rhabdoviruses (Lepeophtheirus salmonis rhabdovirus No9 and Lepeophtheirus salmonis rhabdovirus No127) obtained from another parasitic caligid, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, present on farmed Atlantic salmon on the west coast of Norway. Read More

    Effect of an 88-amino-acid deletion in nsp2 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on virus replication and cytokine responses in vitro.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Laboratory of Animal infectious Diseases and Molecular Immunology, College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, 530005, People's Republic of China.
    Previously, a spontaneous 88-amino-acid (aa) deletion in nsp2 was associated with cell-adaptation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain JXM100, which arose during passaging of the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strain JX143 in MARC-145 cells. Here, to elucidate the biological role of this deletion, we specifically deleted the region of a cDNA clone of HP-PRRSV strain JX143 (pJX143) corresponding to these 88 amino acids. The effect of the deletion on virus replication in cultured cells and transcriptional activation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) was examined. Read More

    Complete coding sequence of a novel picorna-like virus in a blackbird infected with Usutu virus.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Directorate Viral Diseases, Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Center CODA-CERVA, Brussels, Belgium.
    Using random high-throughput RNA sequencing, the complete coding sequence of a novel picorna-like virus (a 9,228-nt contig containing 212,202 reads) was determined from a blackbird (Turdus merula) infected with Usutu virus. This sequence shares only 36% amino acid sequence identity with its closest homolog, arivirus 1, (an unclassified member of the order Picornavirales), and shares its dicistronic genome arrangement. The new virus was therefore tentatively named "blackbird arilivirus" (ari-like virus). Read More

    Molecular evolution and phylodynamics of hepatitis B virus infection circulating in Iran.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Hepatitis B Lab, Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 15155-6446, Tehran, 14155-6446, Iran.
    Previous local and national Iranian publications indicate that all Iranian hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains belong to HBV genotype D. The aim of this study was to analyze the evolutionary history of HBV infection in Iran for the first time, based on an intensive phylodynamic study. The evolutionary parameters, time to most recent common ancestor (tMRCA), and the population dynamics of infections were investigated using the Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov chain (BMCMC). Read More

    Development of an antigen-capture ELISA for the quantitation of equine arteritis virus in culture supernatant.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 678 Haping Road, Xiangfang District, Harbin, 150069, People's Republic of China.
    Quantitation of virions is one of the important indexes in virological studies. To establish a sensitive and rapid quantitative detection method for equine arteritis virus (EAV), an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) was developed by using two EAV nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), 2B9 and 2B3, prepared in this study. After condition optimization, mAb 2B9 was used as the capture antibody, and HRP-labeled 2B3 was chosen as the detecting antibody. Read More

    Two distinct begomoviruses associated with an alphasatellite coinfecting Emilia sonchifolia in Thailand.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Biotechnology and Germplasm Resources Institute, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 9# Xueyun Rd, Wuhua Prefecture, Kunming, 650223, Yunnan, People's Republic of China.
    Emilia sonchifolia is a traditionally used medicinal plant that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Yellow vein symptoms were observed in E. sonchifolia plants in fields in the county of Koh Samui, Surat Thani Province, Thailand, in August 2015. Read More

    The prevalence and isolated subtypes of BK polyomavirus reactivation among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 in southeastern China.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    The Department of Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is an opportunistic infectious pathogen that is associated with hemorrhagic cystitis and nephropathy, mainly in transplant recipients and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infected patients. However, molecular characterization studies of BKPyV in China are rare. This study was designed to elucidate the prevalence and to determine the main subtypes of BKPyV among HIV-1-infected patients in southeastern China. Read More

    Development of a reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification assay for the detection of coxsackievirus A10 and coxsackievirus A6 RNA.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 155, Changbai Street, Changping District, Beijing, 102206, China.
    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a serious public health problem, and coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) and coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) are two of the major causative pathogens, in addition to enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16). A simple and rapid reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification assay (RT-RAA) was developed for the detection of CVA10 and CVA6 in this study. The analytical sensitivity for detection of CVA10 and CVA6 at 95% probability by probit regression analysis was 35 copies per reaction and 38 copies per reaction, respectively, with 100% specificity. Read More

    Inhibitory effect of the green tea molecule EGCG against dengue virus infection.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Department of Virology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki, 852-8523, Japan.
    Dengue virus (DENV) infection is a major public health problem worldwide; however, specific antiviral drugs against it are not available. Hence, identifying effective antiviral agents for the prevention of DENV infection is important. In this study, we showed that the reportedly highly biologically active green-tea component epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) inhibited dengue virus infection regardless of infecting serotype, but no or minimal inhibition was observed with other flaviviruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus, yellow fever virus, and Zika virus. Read More

    Tetraspanin blockage reduces exosome-mediated HIV-1 entry.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Center for AIDS Research, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, USA.
    HIV-1 is one of the most studied retroviruses. The role of exosomes in HIV-1 entry and pathogenesis are beginning to be appreciated. Exosomes can incorporate host proteins that are also contained in viruses (e. Read More

    Host-associated selection of a P3 mutant of zucchini yellow mosaic virus affects viral infectivity in watermelon.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou, 450009, China.
    In this study, we found that the infectivity of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) in watermelon lines H1 and K6 changed from partial to complete after propagation in the susceptible watermelon line ZXG637. When using cucumber infected with strain ZYMV-CH87 as an inoculum (named ZYMV-CH87C), the mean incidences of infection in lines H1 and K6 were 6% and 11%, respectively. However, when these lines were inoculated with ZXG637 infected with ZYMV-CH87C (named ZYMV-637), 100% of the plants became infected. Read More

    Genotypic variability analysis of DENV-1 in Mexico reveals the presence of a novel Mexican lineage.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos "Dr. Manuel Martínez Báez" (InDRE), Secretaría de Salud, Francisco de P. Miranda 177, Lomas de Plateros, 01480, Mexico, CDMX, Mexico.
    Here, we report for the first time the circulation of dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) belonging to the lineage IV of genotype V (African American genotype) based on phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences from 10 DENV-1-positive samples obtained in Mexico between 2012 and 2014. Our data revealed that the lineages III and IV of DENV-1 genotype V were found circulating during the same period, probably explaining the rise in the number of cases of severe dengue during that period. Read More

    Genomic characteristics of vB_PpaP_PP74, a T7-like Autographivirinae bacteriophage infecting a potato pathogen of the newly proposed species Pectobacterium parmentieri.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    M.M. Shemyakin-Yu.A. Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
    Bacteriophage vB_PpaP_PP74 (PP74) is a novel virulent phage that infects members of the species Pectobacterium parmentieri, a newly established species of soft-rot-causing bacteria in the family Pectobacteriaceae, derived from potato-specific Pectobacterium wasabiae. vB_PpaP_PP74 was identified as a member of the family Podoviridae by transmission electron microscopy. The phage has a 39,790-bp dsDNA genome containing 50 open reading frames (ORFs). Read More

    Detection and genetic characterization of bovine kobuvirus from calves in Egypt.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Department of Veterinary Population Medicine and Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, 55108, USA.
    Kobuviruses are small non-enveloped RNA viruses that probably cause diarrhea in cattle and swine. Since its discovery in 2003, few studies have addressed bovine kobuvirus (BKoV; a species of Aichivirus B) infections. BKoV has been reported in Europe, Asia, and South America, suggesting a worldwide distribution. Read More

    Myxovirus resistance protein A inhibits hepatitis C virus replication through JAK-STAT pathway activation.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    State Key Laboratory of Virology, School of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, Hubei, People's Republic of China.
    The interferon-inducible dynamin-like GTPase myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) exhibits activity against multiple viruses. However, its role in the life cycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is unclear, and the mechanisms underlying the anti-HCV activity of MxA require further investigation. In this study, we demonstrated that exogenous MxA expression in the Huh7 and Huh7. Read More

    Allexiviruses may have acquired inserted sequences between the CP and CRP genes to change the translation reinitiation strategy of CRP.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Kita 9 Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8589, Japan.
    Allexiviruses are economically important garlic viruses that are involved in garlic mosaic diseases. In this study, we characterized the allexivirus cysteine-rich protein (CRP) gene located just downstream of the coat protein (CP) gene in the viral genome. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the CP and CRP genes from numerous allexivirus isolates and performed a phylogenetic analysis. Read More

    Conferring virus resistance in tomato by independent RNA silencing of three tomato homologs of Arabidopsis TOM1.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama, 790-8566, Japan.
    The TOM1/TOM3 genes from Arabidopsis are involved in the replication of tobamoviruses. Tomato homologs of these genes, LeTH1, LeTH2 and LeTH3, are known. In this study, we examined transgenic tomato lines where inverted repeats of either LeTH1, LeTH2 or LeTH3 were introduced by Agrobacterium. Read More

    Isobavachalcone inhibits post-entry stages of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus life cycle.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, 150001, China.
    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a pathogen of great economic significance that impacts the swine industry globally. Since the first report of a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) outbreak, tremendous efforts to control this disease, including various national policies and plans incorporating the use of multiple modified live-virus vaccines, have been made. However, PRRSV is still a significant threat to the swine industry, and new variants continually emerge as a result of PRRSV evolution. Read More

    Mutation of I176R in the E coding region weakens Japanese encephalitis virus neurovirulence, but not its growth rate in BHK-21 cells.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Research Center of Swine Disease, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China.
    Previously, we isolated the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strain SCYA201201. In this study, we passed the SCYA201201 strain in Syrian baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells 120 times to obtain the SCYA201201-0901 strain, which exhibited an attenuated phenotype in mice. Comparison of SCYA201201-0901 amino acid sequences with those of other JEV strains revealed a single mutation, I176R, in the E coding region. Read More

    The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in thalassemia patients in Iran from 2000 to 2017: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    School of Public Health, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.
    One of the major infections transmitted through the bloodstream is hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Patients with thalassemia requiring frequent blood transfusions are at risk for HCV. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the incidence of HCV in thalassemia patients in Iran. Read More

    Genetic analysis of rotavirus G2P[4] strains in Pune, Western India: circulation of a novel reassortant bearing E6 NSP4 genotype.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    National Institute of Virology, 20/A, Dr. Ambedkar Road. Post Box No. 11, Pune, 411001, India.
    In India, G2P[4] strains are known to be the second most predominant group A rotaviruses causing acute gastroenteritis among children. This study was performed to determine the diversity within VP7(G), VP4(P), VP6(I) and NSP4(E) genes of 16 G2P[4] rotavirus strains detected in children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis in Pune, Western India during 2009-2013. Fourteen strains showed G2-P[4]-I2-E2 and two strains showed G2-P[4]-I2-E6 genotype constellation. Read More

    The identification and characterization of novel rat hepatitis E virus strains in Bali and Sumbawa, Indonesia.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 5. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Division of Virology, Department of Infection and Immunity, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, 329-0498, Japan.
    All three genetic groups of ratHEV have been found in Indonesia, suggesting the presence of additional variants of ratHEV in unexamined areas of Indonesia. A total of 242 wild rats were captured in Bali and Sumbawa, Indonesia, during 2014-2016. Among them, 4. Read More

    Association of IL-28B, TBX21 gene polymorphisms and predictors of virological response for chronic hepatitis C.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 5. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Clinical Laboratory, Yixing People's Hospital, Yixing, China.
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The outcomes of both spontaneous HCV clearance and response to therapy depend on both viral and host factors. To investigate the influence of polymorphisms of IL-28B rs12979860 and TBX21 rs17250932, rs4794067 as well as viral factors (HCV genotype, F protein) on the outcome of HCV infection, we genotyped 565 patients with chronic HCV infection, 191 patients spontaneously resolved from HCV infection, 359 healthy controls and 383 treatment-naïve CHC patients with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin (PEG IFN-α/RBV). Read More

    Correction to: Complete genome sequence of a phage hyperparasite of Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (Rickettsiales) - a pathogen of Haliotis spp (Gasteropoda).
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 5. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana No. 3918, Zona Playitas, 22860, Ensenada, Baja California, México.
    Unfortunately, the family name of the co-author Roberto Cruz-Flores was incorrectly published in the original publication and corrected here by this correction. The original article has been corrected. Read More

    Immune responses of mature chicken bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells infected with Newcastle disease virus strains with differing pathogenicity.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.
    Infection of chickens with virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is associated with severe pathology and increased morbidity and mortality. The innate immune response contributes to the pathogenicity of NDV. As professional antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) play a unique role in innate immunity. Read More

    Molecular characterization and complete genome of a novel nepovirus from red clover.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Department of Plant Virology, Biology Centre, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, The Czech Academy of Sciences, v.v.i., Branišovská 31, 370 05, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.
    During high throughput sequencing (HTS) of leaves from a symptomatic red clover plant, a new RNA virus, tentatively named red clover nepovirus A (RCNVA), was discovered. The complete genomic sequence was determined and characterized. Particularly noteworthy was that RCNVA shares high sequence identities in RNA1 with a group of phylogenetically related nepoviruses while homologies in the RNA2 segments are markedly lower. Read More

    Reduced antigen presentation capability and modified inflammatory/immunosuppressive cytokine expression of induced monocyte-derived dendritic cells from peripheral blood of piglets infected with porcine circovirus type 2.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    College of Animal Science and Technology, Beijing Key Laboratory of TCVM, Beijing University of Agriculture, No. 7 Beinong Road, Changping District, Beijing, 102206, China.
    The efficiency of immune responses and host defense against pathogens largely depends on the function of dendritic cells (DCs). Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection causes viremia and extensive modulation of immune activities in the blood. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of PCV2 infection in vivo on the immunological function of DCs induced from peripheral blood monocytes (MoDCs). Read More

    Genetic characterization and diversity of circulating influenza A/H1N1pdm09 viruses isolated in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 2014 and 2015.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    The emerged influenza A/H1N1pdm09 viruses have replaced the previously circulating seasonal H1N1 viruses. The close antigenic properties of these viruses to the 1918 H1N1 pandemic viruses and their post-pandemic evolution pattern could further enhance their adaptation and pathogenicity in humans representing a major public health threat. Given that data on the dynamics and evolution of these viruses in Saudi Arabia is sparse we investigated the genetic diversity of circulating influenza A/H1N1pdm09 viruses from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, by analyzing 39 full genomes from isolates obtained between 2014-2015, from patients with varying symptoms. Read More

    The first complete genome sequence of narcissus latent virus from Narcissus.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Fujian Key Laboratory for Technology Research of Inspection and Quarantine, Inspection and Quarantine Technology Center, Fujian Exit-Entry Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Fuzhou, 350001, People's Republic of China.
    The complete sequence of a narcissus virus isolated from the Netherlands (Narv-NL) was determined to be 8172 nucleotides in length with an open reading frame encoding for 2624 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Narv-NL is clustered with high confidence among representative members from the genus Macluravirus, including artichoke latent virus (ArLV) and Chinese yam necrotic mosaic virus (CYNMV). Sequence analyses indicated Narv-NL shares 67%-69% nucleotide and 51%-68% amino acid sequence identity with ArLV and CYNMV either in the complete ORF or the coat protein (CP) gene, whereas it had 81%-99 % nucleotide and 80%-99 % amino acid sequence identity with the corresponding CP sequences of narcissus latent virus (NLV) isolates, suggesting that Narv-NL is a member of NLV. Read More

    Comparative genomic analysis of novel bacteriophages infecting Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from western and southern coastal areas of Korea.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Food Safety Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute, Wanju-gun, 55365, Republic of Korea.
    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a foodborne pathogen, has become resistant to antibiotics. Therefore, alternative bio-control agents such bacteriophage are urgently needed for its control. Six novel bacteriophages specific to V. Read More

    Full genome sequence of the first bluetongue virus serotype 21 (BTV-21) isolated from China: evidence for genetic reassortment between BTV-21 and bluetongue virus serotype 16 (BTV-16).
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Guangxi Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Guangxi Veterinary Research Institute, Nanning, 530001, Guangxi, China.
    Bluetongue (BT) is one of the most important insect-borne, non-contagious viral diseases of ruminants and can cause severe disease and death in sheep. Its pathogen, bluetongue virus (BTV) has a double-stranded RNA genome consisting of 10 segments that provides an opportunity for field and vaccine strains of different serotypes to reassort whilst simultaneously infecting the same animal. For the first time, we report the full-length genome sequence of a BTV strain of serotype 21 (5149E) isolated from sentinel cattle in Guangxi Province in China in 2015. Read More

    Inhibition of dengue virus infection by small interfering RNAs that target highly conserved sequences in the NS4B or NS5 coding regions.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Laboratorio de Virología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Carpio y Plan de Ayala S/N, 11340, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Dengue fever is one of the most common viral infections in the world. Although a vaccine against dengue virus (DENV) has been approved in several countries, this disease is still considered a public health priority worldwide. The ability of three small interfering RNAs (FG-siRNAs) targeting conserved sequences in the NS4B and NS5 regions of the DENV genome to inhibit DENV replication was tested in vitro in both Vero and C6/36 cells. Read More

    Respiratory syncytial virus infection up-regulates TLR7 expression by inducing oxidative stress via the Nrf2/ARE pathway in A549 cells.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Department of Microbiology, School of Basic Medical Science, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032, People's Republic of China.
    In order to better understand the early pathways of the pathogenesis of, and immune response to, RSV, herein, we explored the relationship between TLR7 expression and oxidative stress induction following RSV infection in A549 cells. We studied the intervening effects of the Nrf2/ARE pathway agonist butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and inhibitor trigonelline (TRI) on TLR7 modulation or oxidative stress induction. For comparison purposes, we set up seven treatment groups in this study, including RSV-treated cells, BHA + RSV-treated cells, TRI + RSV-treated cells, normal cell controls, inactivated RSV controls, BHA controls and TRI controls. Read More

    Spatial transmission of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses among wild birds in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, 2016-2017.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Division of Transboundary Animal Disease, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0854, Japan.
    From 29 November 2016 to 24 January 2017, sixty-three cases of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections were detected in wild birds in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. Here, we analyzed the genetic, temporal, and geographic correlations of these 63 HPAIVs to elucidate their dissemination throughout the prefecture. Full-genome sequence analysis of the Ibaraki isolates showed that 7 segments (PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NP, NA, NS) were derived from G1. Read More

    Molecular characterization of a divergent strain of calla lily chlorotic spot virus infecting celtuce (Lactuca sativa var. augustana) in China.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    College of Agriculture, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, People's Republic of China.
    Through sequencing and assembly of small RNAs, an orthotospovirus was identified from a celtuce plant (Lactuca sativa var. augustana) showing vein clearing and chlorotic spots in the Zhejiang province of China. The S, M, and L RNAs of this orthotospovirus were determined to be 3146, 4734, and 8934 nt, respectively, and shared 30. Read More

    Grapevine virus I, a putative new vitivirus detected in co-infection with grapevine virus G in New Zealand.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited, Private Bag 92169, Auckland, 1142, New Zealand.
    A novel virus, with characteristics of viruses classified within the genus Vitivirus, was identified from a sample of Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay in New Zealand. The virus was detected with high throughput sequencing (small RNA and total RNA) and its sequence was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Read More

    Human bocavirus in hospitalized children under 5 years with acute respiratory infection, São Paulo, Brazil, 2010.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Centro de Virologia, Núcleo de Doenças Respiratórias, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 355, São Paulo, CEP 01246-902, Brazil.
    The aims of this study were to investigate the human bocavirus (HBoV) frequency and genotypes in hospitalized children <5 years presenting acute respiratory infections (ARI) within the São Paulo metropolitan area. Nasopharyngeal samples from 300 patients, previously screened for common respiratory viruses, were tested by qPCR for the NSP1 and NP-1 genes. The VP1/2 gene in positive samples was then amplified by PCR and sequenced. Read More

    Targeting of rice grassy stunt virus pc6 protein to plasmodesmata requires the ER-to-Golgi secretory pathway and an actin-myosin VIII motility system.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Plant Virology, Institute of Plant Virology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, Fujian, China.
    The nonstructural protein pc6 encoded by rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV) plays a significant role in viral cell-to-cell movement, presumably by transport through plasmodesmata (PD). We confirmed the association of pc6 with PD, and also elucidated the mechanisms of protein targeting to PD. Several inhibitor treatments showed conclusively that pc6 is targeted to PD via the ER-to-Golgi secretory system and actin filaments. Read More

    Isolation and genomic characterization of a novel avian orthoreovirus strain in Korea, 2014.
    Arch Virol 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Avian Disease Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029, Republic of Korea.
    In this study, we isolated a novel avian reovirus (ARV) strain, K738/14, from a broiler chicken with viral arthritis in South Korea. Genome sequence comparisons showed relatively low nucleotide identity with previously identified ARV strains. Phylogenetic analyses suggested multiple reassortment events between reovirus strain S1133 and reoviruses of Hungarian, Chinese, and US origin had occurred. Read More

    Experimental infection of Marmota monax with a novel hepatitis A virus.
    Arch Virol 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, CDC China, Beijing, 100052, China.
    To establish an animal model for the newly identified Marmota Himalayana hepatovirus, MHHAV, so as to develop a better understanding of the infection of hepatitis A viruses. Five experimental woodchucks (Marmota monax) were inoculated intravenously with the purified MHHAV from wild woodchuck feces. One animal injected with PBS was defined as a control. Read More

    Diversity of partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene sequences of soybean blotchy mosaic virus isolates from different host-, geographical- and temporal origins.
    Arch Virol 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002, South Africa.
    Infection of soybean by the plant cytorhabdovirus soybean blotchy mosaic virus (SbBMV) results in significant yield losses in the temperate, lower-lying soybean production regions of South Africa. A 277 bp portion of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene of 66 SbBMV isolates from different: hosts, geographical locations in South Africa, and times of collection (spanning 16 years) were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced to investigate the genetic diversity of isolates. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed three main lineages, designated Groups A, B and C, with isolates grouping primarily according to geographic origin. Read More

    Detection and genetic characterization of classic human astroviruses in Brazil, 2010-2012.
    Arch Virol 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Centro de Virologia, Núcleo de Doenças Entéricas, Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 355, São Paulo, SP, CEP 01246-902, Brazil.
    The aims of this study were to monitor human astrovirus (HAstV) infections in patients presenting with acute gastroenteritis in Brazil and to determine the HAstV genotypes of these viruses. From May 2010 to July 2012, a total of 140 samples that were negative for both rotaviruses and noroviruses were randomly selected and tested for the presence of HAstV using an RT-PCR assay specific for the ORF2 region. Viral genotypes were identified and genetic diversity was investigated by sequencing. Read More

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