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    23486 results match your criteria Archives of Disease in Childhood[Journal]

    1 OF 470

    The implementation of a cystic fibrosis annual review process in a tertiary paediatric hospital.
    Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2018 Jan 13. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Respiratory Medicine, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    We evaluated the implementation of a cystic fibrosis annual review process in a tertiary paediatric hospital. After implementation, there was demonstrated improvement in an important outcome measure-the use of inhaled mucolytic agents. Read More

    Problem-solving in clinical practice: a baby who won't stop bleeding.
    Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2018 Jan 13. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital Lewisham, London, UK.
    Spontaneous bleeding in the neonatal period is an unusual presentation, and yet one that can pose a challenge of both diagnosis and management to the general paediatrician. This case chronicles the diagnostic journey of an 8-day-old baby who presented with unrelenting bleeding from the umbilical cord and explores the clinical approach to bleeding in a neonate. Read More

    Retrospective review of Synacthen testing in infants.
    Arch Dis Child 2018 Jan 12. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital, Manchester, UK.
    Background: A subnormal cortisol response (30 min level (C30min)<550 nmol/L) to synthetic adrenocorticotrophic hormone/Synacthen test (SDST) in all infants does not necessarily indicate underlying or persistent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis pathology.

    Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the diagnoses and outcomes in 68 infants who had a SDST at age <6 months from 2011 to 2014.

    Results: 29 (43%) infants had a subnormal SDST. Read More

    Inter-rater reliability in the Paediatric Observation Priority Score (POPS).
    Arch Dis Child 2018 Jan 12. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Paediatric Emergency Medicine Leicester Academic (PEMLA) Group, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK.
    Objective: The primary objective of this study was to determine the level of inter-rater reliability between nursing staff for the Paediatric Observation Priority Score (POPS).

    Design: Retrospective observational study.

    Setting: Single-centre paediatric emergency department. Read More

    Two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants treated with early hydrocortisone: treatment effect according to gestational age at birth.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Unit of Clinical Epidemiology, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Robert Debré Children's Hospital, Inserm U1123 and CIC-EC 1426, University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris-Cité, Paris, France.
    Objective: To determine whether early hydrocortisone treatment in extremely preterm infants affects neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years of age according to gestational age at birth.

    Patients And Methods: This is an exploratory analysis of neurodevelopmental outcomes by gestational age strata from the PREMILOC trial, in which patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or low-dose hydrocortisone and randomisation was stratified by gestational age groups (24-25 and 26-27 weeks of gestation). Neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) was assessed using a standardised neurological examination and the revised Brunet-Lézine scale at 22 months of corrected age. Read More

    Incidence of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis in high-income countries: a systematic review.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Medicine, Neonatal Data Analysis Unit, Section of Neonatal Medicine, Chelsea and Westminster campus, Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Objective: To conduct a systematic review of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) rates in high-income countries published in peer-reviewed journals.

    Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and PubMed databases for observational studies published in peer-reviewed journals. We selected studies reporting national, regional or multicentre rates of NEC in 34 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Read More

    Maternal ADHD symptoms, child ADHD symptoms and broader child outcomes.
    Arch Dis Child 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Community Child Health, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Objective: This study investigated the associations between maternal symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child functional outcomes in a community-based sample of children with and without ADHD.

    Design And Setting: In this cohort study, children with ADHD and healthy controls were recruited through schools in Melbourne, Australia, using a combined screening (Conners 3 ADHD Index) and case confirmation (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV) procedure.

    Patients: 117 children with ADHD and 149 control children were included in the analyses. Read More

    Chronic tic disorders in children with ADHD.
    Arch Dis Child 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Objective: To examine in a community-based cohort: (1) the prevalence of chronic tic disorder (CTD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with non-ADHD controls at ages 7 and 10; and (2) the additional psychiatric and functional burden of CTD in children with ADHD.

    Methods: Children aged 6-8 years with ADHD (n=179) and controls (n=212) were recruited through 43 Victorian schools using parent and teacher screening surveys (Conners 3 ADHD Index), followed by case confirmation (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (DISC-IV)). CTD was identified using the DISC-IV categories chronic motor tic disorder, chronic vocal tic disorder or Tourette syndrome at baseline and 36-month follow-up. Read More

    Infant feeding practices among HIV-exposed infants less than 6 months of age in Bomet County, Kenya: an in-depth qualitative study of feeding choices.
    Arch Dis Child 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Tourism Management, School of Tourism, Hospitality and Events Management, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya.
    Background: In children, HIV can be acquired from the mother during pregnancy, delivery and through breast milk. The WHO recommends exclusive breast feeding or exclusive replacement feeding for the first 6 months after birth for HIV-exposed infants. Barriers such as HIV-related stigma, inadequate resources, lack of access to safe water and negative cultural beliefs have been shown to influence infant feeding among HIV-exposed infants in some settings. Read More

    Volume targeting levels and work of breathing in infants with evolving or established bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    MRC and Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, King's College London, London, UK.
    Objectives: To assess the work of breathing at different levels of volume targeting in prematurely born infants with evolving or established bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).

    Design: Randomised crossover study.

    Setting: Tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. Read More

    Early population-based outcomes of infants born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Academic Department of Paediatric Surgery, Alder Hey Children's Hospital, Liverpool, UK.
    Purpose: This study aims to describe short-term outcomes of live-born infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and to identify prognostic factors associated with early mortality.

    Design: A prospective population cohort study was undertaken between April 2009 and September 2010, collecting data on live-born infants with CDH from all 28 paediatric surgical centres in the UK and Ireland using an established surgical surveillance system. Management and outcomes are described. Read More

    Using a composite morbidity score and cultural survey to explore characteristics of high proficiency neonatal intensive care units.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Jan 3. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Department of Newborn and Developmental Paediatrics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Background: Continuous quality improvement (CQI) collaboration has not eliminated the morbidity variability seen among neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Factors other than inconstant application of potentially better practices (PBPs) might explain divergent proficiency.

    Objective: Measure a composite morbidity score and determine whether cultural, environmental and cognitive factors distinguish high proficiency from lower proficiency NICUs. Read More

    Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn in extremely preterm infants: a Japanese cohort study.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Jan 3. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Maternal and Perinatal Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, Japan.
    Objective: To investigate the characteristics of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) in extremely preterm infants and its impact on neurodevelopmental outcomes at 3 years of age.

    Design: A retrospective multicentre cohort study.

    Settings: 202 tertiary perinatal centres registered in the Neonatal Research Network of Japan (NRNJ). Read More

    Fifteen-minute consultation: insulin pumps for type 1 diabetes in children and young people.
    Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2018 Jan 3. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, UK.
    There is increasing worldwide use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusions in paediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D), reflecting recent research outcomes and guidance, as well as families' wishes. Children/young people may present acutely with medical or surgical problems, in addition to issues related to T1D. This review provides general paediatricians with an introduction to pump therapy, highlighting common problems, management issues and when to seek specialist advice. Read More

    Risk of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Children with Sickle Cell Disease in England: A National Observational Cohort Study, 2010-2015.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group, Institute for Infection and Immunity, St. George's, University of London, London, UK.
    Objective: To describe the clinical presentation, risk factors, serotype distribution and outcomes of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) following the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in the UK.

    Design: Prospective national newborn screening for SCD and enhanced national IPD surveillance.

    Participants: Children with SCD born in England between 1 September 2010 and 31 August 2014 who developed laboratory-confirmed IPD by 31 December 2015. Read More

    Point-of-care C reactive protein to identify serious infection in acutely ill children presenting to hospital: prospective cohort study.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Objective: Acute infection is the most common presentation of children to hospital. A minority of these infections are serious, but early recognition and adequate management are essential. We aimed to develop improved tools to assess children attending ambulatory hospital care, integrating clinical features with point-of-care C reactive protein (CRP). Read More

    Long-term outcome of thyrotoxicosis in childhood and adolescence in the west of Scotland: the case for long-term antithyroid treatment and the importance of initial counselling.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Child Health Section, Glasgow University School of Medicine, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow, UK.
    Background: Thyrotoxicosis is both rarer and more severe in children than in adults, rendering management difficult and often unsatisfactory.

    Objective: To ascertain outcome in a geographically defined area of Scotland between 1989 and 2014.

    Method: Retrospective case note review with follow-up questionnaire to family doctors for patients with Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Read More

    Fine particulate pollution and asthma exacerbations.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Dec 19. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Pharmacology and Drug Evaluation in Children and Pregnant Women EA7323, Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.
    Objective: As the results from epidemiological studies about the impact of outdoor air pollution on asthma in children are heterogeneous, our objective was to investigate the association between asthma exacerbation in children and exposure to air pollutants.

    Methods: A database of 1 264 585 paediatric visits during the 2010-2015 period to the emergency rooms from 20 emergency departments (EDs) of 'Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP)', the largest hospital group in Europe, was used. A total of 47 107 visits were classified as asthma exacerbations. Read More

    Toxicity of long-term use of proton pump inhibitors in children.
    Arch Dis Child 2018 Jan;103(1):78-82
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use is becoming increasingly common. Although the toxicity profiles of PPIs are not well understood particularly in children, PPIs have been associated with increased risks of gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infection, vitamin B12 deficiency, hypomagnesaemia, bone fractures, and rebound hyperacidity after discontinuation. Prescribers should take into account that PPI uses pose toxicity risks, which remain to be fully characterised in infants and children. Read More

    Fifteen minute consultation: an approach to the child with chronic headaches.
    Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Paediatric Neurology, Adden Brookes Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Children with chronic headache are a common referral to paediatric outpatients. This article suggests an approach to the assessment and management of chronic headaches, offering practical strategies for management as there is limited literature in paediatrics for this. Read More

    Fifteen-minute consultation: an approach to a child presenting to the emergency department with acute psychotic symptoms.
    Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Department of Paediatric Neurology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UK.
    Presentation of a child in the A&E with altered behaviour including psychotic features is not unusual. New-onset psychotic symptoms in children pose a significant diagnostic challenge due to several reasons. First, primary psychotic conditions are uncommon in pre-pubertal children. Read More

    HPV vaccination rate in French adolescent girls: an example of vaccine distrust.
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    AP-HP, Cochin Hospital, Paris, France.
    Objectives: To explore the clinical issues of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to develop explanatory hypotheses for the low level of vaccination among adolescent girls in France where the full course coverage is low (<15%).

    Design: We used semistructured interviews. Our qualitative and phenomenological procedure applied interpretative phenomenological analysis. Read More

    Dose-dependent relationship between acidosis at birth and likelihood of death or cerebral palsy.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    NHS Lothian - Neonatology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Background: The acid-base status of infants around birth can provide information about their past, current and future condition. Although umbilical cord blood pH <7.0 or base deficit ≥12 mmol/L is associated with increased risk of adverse outcome, there is uncertainty about the prognostic value of degree of acidosis as previous studies have used different variables, thresholds, outcomes and populations. Read More

    Updated birth weight centiles for England and Wales.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Department of Health Sciences, The Infant Mortality and Morbidity Studies, Centre for Medicine, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.
    Objectives: Construct updated birth weight-for-gestational age centile charts for use in the UK and compare these to the currently used UK-WHO charts.

    Design: Secondary analysis of national birth data.

    Participants: Centiles were constructed using 1 269 403 singleton births occurring in England and Wales in 2013-2014 as part of the MBRRACE-UK national perinatal surveillance programme. Read More

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