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    23273 results match your criteria Archives of Disease in Childhood[Journal]

    1 OF 466

    Randomised trial of cord clamping and initial stabilisation at very preterm birth.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Neonatal Unit, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UK.
    Objectives: For very preterm births, to compare alternative policies for umbilical cord clamping and immediate neonatal care.

    Design: Parallel group randomised (1:1) trial, using sealed opaque numbered envelopes.

    Setting: Eight UK tertiary maternity units. Read More

    Non-invasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in preterm infants: a randomised controlled cross-over trial.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Sep 16. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Department of Neonatology, Center for Pediatrics, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Objective: Non-invasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (nHFOV) has recently been described as a novel mode of respiratory support for premature infants. This study was designed to determine whether nHFOV decreases CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in premature infants more effectively than non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP).

    Design: Non-blinded prospective randomised controlled cross-over study. Read More

    Liver transplantation in children: state of the art and future perspectives.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Sep 16. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Pediatrics Liver GI and Nutrition Centre and MowatLabs, King's College Hospital, London, UK.
    In this review, we provide a state of the art of liver transplantation in children, as the procedure is now carried out for more than 30 years and most of our paediatric colleagues are managing these patients jointly with liver transplant centres. Our goal for this article is to enhance the understanding of the liver transplant process that a child and his family goes through while explaining the surgical advances and the associated complications that could happen in the immediate or long-term follow-up. We have deliberately introduced the theme that 'liver transplant is a disease' and 'not a cure', to emphasise the need for adherence with immunosuppression, a healthy lifestyle and lifelong medical follow-up. Read More

    Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and ROP treatment in Switzerland 2006-2015: a population-based analysis.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Department of Neonatology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a severe complication of preterm birth and can lead to severe visual impairment or even blindness if untreated. The incidence of ROP requiring treatment is increasing in some developed countries in conjunction with higher survival rates at the lower end of gestational age (GA).

    Material And Methods: The incidence of ROP and severe ROP (sROP) requiring treatment in Switzerland was analysed using the SwissNeoNet registry. Read More

    Holistic care of complicated tuberculosis in healthcare settings with limited resources.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Discipline of Child Health, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Papua New Guinea, Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
    In recent years, most of the focus on improving the quality of paediatric care in low-income countries has been on improving primary care using the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness, and improving triage and emergency treatment in hospitals aimed at reducing deaths in the first 24 hours. There has been little attention paid to improving the quality of care for children with chronic or complex diseases. Children with complicated forms of tuberculosis (TB), including central nervous system and chronic pulmonary TB, provide examples of acute and chronic multisystem paediatric illnesses that commonly present to district-level and second-level referral hospitals in low-income countries. Read More

    Neonatal resuscitation using a laryngeal mask airway: a randomised trial in Uganda.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Centre for International Health, Universitetet i Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Objective: Mortality rates from birth asphyxia in low-income countries remain high. Face mask ventilation (FMV) performed by midwives is the usual method of resuscitating neonates in such settings but may not always be effective. The i-gel is a cuffless laryngeal mask airway (LMA) that could enhance neonatal resuscitation performance. Read More

    Managing problematic severe asthma: beyond the guidelines.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    National Heart and Lung Intitute, Imperial College London, and Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
    This review discusses issues related to managing problematic severe asthma in children and young people. A small minority of children have genuinely severe asthma symptoms which are difficult to control. Children with genuinely severe asthma need investigations and treatments beyond those described within conventional guidelines. Read More

    Hearing the voices of children and young people to develop and test a patient-reported experience measure in a specialist paediatric setting.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Charles West Division, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
    Objective: To develop and test patient-reported experience measures (PREMs) for children and young people in a specialist paediatric hospital setting.

    Design: Six PREMs were developed and tested by children and young people for children and young people aged 8-11, 12-13 and 14-16 years in inpatient and outpatient settings. A week-long pilot was implemented across inpatient wards and outpatient clinics to identify facilitators and barriers to the routine use of PREMs in a real-time setting across our organisation. Read More

    Multiresistant E. coli urine infections in children: a case-control study.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Sep 12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Paediatric Nephrology, Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, New South Wales, Australia.
    Objective: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by resistant organisms are increasing which poses challenges when selecting empirical antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study is to determine risk factors for multiresistant Escherichia coliUTIs in children.

    Design: We included all reported urinary isolates from a children's hospital collected between January 2010 and June 2013. Read More

    Treatment and management of children with haemolytic uraemic syndrome.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Sep 12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    National Renal Complement Therapeutic Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), comprising microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopaenia and acute kidney injury, remains the leading cause of paediatric intrinsic acute kidney injury, with peak incidence in children aged under 5 years. HUS most commonly occurs following infection with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC-HUS). Additionally, HUS can occur as a result of inherited or acquired dysregulation of the alternative complement cascade (atypical HUS or aHUS) and in the setting of invasive pneumococcal infection. Read More

    Randomised trial of estimating oral endotracheal tube insertion depth in newborns using weight or vocal cord guide.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Neonatal Department, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
    Background: When intubating newborns, clinicians aim to position the endotracheal tube (ETT) tip in the midtrachea. The depth to which ETTs should be inserted is often estimated using the infant's weight. ETTs are frequently incorrectly positioned in newborns, most often inserted too far. Read More

    Survival of very preterm infants admitted to neonatal care in England 2008-2014: time trends and regional variation.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Section of Neonatal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Objective: To analyse survival trends and regional variation for very preterm infants admitted to neonatal care.

    Setting: All neonatal units in England.

    Patients: Infants born at 22(+0)-31(+6) weeks(+days)gestational age (GA) over 2008-2014 and admitted to neonatal care; published data for admitted infants 22(+0)-25(+6) weeks(+days) GA in 1995 and 2006, and for live births at 22(+0)-31(+6) weeks(+days) GA in 2013. Read More

    Respiratory manifestations of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Sep 7. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Department of Paediatric Respiratory Medicine, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK.
    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a complex problem in children. Suspected respiratory manifestations of GORD, such as asthma, chronic cough and laryngitis, are commonly encountered in the paediatric practice, but continue to be entities with more questions than answers. The accuracy of diagnostic tests (ie, pH or pH-impedance monitoring, laryngoscopy, endoscopy) for patients with suspected extraoesophageal manifestations of GORD is suboptimal and therefore whether there is a causal relationship between these conditions remains largely undetermined. Read More

    Severe acquired subglottic stenosis in neonatal intensive care graduates: a case-control study.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Sep 2. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
    Biostatistics and Research Design Unit, School of Women's and Infants' Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Objective: To analyse current incidence and risk factors associated with severe acquired subglottic stenosis (SASGS) requiring surgical intervention in neonates.

    Design: Retrospective case-control study.

    Setting: Sole tertiary children's hospital. Read More

    Epidemiology, management and outcome of ultrashort bowel syndrome in infancy.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Sep 2. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
    Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Southampton Children's Hospital, Southampton, UK.
    Ultrashort bowel syndrome (USBS) is a group of heterogeneous disorders where the length of small bowel is less than 10 cm or 10% of expected for the age. It is caused by massive loss of the gut which in the neonatal period can be a result of vanishing gastroschisis or surgical resection following mid-gut volvulus, jejunoileal atresia and/or extensive necrotising enterocolitis. The exact prevalence of USBS is not known although there is a clear trend towards increasing numbers because of increased incidence and improved survival. Read More

    Uses and abuses of snack foods in child health.
    Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2017 Sep 2. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
    Department of Child Health, School of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland.
    Snack foods, though regarded as unhealthy, are widely eaten by children, particularly those with eating and feeding difficulties. This article outlines the ways in which paediatricians have traditionally made use of snack foods as incentives and then reviews the key nutritional and practical characteristics of commonly eaten snack foods, to allow practitioners to evaluate their role in the child's diet. Generally savoury snacks are preferable to sweet, while dry foods are preferable to drinks or semiliquid desserts. Read More

    Excess all-cause mortality before age 30 in childhood onset type 1 diabetes: data from the Brecon Group Cohort in Wales.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Aug 31. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Diabetes Research Group, Wrexham Academic Unit, Bangor University, Wrexham, UK.
    Background: Long-term outcomes in young people with type 1 diabetes continue to be of interest, and may help evaluate the effects of changes to the clinical care of children that have occurred in recent decades.

    Aims: To identify mortality and its causes before age 30 years in patients developing type 1 diabetes before age 15 years.

    Methods: Since 1995, paediatricians in Wales have compiled a prospective register of incident cases of type 1 diabetes occurring before age 15 years in Wales (the Brecon Cohort). Read More

    Inequalities in the dental health needs and access to dental services among looked after children in Scotland: a population data linkage study.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Community Oral Health, University of Glasgow Dental School, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    Background: There is limited evidence on the health needs and service access among children and young people who are looked after by the state. The aim of this study was to compare dental treatment needs and access to dental services (as an exemplar of wider health and well-being concerns) among children and young people who are looked after with the general child population.

    Methods: Population data linkage study utilising national datasets of social work referrals for 'looked after' placements, the Scottish census of children in local authority schools, and national health service's dental health and service datasets. Read More

    Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV): recent effectiveness results from the USA and implications for LAIV programmes elsewhere.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Vaccine Programme Unit, Health Security Department, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    The USA has a long-standing paediatric influenza vaccination programme, including use of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). Following US evidence of apparent lack of vaccine effectiveness (VE) of LAIV in 2015/2016, particularly against A(H1N1)pdm09, the USA suspended the use of LAIV in the 2016/2017 season. The UK introduced LAIV for children in 2013/2014 and Finland in 2015/2016. Read More

    Health-related quality of life in infants and toddlers with congenital heart disease: a cross-sectional survey from South India.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Cochin, India.
    Objective: There are limited data on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for infants and toddlers with congenital heart disease (CHD). We sought to compare generic HRQOL of infants and toddlers between CHD subjects and controls.

    Design: Dual-setting, cross-sectional analytical survey. Read More

    Antibiotics for performing voiding cystourethrogram: a randomised control trial.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Paediatric Nephrology, Great North Children Hospital, Newcastle, UK.
    Objective: To assess whether antibiotic reduces voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)-associated urinary tract infection (UTI).

    Design: Open-labelled randomised controlled trial.

    Setting: Tertiary paediatric nephrology centre. Read More

    Neurodevelopmental outcomes for high-risk neonates in a low-resource setting.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Worldwide, most neonates who survive prematurity and serious illness reside in low-resource settings where developmental outcome data and follow-up care are limited. This study aimed to assess in Fiji, a low-resource Pacific setting, prevalence and risk factors for moderate to severe neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in early childhood among high-risk neonates compared with controls. Retrospective cohort study comparing long-term outcomes for high-risk neonatal intensive care unit patients (n=149) compared with matched term, normal birth weight neonates (n=147) discharged from Colonial War Memorial Hospital between November 2008 and April 2010. Read More

    Childhood bruising distribution observed from eight mechanisms of unintentional injury.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    Objective: To inform the assessment of described mechanisms of bruising in children.

    Design: Prospective cross-sectional study.

    Setting: The emergency department, and children in the local community. Read More

    Dedicated paediatric Outpatient Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy medical support: a pre-post observational study.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Department of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth, Australia.
    Objective: Despite the many benefits of paediatric Outpatient Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy (OPAT) programmes, there are risks associated with delivering inpatient-level care outside of hospital. There is a paucity of evidence defining how best to mitigate these risks. We examined the impact of introducing a dedicated medical team to OPAT, to define the role of increased medical oversight in improving patient outcomes in this cohort. Read More

    A qualitative feasibility study to inform a randomised controlled trial of fluid bolus therapy in septic shock.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
    Objective: The Fluids in Shock (FiSh) Trial proposes to evaluate whether restrictive fluid bolus therapy (10 mL/kg) is more beneficial than current recommended practice (20 mL/kg) in the resuscitation of children with septic shock in the UK. This qualitative feasibility study aimed to explore acceptability of the FiSh Trial, including research without prior consent (RWPC), potential barriers to recruitment and participant information for a pilot trial.

    Design: Qualitative interview study involving parents of children who had presented to a UK emergency department or been admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit with severe infection in the previous 3 years. Read More

    Academic performance of children born preterm: a meta-analysis and meta-regression.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Clinical Neuropsychology Section, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: Advances in neonatal healthcare have resulted in decreased mortality after preterm birth but have not led to parallel decreases in morbidity. Academic performance provides insight in the outcomes and specific difficulties and needs of preterm children.

    Objective: To study academic performance in preterm children born in the antenatal steroids and surfactant era and possible moderating effects of perinatal and demographic factors. Read More

    Socioeconomic inequity in survival for deliveries at 22-24 weeks of gestation.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Department of Neonatal Medicine, Maternal and Perinatal Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Objective: Guidelines recommend individual decision making on resuscitating infants of 22-24 weeks' gestational age (GA) at birth. When the decision not to resuscitate is made, infants would likely die soon after delivery, and under some circumstances such neonatal deaths may be registered as stillbirths occurring during delivery (intrapartum stillbirth). Thus we assessed whether socioeconomic factors are associated with peridelivery deaths (during or within 1 hour of delivery) of infants delivered at 22-24 weeks' gestation. Read More

    A boy with fever, cough and gross haematuria.
    Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, Italy.
    A 5 year-old boy presented with 2-days of fever and cough. On examination, he had mild dyspnoea and chest pain, with crackles and hypoventilation at the right lung base. Blood tests showed: WBC 39. Read More

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