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    Identification of a novel vitivirus from grapevines in New Zealand.
    Arch Virol 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited, Private Bag 92169, Auckland, 1142, New Zealand.
    We report a sequence of a novel vitivirus from Vitis vinifera obtained using two high-throughput sequencing (HTS) strategies on RNA. The initial discovery from small-RNA sequencing was confirmed by HTS of the total RNA and Sanger sequencing. The new virus has a genome structure similar to the one reported for other vitiviruses, with five open reading frames (ORFs) coding for the conserved domains described for members of that genus. Read More

    First identification of porcine parvovirus 7 in China.
    Arch Virol 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    College of Veterinary and National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.
    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) are small, non-enveloped and single-stranded DNA viruses, taxonomically classifiable within the family Parvoviridae. Seven PPV genotypes (PPV1 to PPV7) have been identified to date. PPV7, the most recently discovered PPV genotype, was first reported in US pigs in 2016. Read More

    Association of interferon lambda polymorphisms with elevated baseline viral loads in chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 6 infection.
    Arch Virol 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Laboratory of Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Globally, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major causes of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis. For clinical decision making, genetic variation in the interferon-λ (IFNL) cluster has been utilised as a baseline predictor of natural and interferon-based treatment-induced viral clearance. In Vietnam, where HCV genotypes 1 (g1) and g6 predominate, no prior studies have been conducted investigating associations of IFNL3/4 polymorphisms with spontaneous clearance (SC) or HCV viral load (VL) in chronic infection. Read More

    Serological and molecular investigation of 2117-like vesiviruses in cats.
    Arch Virol 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Università Aldo Moro di Bari, Valenzano, Italy.
    Vesivirus 2117 was first discovered as a contaminant in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultures used for human drug production. Similar vesiviruses (VeVs) have been detected recently in dogs. In order to address the hypothesis that cats may also be exposed to 2117-like VeVs, in this study, we screened 236 feline sera using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a recombinant VP1 protein from the canine VeV Bari/212/07/ITA. Read More

    A novel strain of porcine deltacoronavirus in Vietnam.
    Arch Virol 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Virus Disease Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon, Gyeongbuk-do, 39660, Republic of Korea.
    Two porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) strains (Binh21 and HaNoi6) were isolated from two pig farms in North Vietnam. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genomes and the Spike and Membrane genes revealed that the two Vietnam PDCoVs belong to the same lineage as PDCoVs from Thailand and Laos; however, the N genes belonged to the same lineage as PDCoVs from the USA, Korea, China, and Hong Kong. The recombination detection program subsequently identified the major parent (S5011 strain) and minor parent (HKU15-44 strain) of the two Vietnam PDCoV strains (p < 0. Read More

    Determination of the complete genomic sequence of grapevine virus H, a novel vitivirus infecting grapevine.
    Arch Virol 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    UMR 1332 Biologie du Fruit et Pathologie, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux, CS 20032, 33882, Villenave d'Ornon Cedex, France.
    The present work reports the discovery and the complete genome sequencing of a novel member of the genus Vitivirus in the family Betaflexiviridae (subfamily Trivirinae) from a symptomless grapevine of unknown variety from Portugal. Total RNAs extracted from phloem scrapings were sequenced using Illumina technology. Bioinformatic analysis of the RNA-seq data revealed a mixed infection involving three viruses and two viroids in addition to a novel vitivirus. Read More

    Molecular analysis of the low-temperature Escherichia coli phage vB_EcoS_NBD2.
    Arch Virol 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, Institute of Biochemistry, Life Sciences Center, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 7, 10257, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    A novel low-temperature Escherichia coli phage vB_EcoS_NBD2 was isolated in Lithuania from agricultural soil. With an optimum temperature for plating around 20 °C, vB_EcoS_NBD2 efficiently produced plaques on Escherichia coli NovaBlue (DE3) at a temperature range of 10-30 °C, yet failed to plate at temperatures above 35 °C. Phage vB_EcoS_NBD2 virions have a siphoviral morphology with an isometric head (65 nm in diameter), and a non-contractile flexible tail (170 nm). Read More

    Comparison of antiretroviral drug resistance among treatment-naive and treated HIV-infected individuals in Shiraz, Iran.
    Arch Virol 2017 Oct 6. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Shiraz HIV/AIDS Research Center, Institute of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran.
    The use of anti-retroviral therapy has been effective in controlling the spread of HIV-1, and has prolonged life expectancy, but this success can be affected by the emergence of drug resistance. The main goal of this study was to investigate drug resistance in the reverse transcriptase (RT), and protease (PR) genes among HIV-1 infected individuals. We systematically selected 59 HIV-1 infected individuals from Shiraz Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center (29 treatment- naïve and 30 treated). Read More

    The construction and application of a cell line resistant to novel subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-K) infection.
    Arch Virol 2017 Oct 6. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, 483 Wushan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou, 510642, People's Republic of China.
    A novel avian leukosis viruses (ALV) subgroup named ALV-K was recently isolated from Chinese indigenous chickens which is different from the subgroups (A to E and J) that have previously been reported to infect chickens. More and more ALV-K strains have recently been isolated from local breeds of Chinese chickens. However, there are no more effective diagnostic methods for ALV-K other than virus isolation followed by envelope gene sequencing and comparison. Read More

    Prevalence of HIV-1 pre-treatment drug resistance in a southern province of Iran, 2016-2017.
    Arch Virol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Western University, London, ON, Canada.
    HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) occurs when primary viruses bear drug resistance mutations (DRMs). TDR causes first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (ART) failure and is becoming more pronounced due to the widespread use of ART. With the absence of routine individual-level drug resistance testing, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the tracking of TDR mutations and optimizing the first-line ART following pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR) surveys. Read More

    Human papillomavirus genotype distribution among HPV-positive women in Sichuan province, Southwest China.
    Arch Virol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, 610052, China.
    In this hospital-based descriptive study, the genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) among HPV-infected women were investigated in 4,305 gynecological patients in Sichuan province. Females attending gynecology clinics between March 2014 and March 2015 were subjected to HPV screening after giving informed consent. Cervical scrapings were examined by cytopathology and colposcopy-directed biopsies. Read More

    Viral metagenomics of six bat species in close contact with humans in southern China.
    Arch Virol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, 1838 Guangzhou Avenue North, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.
    Accumulating studies have shown that bats could harbor various important pathogenic viruses that could be transmitted to humans and other animals. Extensive metagenomic studies of different organs/tissues from bats have revealed a large number of novel or divergent viruses. To elucidate viral diversity and epidemiological and phylogenetic characteristics, six pooled fecal samples from bats were generated (based on bat species and geographic regions characteristic for virome analysis). Read More

    Efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for treatment of cirrhotic patients with genotype 4 hepatitis C virus in real-life clinical practice.
    Arch Virol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of General Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.
    Egypt has the highest hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence in the world. Sofosbuvir is a new highly effective drug for treatment of HCV infection. Compared to previous treatments, sofosbuvir-based regimens provide a higher cure rate, fewer side effects, and a two- to fourfold reduced duration of therapy. Read More

    Adenovirus infection in savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Issa Valley, Tanzania.
    Arch Virol 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    CEITEC-VFU, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Palackého tř. 1946/1, 612 42, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Adenoviruses are a widespread cause of diverse human infections with recently confirmed zoonotic roots in African great apes. We focused on savanna-dwelling chimpanzees in the Issa Valley (Tanzania), which differ from those from forested sites in many aspects of behavior and ecology. PCR targeting the DNA polymerase gene detected AdV in 36. Read More

    Complete genome sequence of datura leaf curl virus, a novel begomovirus infecting Datura innoxia in Sudan, related to begomoviruses causing tomato yellow leaf curl disease.
    Arch Virol 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Instituto de Hortofruticultura Subtropical y Mediterránea "La Mayora", Universidad de Málaga - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IHSM-UMA-CSIC), Avenida Dr. Wienberg s/n, 29750, Algarrobo-Costa, Málaga, Spain.
    Several species in the genus Datura (family Solanaceae) are hosts for begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae), both in the New World and the Old World. Here, we report the genome characterization of two isolates of a novel Old World monopartite begomovirus infecting Datura innoxia in Sudan, which we propose to be named "datura leaf curl virus" (DaLCV). Pairwise sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis showed that DaLCV isolates are related to begomoviruses causing tomato yellow leaf curl disease, a global menace for tomato crops. Read More

    The role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils during HIV-1 infection.
    Arch Virol 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Chemical Sciences, College of Science and Arts, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, 22110, Jordan.
    It is well-recognized that human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) mainly targets CD4(+) T cells and macrophages. Nonetheless, during the past three decades, a huge number of studies have reported that HIV-1 can directly or indirectly target other cellular components of the immune system including CD8(+) T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), among others. PMNs are the most abundant leukocytes in the human circulation, and are known to play principal roles in the elimination of invading pathogens, regulating different immune responses, healing of injured tissues, and maintaining mucosal homeostasis. Read More

    Serological and molecular markers of hepatitis E virus infection in HIV-infected patients in Brazil.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 30. Epub 2017 Sep 30.
    Laboratorio de Gastroenterologia e Hepatologia Tropical LIM/07, Instituto de Medicina Tropical da USP, Departamento de Gastroenterologia, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Dr. Enéas Carvalho de Aguiar, 500, Sao Paulo, SP, 05403-000, Brazil.
    In Brazil, the circulation of hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been demonstrated in distinct groups of individuals and some animals, but its prevalence among individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is unknown. This study aimed to assess the frequency of serological and molecular HEV markers in individuals infected with HIV from São Paulo, Brazil. Serum and plasma samples of 354 HIV-infected patients collected between 2007 and 2013 were included. Read More

    Complete genome sequence of DU_RP_II, a novel Ralstonia solanacearum phage of the family Podoviridae.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 30. Epub 2017 Sep 30.
    Department of Horticulture, Daegu University, Gyeongsan, 38453, Republic of Korea.
    DU_RP_II, a bacteriophage of the family Podoviridae, which lyses Ralstonia solanacearum, was isolated from a diseased plant sample, and its genome was completely sequenced. The genome was found to be 42,091 base pairs long and to be a circular double-stranded DNA with a GC content of 62.17% and 38 predicted coding sequences. Read More

    Discovery of the first maize-infecting mastrevirus in the Americas using a vector-enabled metagenomics approach.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 27. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, Brasília, Brazil.
    The genus Mastrevirus (family Geminiviridae) is composed of single-stranded DNA viruses that infect mono- and dicotyledonous plants and are transmitted by leafhoppers. In South America, there have been only two previous reports of mastreviruses, both identified in sweet potatoes (from Peru and Uruguay). As part of a general viral surveillance program, we used a vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM) approach and sampled leafhoppers (Dalbulus maidis) in Itumbiara (State of Goiás), Brazil. Read More

    Genotypes and subgenotypes of hepatitis B virus circulating in an endemic area in Peru.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 25. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Servicio de Banco de Sangre, Hospital Regional Guillermo Díaz de la Vega, Abancay, Peru.
    Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still endemic in Abancay, Peru, two decades after vaccination against hepatitis B started in the area, little is known about the diversity and circulation of genotypes and subgenotypes of the virus. To identify the genotypes and subtypes of HBV circulating in Abancay, complete genome sequences of 11 treatment-naive HBV-infected patients were obtained, and phylogenetic analysis was conducted with these and additional sequences from GenBank. Genotyping revealed the presence of genotype F in all the samples from Abancay. Read More

    HIV-1 genetic diversity, geographical linkages and antiretroviral drug resistance among individuals from Pakistan.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 23. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Department of Pathology, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
    Worldwide antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced the mortality and morbidity rates in individuals with HIV infection. However, the increasing occurrence of drug resistance is limiting treatment options. In recent years, Pakistan has witnessed a concentrated epidemic of HIV. Read More

    A novel grablovirus from non-cultivated grapevine (Vitis sp.) in North America.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 23. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Section of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY, 14456, USA.
    During screening of non-cultivated (wild) grapevine (Vitis sp.) from Napa County, California for the grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV; genus Glabrovirus, family Geminiviridae), an atypical polymerase chain reaction product pattern was observed. Rolling circle amplification followed by cloning and sequencing revealed the presence of a circular DNA characteristic of geminiviruses. Read More

    Erratum to: Discovery of two small circular ssDNA viruses associated with the whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
    Arch Virol 2017 Nov;162(11):3563-3566
    Embrapa Vegetables, Rodovia BR-060, Km09, Brasília, 70275-970, Brazil.
    The complete genome sequences of two novel small circular DNA viruses isolated from sweet-potato whiteflies collected in Central-West (AdDF) and Southeast (AdO) regions of Brazil were determined by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), and confirmed by cloning and Sanger sequencing. The genomes are 2,199 and 2,211 nt-long, respectively, encoding a putative coat protein (CP) and a replication-associated protein (Rep) and showing a genomic organization typical of viruses from the family Genomoviridae. Phylogenetic analysis with deduced amino acid sequences of Rep indicates that the virus from AdO is closely related to other members of the genus Gemycircularvirus, while the virus from AdDF is related to those of the genus Gemyduguivirus. Read More

    Dicipivirus (family Picornaviridae) in wild Northern white-breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus).
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Regional Laboratory of Virology, National Reference Laboratory of Gastroenteric Viruses, ÁNTSZ Regional Institute of State Public Health Service, Pécs, Hungary.
    Using random amplification and high-throughput sequencing technology a novel picornavirus with dicistronic genome organization and genetically related to canine picodicistrovirus (genus Dicipivirus, family Picornaviridae) was identified and characterized in Northern white-breasted hedgehogs. Hedgehog dicipivirus (hedgehog/H14/2015/HUN, MF188967) was detected in 15 (75%) of 20 faecal specimens by RT-PCR with high viral loads (up to 8.2x10(8) genomic copies/ml faeces). Read More

    Genome sequence of a mallard duck origin cyclovirus, DuACyV-1.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Institute for Veterinary Medical Research, Centre of Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 18, 1581, Budapest, Hungary.
    The genome sequence of a novel avian cyclovirus is described in this study. The genome size and orientation of predicted genes was similar to those described in other vertebrate and insect origin cycloviruses. The greatest genome sequence identity was shared with a dragonfly cyclovirus (nt, 60. Read More

    Genetic diversity of potato virus Y (PVY): sequence analyses reveal ten novel PVY recombinant structures.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of PSES, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, 83844-2339, USA.
    The potato virus Y (PVY) complex includes five non-recombinant strains and a growing number of recombinants. Up to now, the bulk of these PVY recombinants were found to be composed of genome segments coming from only two "parental" genomes, PVY(O) and PVY(Eu-N), with a small minority including segments from other parents, e.g. Read More

    Full genome sequence of Rocio virus reveal substantial variations from the prototype Rocio virus SPH 34675 sequence.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.
    Rocio virus (ROCV) is an arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. We present an updated sequence of ROCV strain SPH 34675 (GenBank: AY632542.4), the only available full genome sequence prior to this study. Read More

    Leptomonas seymouri narna-like virus 1 and not leishmaniaviruses detected in kala-azar samples from India.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Indian Institute of Chemical Biology (CSIR), Kolkata, West Bengal, 700032, India.
    The great majority of kala-azar/visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases, which are caused by Leishmania donovani (LD), are reported in Asia. We investigated whether leishmaniaviruses (LRVs) are present in LD isolates. These dsRNA viruses contribute to hyperpathogenicity, as observed in the case of other members of the genus Leishmania. Read More

    Adjuvant activity of saponins from Kazakhstani plants on the immune responses to subunit influenza vaccine.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Institute of Microbiology and Virology, 103, Bogenbai Batyr Street, Almaty, 050010, Kazakhstan.
    In recent years, there have been a number of reports on the successful use of immunostimulatory complexes with saponins and viral glycoproteins as veterinary vaccines and in clinical trials for human medicine. The saponins Algiox, Sapanox and Pangisan were isolated and purified by HPLC from Allochrusa gypsophiloides, Saponaria officinalis and Gypsophila paniculata plants in Kazakhstan and they proved to have low toxicity in experiments with mice, chickens and chicken embryos. Algiox, Sapanox and Pangisan can be used to create immunostimulatory complexes (ISCOMs) similar to saponin-Quil-A-containing ISCOMs both in structure and in immunostimulatory efficiency. Read More

    Complete genome sequence of a novel lytic bacteriophage isolated from Ralstonia solanacearum.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Key Laboratory of Mollisols Agroecology, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin, 150081, China.
    A lytic podophage RSPI1 was isolated from tobacco field soil collected in Fujian Province, South China using host bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum Tb15-14. Whole genome sequencing of this phage was performed using the high-throughput Ion Torrent PGM Sequencer. The complete genome of RSPI1 was 43,211 bp in length with a mean DNA G + C content of 61. Read More

    Molecular characterization of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus strains circulating in Egypt from 2003 to 2014.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute of Virology, Leipzig University, An den Tierkliniken 29, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.
    In the present study, four very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) isolates from flocks of chickens with vaccination failure in Egypt in 2003, 2007, 2010 and 2014 were characterized. The four viruses, designated USC2003, USC2007, USC2010 and USC2014, were detected by reverse transcription PCR, subjected to sequencing of both genomic segments (A and B) and compared with geographically and phylogenetically diverse IBDV strains. Phylogenetic analysis of segment A (complete) and B (partial) revealed a close relationship between Egyptian and vvIBDV reference strains of European and Asian origin. Read More

    Complete genome sequences of two insect-specific flaviviruses.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 16. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.
    We determined the complete genomic sequences of two previously discovered insect-specific flaviviruses, Marisma mosquito virus (MMV) and Nanay virus (NANV), using a combination of high-throughput sequencing, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends and Sanger sequencing. Complete polyprotein amino acid sequence alignments revealed that the closest known relatives of MMV and NANV are Donggang virus (89% identity, 95% similarity) and Nounané virus (53% identity, 70% similarity), respectively. Phylogenetic inference is in agreement with these findings. Read More

    Single-cell analysis reveals the relevance of foot-and-mouth disease virus persistence to emopamil-binding protein gene expression in host cells.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infects host cells in either an acute or persistent manner. In this study, we examined the relevance of the establishment of FMDV persistence to the expression of the emopamil-binding protein (EBP) gene in 231 individual persistently infected baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells after passages 28, 38, and 68 (PI28, PI38, and PI68). At PI28, the stage at which persistent infection of FDMV becomes unstable, the percentage of cells carrying FMDV was 66. Read More

    Efficacy and immunogenicity of recombinant swinepox virus expressing the truncated S protein of a novel isolate of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, No. 1 Weigang, Nanjing, 210095, China.
    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes significant loss to the swine industry. The emergence of novel PEDV strains in recent years has decreased the effectiveness of PEDV vaccines. We have developed a live recombinant vaccine, a swinepox virus vector that expresses a truncated S protein (rSPV-St) from a recent PEDV strain, SQ2014, and evaluated its immunogenicity and effectiveness in a swine model. Read More

    A resequencing pathogen microarray method for high-throughput molecular diagnosis of multiple etiologies associated with central nervous system infection.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
    Central nervous system infection (CNSI) results in significant health and economic burdens worldwide, but the diversity of causative pathogens makes differential diagnosis very difficult. Although PCR and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (q-PCR) assays are widely applied for pathogen detection, they are generally optimized for the detection of a single or limited number of targets and are not suitable for the diagnosis of numerous CNSI agents. In this study, we describe the development of a resequencing pathogen microarray (RPM-IVDC4) method for the simultaneous detection of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites that cause CNSI. Read More

    Complete genome analysis of a novel umbravirus-polerovirus combination isolated from Ixeridium dentatum.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Molecular Biofarming Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea.
    Two novel viruses, isolated in Bonghwa, Republic of Korea, from an Ixeridium dentatum plant with yellowing mottle symptoms, have been provisionally named Ixeridium yellow mottle-associated virus 1 (IxYMaV-1) and Ixeridium yellow mottle-associated virus 2 (IxYMaV-2). IxYMaV-1 has a genome of 6,017 nucleotides sharing a 56.4% sequence identity with that of cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (genus Polerovirus). Read More

    Novel reassortant clade 2.3.4.4 avian influenza A (H5N8) virus in a grey heron in South Korea in 2017.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Environmental Health Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research, Hwangyeong-ro 42, Seo-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea.
    We report the identification of a novel reassortant clade 2.3.4. Read More

    CRISPR/Cas9-mediated multiple single guide RNAs potently abrogate pseudorabies virus replication.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 678 HaPing Road, XiangFang, Harbin, 150069, China.
    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a swine herpesvirus that causes significant morbidity and mortality in swine populations and has caused huge economic losses in the worldwide swine industry. Currently, there is no effective antiviral drug in clinical use for PRV infection; it is also difficult to eliminate PRV from infected swine. In our study, we set out to combat these swine herpesvirus infections by exploiting the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Read More

    Characterization of a novel botybirnavirus isolated from a phytopathogenic Alternaria fungus.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, Hubei, China.
    Alternaria fungi are important pathogens infecting a wide variety of organisms. Here, we report a novel double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus named Alternaria botybirnavirus 1 (ABRV1) isolated from a phytopathogenic Alternaria sp. strain (SCFS-3) infecting a pear tree in China. Read More

    Cellular cholesterol is required for porcine nidovirus infection.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Animal Virology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, BK21 plus KNU Creative BioResearch Group, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea.
    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are porcine nidoviruses that are considered emerging and re-emerging viral pathogens of pigs that pose a significant economic threat to the global pork industry. Although cholesterol is known to affect the replication of a broad range of viruses in vitro, its significance and role in porcine nidovirus infection remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine whether cellular or/and viral cholesterol levels play a role in porcine nidovirus infection. Read More

    Efficient propagation of archetype JC polyomavirus in COS-7 cells: evaluation of rearrangements within the NCCR structural organization after transfection.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, "Sapienza" University, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185, Rome, Italy.
    John Cunningham virus (JCPyV) is an ubiquitous human pathogen that causes disease in immunocompromised patients. The JCPyV genome is composed of an early region and a late region, which are physically separated by the non-coding control region (NCCR). The DNA sequence of the NCCR distinguishes two forms of JCPyV, the designated archetype and the prototype, which resulted from a rearrangement of the archetype sequence. Read More

    The serological markers of acute infection with hepatitis A, B, C, D, E and G viruses revisited.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Laboratory of Human Virology, Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health, Federal University of Goias, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil.
    Viral hepatitis is a liver infection caused by one of the six hepatitis viruses: hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, and G virus (HAV to HEV and HGV). These agents differ in their biological, immunological, pathological and epidemiological characteristics. They cause infections that, when symptomatic, lead to clinical manifestations and laboratory findings that are not specific to a particular virus, often making differential diagnosis difficult, especially when no knowledge is available regarding the patient's medical history or the epidemiological background. Read More

    Identification of a serotype-independent linear epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Division of Livestock Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 678 Haping Road Xiangfang District, Harbin, 150069, People's Republic of China.
    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. VP2 is a structural protein of FMDV. In this study, an FMDV serotype-independent monoclonal antibody (MAb), 10B10, against the viral capsid protein VP2 was generated, and a series of GST fusion proteins expressing a truncated peptide of VP2 was subjected to Western blot analysis using MAb 10B10. Read More

    Transfection of embryonated Muscovy duck eggs with a recombinant plasmid is suitable for rescue of infectious Muscovy duck parvovirus.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, China.
    For members of the family Parvoviridae, rescue of infectious virus from recombinant plasmid is usually done in cultured cells. In this study, the whole genome of the pathogenic Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) strain YY was cloned into the pBluescript II (SK) vector, generating recombinant plasmid pYY. With the aid of a transfection reagent, pYY plasmid was inoculated into 11-day-old embryonated Muscovy duck eggs via the chorioallantoic membrane route, resulting in the successful rescue of infectious virus and death of the embryos. Read More

    Comprehensive characterization of a major capsid protein derived from a documented GII.6 norovirus strain.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 2. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
    Wuhan Institute of Biological Products, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.
    In this study, we successfully produced VLPs derived from full-length or chimeric VP1 of a documented GII.6 strain. Trypsin digestion of purified VLPs led to total cleavage of VP1, while the integrity of assembled VLPs was not affected. Read More

    A comparative review of viral entry and attachment during large and giant dsDNA virus infections.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 2. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden.
    Viruses enter host cells via several mechanisms, including endocytosis, macropinocytosis, and phagocytosis. They can also fuse at the plasma membrane and can spread within the host via cell-to-cell fusion or syncytia. The mechanism used by a given viral strain depends on its external topology and proteome and the type of cell being entered. Read More

    Two novel Alphaflexiviridae members revealed by deep sequencing of the Vanilla (Orchidaceae) virome.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 1. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    UMR 1332 BFP, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux, 33882, Villenave d'Ornon, France.
    The genomes of two novel viruses were assembled from 454 pyrosequencing data obtained from vanilla leaves from La Réunion. Based on genome organization and homologies, one agent was unambiguously classified as a member of the genus Potexvirus and named vanilla virus X (VVX). The second one, vanilla latent virus (VLV), is phylogenetically close to three unclassified members of the family Alphaflexiviridae with similarity to allexiviruses, and despite the presence of an additional 8-kDa open reading frame, we propose to include VLV as a new member of the genus Allexivirus. Read More

    A pepper mottle virus-based vector enables systemic expression of endoglucanase D in non-transgenic plants.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 1. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Plant Virus GenBank, Department of Horticulture, Biotechnology and Landscape Architecture, Seoul Women's University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Plant-virus-based expression vectors have been used as an alternative to the creation of transgenic plants. Using a virus-based vector, we investigated the feasibility of producing the endoglucanase D (EngD) from Clostridium cellulovorans in Nicotiana benthamiana. This protein has endoglucanase, xylanase, and exoglucanase activities and may be of value for cellulose digestion in the generation of biofuels from plant biomass. Read More

    Molecular evolution and epidemiological links study of Newcastle disease virus isolates from 1995 to 2016 in Iran.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 1. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Central Laboratory Department, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Alborz, Iran.
    In the case of Newcastle disease virus, multiple factors such as host adaptation, immune response evasion, and selective pressures have been suggested to result in evolution of viruses and the emergence of genetic variants. Multiple studies on virus classification and global epidemiological links have yielded consistent data. Here, we have performed a molecular analysis study of circulating Newcastle disease viruses in Iran (1995-2016). Read More

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