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    Biological characterization of wild-bird-origin avian avulavirus 1 and efficacy of currently applied vaccines against potential infection in commercial poultry.
    Arch Virol 2018 Jun 19. Epub 2018 Jun 19.
    The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Woking, Surrey, GU24 0NF, UK.
    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the type member of the species Avian avulavirus 1 (formerly known as avian paramyxovirus serotype 1), causes a highly contagious and economically important disease in a myriad of avian species around the globe. While extensive vaccination programs have been implemented in ND-endemic countries, the disease is continuously spreading in commercial, backyard, and wild captive poultry. In order to investigate the evolution of the virus and assess the efficiency of the vaccine regimens that are currently being applied in commercial poultry, four wild-bird-origin NDV strains were characterized biologically, based on mean death time and intracerebral pathogenicity index, and genetically, based on the cleavage motif (RRQKRF) in the fusion (F) protein. Read More

    Genomic characterization of GII.3 noroviruses isolated from children in Zhengzhou city, China, 2015/16.
    Arch Virol 2018 Jun 16. Epub 2018 Jun 16.
    The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People's Republic of China.
    In this study, we isolated, amplified and sequenced GII.3 norovirus (NoV) strains from children admitted to a department of pediatric gastroenterology presenting with acute gastroenteritis from September 2015 to March 2016. A total of 35 stool samples were collected and eight were GII. Read More

    Impact of pre-amplification conditions on sensitivity of the tat/rev induced limiting dilution assay.
    Arch Virol 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    National HIV and Retrovirology Laboratories, National Microbiology Laboratory, JC Wilt Infectious Diseases Research Centre, Public Health Agency of Canada, 1015 Arlington Street, Winnipeg, MB, R3E 3R2, Canada.
    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can lower a patient's HIV plasma viral load to an undetectable level, but following cessation of ART viremia rapidly rebounds. It has been shown that ART does not eliminate latent viruses sequestered into anatomical and cellular reservoirs. Therefore, in patients that have ceased ART, the following rebound in HIV viremia is caused by the activation of latent HIV reservoirs. Read More

    Getah virus epizootic among wild boars in Japan around 2012.
    Arch Virol 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.
    Laboratory of Veterinary Microbiology, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi, 753-8515, Japan.
    In 2014, an outbreak of Getah virus (GETV) infection occurred in Japan in a horse population that was inoculated with a vaccine against GETV. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence of GETV infection among wild boars in Japan. Interestingly, the highest rate of anti-GETV-positive wild boars was observed in 2013, which gradually decreased during 2014-2016. Read More

    Zika-virus-infected human full-term placental explants display pro-inflammatory responses and undergo apoptosis.
    Arch Virol 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.
    Virology Research Laboratory, Department of Dermatological, Infectious, and Parasitic Diseases, São José do Rio Preto School of Medicine (FAMERP), São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that has been highly correlated with the development of neurological disorders and other malformations in newborns and stillborn fetuses after congenital infection. This association is supported by the presence of ZIKV in the fetal brain and amniotic fluid, and findings suggest that infection of the placental barrier is a critical step for fetal ZIKV infection in utero. Therefore, relevant models to investigate the interaction between ZIKV and placental tissues are essential for understanding the pathogenesis of Zika syndrome. Read More

    Identification and molecular characterization of a novel circular single-stranded DNA virus associated with yerba mate in Argentina.
    Arch Virol 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.
    Instituto de Patología Vegetal, Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (IPAVE-CIAP-INTA), Camino 60 Cuadras Km 5,5 (X5020ICA), Córdoba, Argentina.
    A single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus was detected in Yerba mate samples showing chlorotic linear patterns, chlorotic rings and vein yellowing. The full-genome sequences of six different isolates of this ssDNA circular virus were obtained, which share > 99% sequence identity with each other. The newly identified virus has been tentatively named as yerba mate-associated circular DNA virus (YMaCV). Read More

    Discovery of two novel totiviruses from Culex tritaeniorhynchus classifiable in a distinct clade with arthropod-infecting viruses within the family Totiviridae.
    Arch Virol 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.
    Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, 20 Dong-Da Street, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100071, China.
    Two double-stranded RNA viruses, named Culex tritaeniorhynchus totivirus NJ2 (CTV_NJ2) and NJ3 (CTV_NJ3), were discovered from wild-captured Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes. The complete genomes (7,624 and 7,612 bp in length) were obtained using RNA sequencing. Both CTV_NJ2 and CTV_NJ3 encode a putative capsid protein and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Read More

    Humoral immunity to influenza in an at-risk population and severe influenza cases in Russia in 2016-2017.
    Arch Virol 2018 Jun 5. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
    Vector State Research Centre of Virology and Biotechnology, Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Region, 630559, Russia.
    This work aimed to analyze the herd immunity to influenza among a Russian population living in regions with an increased risk of emergence of viruses with pandemic potential, and to isolate and investigate virus strains from severe influenza cases, including fatal cases, during the 2016-2017 epidemic season. In November 2016 - March 2017 highly pathogenic influenza outbreaks were registered in Russia among wild birds and poultry. No cases of human infection were registered. Read More

    Human herpesvirus type 1 and type 2 disrupt mitochondrial dynamics in human keratinocytes.
    Arch Virol 2018 Jun 5. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
    Division of Microbiology, Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Ciszewskiego 8, 02-786, Warsaw, Poland.
    Mitochondrial movement and distribution throughout the cytoplasm is crucial for maintaining cell homeostasis. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles but can be functionally disrupted during infection. Here, we show that the ubiquitous human pathogens HHV-1 and HHV-2 induce changes in the mitochondrial morphology and distribution in the early and late phases of productive infection in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). Read More

    Characterisation of the antigenic epitopes in the subunit 2 haemagglutinin of avian influenza virus H5N1.
    Arch Virol 2018 Jun 4. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
    Asia Pacific Centre for Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, 250 Princess Highway, Werribee, VIC, 3030, Australia.
    Monitoring avian influenza (AI) infection and detecting silent infection in vaccinated chickens has been challenging due to the lack of effective serological diagnostic assays to differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals. Very few studies have identified suitable proteins in AI virus that can be used in successfully differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). An HA2 peptide: HA2 position 197-201 (HA position 488-516) described by Khurana et al. Read More

    Whole genome analysis of a novel neurotropic bovine astrovirus detected in a Japanese black steer with non-suppurative encephalomyelitis in Japan.
    Arch Virol 2018 Jun 4. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
    Research and Education Center for Prevention of Global Infectious Diseases of Animal, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwai, Fuchu, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan.
    While neurotropic bovine astroviruses (BoAstVs) have been identified in North America and Europe, their presence has never been reported in Asia. In this study, we detected BoAstV in the brain of a steer showing neurological signs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the identified virus belongs to the Virginia/Human-Mink-Ovine clade, which contains most of the neurotropic astroviruses including the neurotropic BoAstVs. Read More

    Influence of adaptive mutations, from thermal adaptation experiments, on the infection cycle of RNA bacteriophage Qβ.
    Arch Virol 2018 Jun 4. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
    Institute of Biology and Information Science, School of Computer and Software Engineering and School of Life Science, East China Normal University, 3663 Zhongshan North Rd, Shanghai, 200062, People's Republic of China.
    A population's growth rate is determined by multiple 'life history traits'. To quantitatively determine which life history traits should be improved to allow a living organism to adapt to an inhibitory environment is an important issue. Previously, we conducted thermal adaptation experiments on the RNA bacteriophage Qβ using three independent replicates and reported that all three end-point populations could grow at a temperature (43. Read More

    Molecular characterization of lumpy skin disease virus in Namibia, 2017.
    Arch Virol 2018 Jun 4. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
    Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400, Vienna, Austria.
    Between January and July 2017, lumpy skin disease (LSD) outbreaks were reported in cattle in Namibia. DNA was extracted from skin biopsies taken from 32 cattle, and the RNA polymerase 30 kDa subunit (RPO30) gene of the LSD virus (LSDV) was successfully amplified by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the newly sequenced LSDV isolates from Namibia were identical to LSDV isolates identified previously in Burkina Faso, Egypt, Greece, Niger, Serbia and South Africa. Read More

    Unveiling the complete genome sequence of clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus, a putative dichorhavirus infecting ornamental plants.
    Arch Virol 2018 Jun 4. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
    Lab. Bioquímica Fitopatológica, Instituto Biológico, São Paulo, SP, 04014-002, Brazil.
    The genus Dichorhavirus includes plant-infecting rhabdoviruses with bisegmented genomes that are horizontally transmitted by false spider mites of the genus Brevipalpus. The complete genome sequences of three isolates of the putative dichorhavirus clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus were determined using next-generation sequencing (Illumina) and traditional RT-PCR. Their genome organization, sequence similarity and phylogenetic relationship to other viruses, and transmissibility by Brevipalpus yothersi mites support the assignment of these viruses to a new species of dichorhavirus, as suggested previously. Read More

    Pathotyping and genetic characterization of avian avulavirus-1 from domestic and wild waterfowl, geese and black swans in Pakistan, 2014 to 2017.
    Arch Virol 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.
    Department of Biotechnology, Virtual University of Pakistan, 1-Davis Road, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Twenty-nine avian avulavirus-1 viruses (AAvV-1s) from healthy domestic and wild ducks, geese and black swans collected in Pakistan between 2014-2017 have been pathotyped and genetically characterized. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that 21 of the isolates belonged to sub-genotype VIIi, whereas eight isolates were highly similar to vaccine-like viruses of genotype II. In addition to confirming the continued presence of sub-genotype VIIi AAvV-1s in Pakistan, this study identifies the probable spill-over of vaccine-like viruses from vaccinated poultry to wild and domestic waterfowl and, as such, has important implications for the control and management of Newcastle disease in Pakistan. Read More

    Isolation and sequence analysis of a novel rhesus macaque foamy virus isolate with a serotype-1-like env.
    Arch Virol 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.
    Deutsches Primatenzentrum - Leibniz-Institut für Primatenforschung, Kellnerweg 4, 37077, Göttingen, Germany.
    SFVmmu-DPZ9524 represents the third completely sequenced rhesus macaque simian foamy virus (SFV) isolate, alongside SFVmmu_K3T with a similar SFV-1-type env, and R289HybAGM with a SFV-2-like env. Sequence analysis demonstrates that, in gag and pol, SFVmmu-DPZ9524 is more closely related to R289HybAGM than to SFVmmu_K3T, which, outside of env, is more similar to a Japanese macaque isolate than to the other two rhesus macaque isolates SFVmmu-DPZ9524 and R289HybAGM. Further, we identify bel as another recombinant locus in R289HybAGM, confirming that recombination contributes to sequence diversity in SFV. Read More

    Association of Toll-like receptor 3 and Toll-like receptor 9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms with hepatitis C virus persistence among Egyptians.
    Arch Virol 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.
    The Holding Company for Biological Products and Vaccines (VACSERA), 51 Wizaret El-Zeraa St., Agouza, Giza, 22311, Egypt.
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) give the innate immune system a considerable specificity for a large range of pathogens. TLR3 detects dsRNA of viruses while TLR9 recognizes bacterial and viral unmethylated CpG motifs. This study examined whether there is a potential association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TLR3. Read More

    Phylogenetic analysis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates from Northern Ireland.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 29. Epub 2018 May 29.
    Veterinary Science Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Stormont, Belfast, BT4 3SD, UK.
    To investigate the genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in Northern Ireland, the ORF5 gene from nine field isolates was sequenced and phylogenetically analysed. The results revealed relatively high diversity amongst isolates, with 87.6-92. Read More

    High frequency of Polio-like Enterovirus C strains with differential clustering of CVA-13 and EV-C99 subgenotypes in a cohort of Malawian children.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 28. Epub 2018 May 28.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Laboratory of Clinical Virology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Enteroviruses (EVs) are among the most commonly detected viruses infecting humans worldwide. Although the prevalence of EVs is widely studied, the status of EV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa remains largely unknown. The objective of our present study was therefore to increase our knowledge on EV circulation in sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

    Characterization and application of monoclonal antibodies against channel catfish virus (CCV).
    Arch Virol 2018 May 25. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing, 100176, China.
    Three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (27E4, 17H2, 8B6) against channel catfish virus (CCV) were developed by immunizing Balb/C mice. Using indirect ELISA, these MAbs reacted only with CCV and not with three other fish viruses or nine fish cell lines. During western blotting analysis, MAb 27E4 recognized 170 kDa and 47 kDa proteins, while MAb 17H2 and MAb 8B6 recognized 47 kDa and 56 kDa proteins, respectively. Read More

    Retrospective survey and phylogenetic analysis of porcine circovirus type 3 in Jiangsu province, China, 2008 to 2017.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 25. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Key Laboratory of Avian Bioproducts Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.
    Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a novel porcine circovirus recently identified in pigs associated with porcine dermatitis nephropathy syndrome, reproductive failure and multi-systemic inflammation. This study aimed to identify PCV3 in clinical samples from pigs collected between 2008 and 2017 in Jiangsu province, China. A total of 272 pig tissue samples from 141 pig farms in Jiangsu province were examined and analyzed. Read More

    Development of a TaqMan MGB RT-PCR assay for the detection of type A and subtype H10 avian influenza viruses.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 23. Epub 2018 May 23.
    State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, 310003, China.
    H10 subtype avian influenza viruses have caused several epidemics in poultry and mammals, and specific, rapid and sensitive methods for detection are urgently needed. Herein, TaqMan minor groove binder (MGB) probes and multiplex real-time RT-PCR primers were designed based on gene regions encoding conserved domains of the nucleoprotein and H10 hemagglutinin. The developed multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay displayed high specificity, repeatability, and a detection limit of 10 copies per reaction. Read More

    Restricted viral cDNA synthesis in cell lines that fail to support productive infection by bovine leukemia virus.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 23. Epub 2018 May 23.
    National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0856, Japan.
    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis, which results in significant economic losses on many affected farms. BLV infects a wide range of animals as well as cell lines derived from various mammalian species and organs; however, studies show that only some cell lines support sustained production of viral progeny. The differences between cells that produce viral progeny and those that do not are unclear. Read More

    Genetic diversity and identification of putative recombination events in grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 23. Epub 2018 May 23.
    Department of Genetics, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South Africa.
    The impact of recombination on variant classification and the use of different genomic regions to identify virus variants were investigated using a diversity study performed on grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV). Three surveys were conducted to investigate the genetic diversity of GRSPaV and to compare the ability of the GRSPaV coat protein and replicase domains to classify virus variants. GRSPaV variants identified in the surveys clustered into five of the six currently recognised lineages, and a seventh, previously unclassified lineage was detected. Read More

    Analysis of the complete genome sequence of a potyvirus from passion fruit suggests its taxonomic classification as a member of a new species.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 22. Epub 2018 May 22.
    College of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou, Hainan, 570228, People's Republic of China.
    The complete genomic sequence of a telosma mosaic virus (TeMV) isolate (named PasFru), identified in passion fruit in China, was determined. The entire RNA genome of PasFru comprises 10,049 nucleotides (nt) excluding the poly(A) tail and encodes a polyprotein of 3,173 amino acids (aa), flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of 276 and 251 nt, respectively. Compared with the previous TeMV isolate Hanoi from Telosma cordata, the only documented isolate with the entire genome sequence annotated, PasFru had an extra 87 nt and 89 aa residues at the 3'-end of 5'UTR and the N-terminus of the P1 protein, respectively, which contributed to the genome size difference between PasFru and Hanoi (10,049 nt versus 9,689 nt). Read More

    New variants of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus with large deletions in the spike protein, identified in the United States, 2016-2017.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 22. Epub 2018 May 22.
    Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, College of Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences; Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio, USA.
    Four types of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) variants with a large deletion in the spike protein were detected, together with the original US PEDV, from pig fecal and oral fluid samples collected during 2016-2017 in the US. Two of the variants are similar to those identified in Japan: one contains a 194-aa deletion, the same as PEDV variant TTR-2/JPN/2014, while the other contains a 204-aa deletion, the same as PEDV variant JKa-292/CS1de204. Two new S1 NTD-del PEDV variants were found: one contains a 201-aa deletion located at residues 30-230 and the other contains a 202-aa deletion located at residues 24-225 of the S protein. Read More

    Complete genomic sequence of a novel macluravirus, alpinia oxyphylla mosaic virus (AloMV), identified in Alpinia oxyphylla.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 21. Epub 2018 May 21.
    College of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, Hainan, People's Republic of China.
    A macluravirus, tentatively named alpinia oxyphylla mosaic virus (AloMV), was identified in Alpinia oxyphylla, and its complete genomic sequence determined. The positively single-stranded RNA genome is comprised of 8213 nucleotides excluding the poly (A) tail, and contains one large open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 2,626 amino acids. Blastp search showed that the polyprotein of AloMV shared 48%~68% aa sequence identities with other reported macluraviruses. Read More

    Genome sequence of the novel virulent bacteriophage PMBT14 with lytic activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 50090.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 21. Epub 2018 May 21.
    Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Max Rubner-Institut, Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food, Hermann-Weigmann-Str. 1, 24103, Kiel, Germany.
    Psychrotrophic gram-negative Pseudomonas spp. represent a serious problem in the dairy industry as they can cause spoilage of milk and dairy products. Bacteriophages have moved into focus as promising biocontrol agents for such food spoilage bacteria. Read More

    Identification and characterization of a tombusvirus isolated from Japanese gentian.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 21. Epub 2018 May 21.
    Iwate Biotechnology Research Center, Kitakami, Iwate, Japan.
    The DECS (dsRNA isolation, exhaustive amplification, cloning and sequencing) analysis technique for viral diagnosis detected a tombusvirus in Japanese gentian not displaying severe symptoms. We tentatively named this virus "gentian virus A" (GeVA). GeVA systemically but inefficiently infected Japanese gentian without causing visible symptoms, while it led to severe symptoms in some other plants. Read More

    Full-length and defective enterovirus G genomes with distinct torovirus protease insertions are highly prevalent on a Chinese pig farm.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 21. Epub 2018 May 21.
    School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.
    Recombination occurs frequently between enteroviruses (EVs) which are classified within the same species of the Picornaviridae family. Here, using viral metagenomics, the genomes of two recombinant EV-Gs (strains EVG 01/NC_CHI/2014 and EVG 02/NC_CHI/2014) found in the feces of pigs from a swine farm in China are described. The two strains are characterized by distinct insertion of a papain-like protease gene from toroviruses classified within the Coronaviridae family. Read More

    Evolutionary analyses of Sindbis virus strains isolated from mosquitoes in Kenya.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 21. Epub 2018 May 21.
    Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, P. O. Box 54628-00200, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Sindbis virus (SINV) is a mosquito borne virus maintained in nature in a mosquito-bird cycle, with human outbreaks known to occur in Northern Europe and parts of Africa. We analyzed five SINV strains isolated in Kenya from five different mosquito species and geographic locations between 2007 and 2013. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary inferences were performed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference approaches. Read More

    Analysis of genetic variability of respiratory syncytial virus groups A and B in Kuwait.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 19. Epub 2018 May 19.
    Virology Unit, Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 24923, Safat, 13110, Kuwait City, Kuwait.
    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequently identified viral agent in infants, children, and elderly people with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). This study is the only one of its kind in Kuwait, and its purpose was to investigate the genetic variability of the G protein gene in RSV strains prevalent in Kuwait. Respiratory samples were collected from patients with ARTIs in various hospitals in Kuwait and subjected to reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) amplifying a fragment of the G gene of RSV. Read More

    Complete genome sequences of three novel cycloviruses identified in a dragonfly (Odonata: Anisoptera) from China.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 17. Epub 2018 May 17.
    State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Fuzhou, 350002, China.
    Three cycloviruses (genus Cyclovirus, family Circoviridae) were recovered from a dragonfly (Odonata: Anisoptera) captured in Fuzhou, China. The three cycloviruses, named dragonfly associated cyclovirus 9, 10 and 11 (DfCyV-9, -10, -11), respectively, show 56.1-79. Read More

    Development and evaluation of a rapid recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the detection of human enterovirus 71.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 16. Epub 2018 May 16.
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the most common pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). A rapid reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay was established to detect EV71 subgenotype C4 (EV71-C4). The 95% detection limit of the RT-RPA was 3. Read More

    Assessing the efficacy of a live vaccine against avian encephalomyelitis virus.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 16. Epub 2018 May 16.
    College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, People's Republic of China.
    Avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) causes typical neurological symptoms in young chicks and a transient drop in egg production and hatchability in adult laying birds, resulting in huge economic losses in the poultry industry. An effective way to control and prevent this disease is vaccination of the flocks. Here, we assessed the efficacy of the live vaccine candidate strain GDt29 against avian encephalomyelitis virus. Read More

    Complete nucleotide sequences and annotations of φ673 and φ674, two newly characterised lytic phages of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 15. Epub 2018 May 15.
    Ajinomoto-Genetika Research Institute, 1st Dorozhny pr. 1-1, 117545, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    The genomes of two new lytic phages of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032, φ673 and φ674, were sequenced and annotated (GenBank: MG324353, MG324354). Electron microscopy studies of both virions revealed that taxonomically they belong to the Siphoviridae family and have a polyhedral head with a width of 50 nm and a non-contractile tail with a length of 250 nm. The genomes of φ673 and φ674 consist of linear double-stranded DNA molecules with lengths of 44,530 bp (G+C = 51. Read More

    Genome sequence of a novel partitivirus identified from the oomycete Pythium nunn.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 12. Epub 2018 May 12.
    Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1, Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531, Japan.
    The mycoparasitic oomycete Pythium nunn isolate UZ415 contains two double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) of different sizes. The 1707-nt dsRNA1 and the 1475-nt dsRNA2 potentially encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a coat protein (CP), respectively, with sequence similarity to the RdRp and CP of gammapartitiviruses (< 57% and < 36%). Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced RdRp amino acid sequences indicated that the virus identified from P. Read More

    Changes to taxonomy and the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2018).
    Arch Virol 2018 May 12. Epub 2018 May 12.
    MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Sir Michael Stoker Building, 464 Bearsden Road, Glasgow, G61 1QH, UK.
    This article lists the changes to virus taxonomy approved and ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses in February 2018. A total of 451 species, 69 genera, 11 subfamilies, 9 families and one new order were added to the taxonomy. The current totals at each taxonomic level now stand at 9 orders, 131 families, 46 subfamilies, 803 genera and 4853 species. Read More

    Discovery of a novel iflavirus sequence in the eastern paralysis tick Ixodes holocyclus.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Ixodes holocyclus, the eastern paralysis tick, is a significant parasite in Australia in terms of animal and human health. However, very little is known about its virome. In this study, next-generation sequencing of I. Read More

    Equine infectious anemia virus in naturally infected horses from the Brazilian Pantanal.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Laboratório de Vírus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Equine infectious anemia (EIA) has a worldwide distribution, and is widespread in Brazil. The Brazilian Pantanal presents with high prevalence comprising equine performance and indirectly the livestock industry, since the horses are used for cattle management. Although EIA is routinely diagnosed by the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID), this serological assay has some limitations, so PCR-based detection methods have the potential to overcome these limitations and act as complementary tests to those currently used. Read More

    Complete genome sequence of bacteriophage Deep-Purple, a novel member of the family Siphoviridae infecting Bacillus cereus.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 11. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Laboratory of Food and Environmental Microbiology, Earth and Life Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
    Bacteriophage Deep-Purple, isolated from an agricultural soil in Belgium, lyses the emetic Bacillus weihenstephanensis strain LH002 and exhibits a lytic activity against 55% of emetic Bacillus cereus and B. weihenstephanensis strains. Deep-Purple is able to complete its lytic cycle within 45 min and is stable to a large range of pHs and temperatures below 60 °C. Read More

    Characterization of a novel lytic podovirus O4 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 10. Epub 2018 May 10.
    Key Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin, 300457, China.
    Phage O4 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was previously visualized as a short-tailed virus using a transmission electron microscope. In this work, the O4 genome was characterized to be a linear dsDNA molecule comprising 50509 bp with 76 predicted genes located in five clusters. Mass spectrometry showed that the O4 virion contains 6 putative structural proteins, 2 putative enzymes, and 7 hypothetical proteins. Read More

    Phylogeographic analysis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 1 in Guangdong province, Southern China.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 10. Epub 2018 May 10.
    Scientific Observation and Experiment Station of Veterinary Drugs and Diagnostic Techniques of Guangdong Province, China Ministry of Agriculture/Key Laboratory of Livestock Disease Prevention of Guangdong Province/Institute of Animal Health, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, China.
    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is considered an important economic pathogen for the international swine industry. At present, both PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 have been confirmed to be co-circulating in China. However, there is little available information about the prevalence or distribution of PRRSV-1 in Guangdong province, southern China. Read More

    Molecular characterization of a new begomovirus infecting Synedrella nodiflora in South India.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    National Centre for Biological Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bangalore, 560065, India.
    Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) cause important diseases in many crops. In addition, many wild plants are reservoirs of begomoviruses, which are a potential menace for nearby crops. A novel begomovirus was isolated from a weed of the species Synedrella nodiflora (Compositae) exhibiting yellow vein symptoms in South India. Read More

    Alphasatellitidae: a new family with two subfamilies for the classification of geminivirus- and nanovirus-associated alphasatellites.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    The Biodesign Center for Fundamental and Applied Microbiomics, Center for Evolution and Medicine and School of Life sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287, USA.
    Nanoviruses and geminiviruses are circular, single stranded DNA viruses that infect many plant species around the world. Nanoviruses and certain geminiviruses that belong to the Begomovirus and Mastrevirus genera are associated with additional circular, single stranded DNA molecules (~ 1-1.4 kb) that encode a replication-associated protein (Rep). Read More

    Analysis of rabies diagnosis in dogs and cats in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 8. Epub 2018 May 8.
    Pasteur Institute, Av. Paulista 393, São Paulo, SP, CEP 01311-000, Brazil.
    The genetic lineage of rabies virus (RABV) associated with dogs has not been found in the state of São Paulo since 1998, and all cases of rabies in domestic animals reported since then have involved the RABV lineage that circulates in bats. As there has been a change in the rabies transmission cycle in cats and dogs, we decided to analyze the tests used to diagnose rabies in these animals in the 15-year period from 2002 to 2016 in the state of São Paulo. During this period, 85,508 central nervous system (CNS) samples from dogs and cats were submitted to the Rabies Diagnosis Section at the Pasteur Institute of São Paulo for testing. Read More

    Molecular characterization of avipoxviruses circulating in Mozambique, 2016-2018.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 8. Epub 2018 May 8.
    Central Veterinary Laboratory, Directorate of Animal Science, Agrarian Research Institute of Mozambique, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Samples from 45 chickens, two turkeys, one peacock and one quail with symptoms of fowlpox were collected in Mozambique between November 2016 and January 2018. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the samples contained avipoxviruses belonging to both clade A1 and clade A2. In addition, all of the Clade A1 viruses were positive by PCR for the integration of reticuloendotheliosis virus, while the clade A2 avipoxvirus samples were negative. Read More

    Development and evaluation of a gold nanoparticle-based immunochromatographic strip test for the detection of canine parvovirus.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 8. Epub 2018 May 8.
    CADRAD, IVRI, Izatnagar, India.
    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the leading viral cause of enteritis in dogs and occurs mainly in 6- to 8-week-old pups. Rapid diagnosis of CPV under field conditions is now possible due to commercially available immunochromatographic (IC) assays. However, these commercial kits are somewhat expensive because they utilize a minimum of two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting different epitopes as capture and detector antibodies. Read More

    High-throughput sequencing reveals a novel closterovirus in arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza).
    Arch Virol 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Brasilia, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Brasília, Distrito Federal, 70910-900, Brazil.
    High-throughput sequencing analysis detected a clostero-like virus from arracacha plants (Arracacia xanthorrhiza) in Brazil. The complete genome sequence, confirmed by RACE and Sanger sequencing, consists of 15,763 nucleotides with nine predicted open reading frames (ORFs) in a typical closterovirus genome organisation. The putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), heat shock protein 70 homologue (Hsp70h), and coat protein showed 55-65, 38-44, and 20-36% amino acid sequence identity, respectively, to the homologous proteins of known closteroviruses. Read More

    Triple combination of FDA-approved drugs including flufenamic acid, clarithromycin and zanamivir improves survival of severe influenza in mice.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Seasonal influenza virus remains a common cause of mortality despite the use of neuraminidase inhibitors. This study evaluated the efficacy of a triple combination of zanamivir, clarithromycin and flufenamic acid (FFA) in the treatment of influenza virus A(H1N1) infection. An in vitro cell protection assay and a multiple-cycle growth assay showed that the antiviral activity of zanamivir was enhanced when combined with clarithromycin or FFA. Read More

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