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    3374 results match your criteria Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition[Journal]

    1 OF 68

    Treatment thresholds for intervention in posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilation: a randomised controlled trial.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 02 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Department of Neonatology, Southmead Hospital, School of Clinical Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Objective: To compare a low versus a higher threshold for intervention in preterm infants with posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation.

    Design: Multicentre randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN43171322).

    Setting: 14 neonatal intensive care units in six countries. Read More

    High versus standard dose caffeine for apnoea: a systematic review.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Neonatology, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland, The Netherlands.
    Background: Placebo-controlled trials have shown that caffeine is highly effective in treating apnoea of prematurity and reduces the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI).

    Objective: To identify, appraise and summarise studies investigating the modulating effect of different caffeine dosages.

    Methods: A systematic review identified all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing a high versus a standard caffeine treatment regimen in infants with a gestational age <32 weeks, by searching the main electronic databases and abstracts of the Pediatric Academic Societies. Read More

    Why are preterm newborns at increased risk of infection?
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
    One in 10 newborns will be born before completion of 36 weeks' gestation (premature birth). Infection and sepsis in preterm infants remain a significant clinical problem that represents a substantial financial burden on the healthcare system. Many factors predispose premature infants for having the greatest risk of developing and succumbing to infection as compared with all other age groups across the age spectrum. Read More

    Morbidity and mortality with early pulmonary haemorrhage in preterm neonates.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Jan 27. Epub 2018 Jan 27.
    Pediatrix Medical Group, Dallas, Texas, USA.
    Objective: There are no large studies evaluating pulmonary haemorrhage (PH) in premature infants. We sought to quantify the clinical characteristics, morbidities and mortality associated with early PH.

    Design: Data were abstracted from the Pediatrix Clinical Data Warehouse, a large de-identified data set. Read More

    Prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low gestational age neonates: current evidence.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Jan 23. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Department of Neonatology, University Children's Hospital, Tübingen, Germany.
    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most frequent complications in extremely low gestational age neonates, but has remained largely unchanged in rate. We reviewed data on BPD prevention focusing on recent meta-analyses. Interventions with proven effectiveness in reducing BPD include the primary use of non-invasive respiratory support, the application of surfactant without endotracheal ventilation and the use of volume-targeted ventilation in infants requiring endotracheal intubation. Read More

    Preterm human milk macronutrient concentration is independent of gestational age at birth.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Jan 20. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Faculty of Medicine, Computer Technology Centre, Charles University, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.
    Objective: To evaluate the amount of macronutrients in aggregate of human milk samples after preterm delivery during the first 2 months of lactation.

    Methods: Analysis of the donated single milk samples, gained by complete emptying of the whole breast at the same daytime between 24+0 and 35+6 gestational age (GA), was designed as prospective observational cohort trial. Two milk samples were analysed every postnatal week up to the discharge from the hospital, week 9 or loss of lactation. Read More

    Impact of delivered tidal volume on the occurrence of intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants during positive pressure ventilation in the delivery room.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Jan 20. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Centre for the Studies of Asphyxia and Resuscitation, Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
    Background And Objectives: Delivery of inadvertent high tidal volume (V) during positive pressure ventilation (PPV) in the delivery room is common. High Vdelivery during PPV has been associated with haemodynamic brain injury in animal models. We examined if Vdelivery during PPV at birth is associated with brain injury in preterm infants <29 weeks' gestation. Read More

    Wide variation in severe neonatal morbidity among very preterm infants in European regions.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Jan 20. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.
    Objective: To investigate the variation in severe neonatal morbidity among very preterm (VPT) infants across European regions and whether morbidity rates are higher in regions with low compared with high mortality rates.

    Design: Area-based cohort study of all births before 32 weeks of gestational age.

    Setting: 16 regions in 11 European countries in 2011/2012. Read More

    Non-invasive prenatal testing of pregnancies at risk for phenylketonuria.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Jan 20. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Genetics and Prenatal Diagnosis Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.
    Background: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a common metabolic disorder caused predominately by mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase () gene. The aim of the study was to design and validate the performance of a non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) for PKU using circulating single molecule amplification and resequencing technology (cSMART).

    Methods: A total of 18 couples at genetic risk for having a child with PKU were recruited to the study. Read More

    Ethical dilemmas of recording and reviewing neonatal resuscitation.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Jan 20. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Division of Neonatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Neonatal resuscitation is provided to approximately 3% of neonates. Adequate ventilation is often the key to successful resuscitation, but this can be difficult to provide. There is increasing evidence that inappropriate respiratory support can have severe consequences. Read More

    Two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants treated with early hydrocortisone: treatment effect according to gestational age at birth.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Unit of Clinical Epidemiology, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Robert Debré Children's Hospital, Inserm U1123 and CIC-EC 1426, University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris-Cité, Paris, France.
    Objective: To determine whether early hydrocortisone treatment in extremely preterm infants affects neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years of age according to gestational age at birth.

    Patients And Methods: This is an exploratory analysis of neurodevelopmental outcomes by gestational age strata from the PREMILOC trial, in which patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or low-dose hydrocortisone and randomisation was stratified by gestational age groups (24-25 and 26-27 weeks of gestation). Neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) was assessed using a standardised neurological examination and the revised Brunet-Lézine scale at 22 months of corrected age. Read More

    Incidence of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis in high-income countries: a systematic review.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Mar 9;103(2):F182-F189. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Medicine, Neonatal Data Analysis Unit, Section of Neonatal Medicine, Chelsea and Westminster campus, Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Objective: To conduct a systematic review of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) rates in high-income countries published in peer-reviewed journals.

    Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and PubMed databases for observational studies published in peer-reviewed journals. We selected studies reporting national, regional or multicentre rates of NEC in 34 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Read More

    Volume targeting levels and work of breathing in infants with evolving or established bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    MRC and Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, King's College London, London, UK.
    Objectives: To assess the work of breathing at different levels of volume targeting in prematurely born infants with evolving or established bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).

    Design: Randomised crossover study.

    Setting: Tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. Read More

    Early population-based outcomes of infants born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Academic Department of Paediatric Surgery, Alder Hey Children's Hospital, Liverpool, UK.
    Purpose: This study aims to describe short-term outcomes of live-born infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and to identify prognostic factors associated with early mortality.

    Design: A prospective population cohort study was undertaken between April 2009 and September 2010, collecting data on live-born infants with CDH from all 28 paediatric surgical centres in the UK and Ireland using an established surgical surveillance system. Management and outcomes are described. Read More

    Using a composite morbidity score and cultural survey to explore characteristics of high proficiency neonatal intensive care units.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Jan 3. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Department of Newborn and Developmental Paediatrics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Background: Continuous quality improvement (CQI) collaboration has not eliminated the morbidity variability seen among neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Factors other than inconstant application of potentially better practices (PBPs) might explain divergent proficiency.

    Objective: Measure a composite morbidity score and determine whether cultural, environmental and cognitive factors distinguish high proficiency from lower proficiency NICUs. Read More

    Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn in extremely preterm infants: a Japanese cohort study.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Jan 3. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Maternal and Perinatal Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, Japan.
    Objective: To investigate the characteristics of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) in extremely preterm infants and its impact on neurodevelopmental outcomes at 3 years of age.

    Design: A retrospective multicentre cohort study.

    Settings: 202 tertiary perinatal centres registered in the Neonatal Research Network of Japan (NRNJ). Read More

    Dose-dependent relationship between acidosis at birth and likelihood of death or cerebral palsy.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    NHS Lothian - Neonatology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Background: The acid-base status of infants around birth can provide information about their past, current and future condition. Although umbilical cord blood pH <7.0 or base deficit ≥12 mmol/L is associated with increased risk of adverse outcome, there is uncertainty about the prognostic value of degree of acidosis as previous studies have used different variables, thresholds, outcomes and populations. Read More

    Updated birth weight centiles for England and Wales.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Department of Health Sciences, The Infant Mortality and Morbidity Studies, Centre for Medicine, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.
    Objectives: Construct updated birth weight-for-gestational age centile charts for use in the UK and compare these to the currently used UK-WHO charts.

    Design: Secondary analysis of national birth data.

    Participants: Centiles were constructed using 1 269 403 singleton births occurring in England and Wales in 2013-2014 as part of the MBRRACE-UK national perinatal surveillance programme. Read More

    Epidemiology of UK neonatal infections: the neonIN infection surveillance network.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group and Vaccine Institute, St George's Hospital University of London, London, UK.
    Objective: To describe the epidemiology of neonatal infection over the past decade in UK neonatal units.

    Design: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected infection surveillance network data from 2005 to 2014.

    Setting: 30 neonatal units in the UK. Read More

    Haemodynamic effects of umbilical cord milking in premature sheep during the neonatal transition.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    The Ritchie Centre, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
    Objective: Umbilical cord milking (UCM) at birth may benefit preterm infants, but the physiological effects of UCM are unknown. We compared the physiological effects of two UCM strategies with immediate umbilical cord clamping (UCC) and physiological-based cord clamping (PBCC) in preterm lambs.

    Methods: At 126 days' gestational age, fetal lambs were exteriorised, intubated and instrumented to measure umbilical, pulmonary and cerebral blood flows and arterial pressures. Read More

    Antenatal corticosteroids in impending preterm deliveries before 25 weeks' gestation.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Mar 5;103(2):F173-F176. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Department of Neonatal Pediatrics, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Antenatal corticosteroid (ANC) use before 25 weeks' gestation is controversial. Our previous systematic review (eight observational studies, n=10 109) showed that ANC exposure was associated with significantly reduced mortality and severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)/periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) in neonates born <25 weeks. We update our review by adding data (n=3334) from a recent study. Read More

    Physiologically based cord clamping stabilises cardiac output and reduces cerebrovascular injury in asphyxiated near-term lambs.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Nov 30. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    The Ritchie Centre, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
    Background: Physiologically based cord clamping (PBCC) has advantages over immediate cord clamping (ICC) during preterm delivery, but its efficacy in asphyxiated infants is not known. We investigated the physiology of PBCC following perinatal asphyxia in near-term lambs.

    Methods: Near-term sheep fetuses (139±2 (SD) days' gestation) were instrumented to measure umbilical, carotid, pulmonary and femoral arterial flows and pressures. Read More

    Neonatal mannequin comparison of the Upright self-inflating bag and snap-fit mask versus standard resuscitators and masks: leak, applied load and tidal volumes.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Nov 30. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Newborn Research Centre, The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Objective: Neonatal mask ventilation is a difficult skill to acquire and maintain. Mask leak is common and can lead to ineffective ventilation. The aim of this study was to determine whether newly available neonatal self-inflating bags and masks could reduce mask leak without additional load being applied to the face. Read More

    Neonatal brain injuries in England: population-based incidence derived from routinely recorded clinical data held in the National Neonatal Research Database.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Oct 22. Epub 2017 Oct 22.
    Section of Neonatal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital campus, London, UK.
    Objective: In 2015, the Department of Health in England announced an ambition to reduce 'brain injuries occurring during or soon after birth'. We describe the development of a pragmatic case definition and present annual incidence rates.

    Design: Retrospective cohort study using data held in the National Neonatal Research Database (NNRD) extracted from neonatal electronic patient records from all National Health Service (NHS) neonatal units in England, Wales and Scotland. Read More

    Care bundles to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infections in the neonatal unit: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Nov 25. Epub 2017 Nov 25.
    Department of Neonatal Medicine, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK.
    Background: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are associated with increased mortality, prolonged hospitalisation and increased healthcare costs. Care bundles have reduced CLABSIs in adult intensive care units (ICUs) but replication in paediatric ICUs has had inconsistent outcomes. A systematic review was performed to assess the evidence for the efficacy of care bundles in reducing CLABSIs in the neonatal unit (NNU). Read More

    Tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs during pregnancy and risk of neuroblastoma: systematic review.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Nov 21. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Institute of Pathology, Brandenburg Medical School, Brandenburg, Germany.
    Objective: To determine whether prenatal and perinatal maternal consumption of alcohol, tobacco and/or illicit drugs is associated with risk of neuroblastoma.

    Data Sources: Medline and Embase (both from inception to February 2017), and reference lists of included studies.

    Study Selection: To be eligible, a study had to be an original report including data on intake of alcohol, tobacco smoking and/or consumption of illicit drugs during pregnancy and risk of neuroblastoma in the child. Read More

    Role of ECMO in congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Mar 14;103(2):F178-F181. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Paediatric Surgery, Royal Hospital for Sick Children Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is typified morphologically by failure of diaphragmatic development with accompanying lung hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Patients who have labile physiology and low preductal saturations despite optimal ventilatory and inotropic support may be considered for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Systematic reviews into the benefits of ECMO in CDH concluded that any benefit is unclear. Read More

    Analysis of unsuccessful intubations in neonates using videolaryngoscopy recordings.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Newborn Research Centre, Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Objectives: Neonatal intubation is a difficult skill to learn and teach. If an attempt is unsuccessful, the intubator and instructor often cannot explain why. This study aims to review videolaryngoscopy recordings of unsuccessful intubations and explain the reasons why attempts were not successful. Read More

    Objective cardiovascular assessment in the neonatal intensive care unit.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Jan 10;103(1):F72-F77. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Neonatology, The Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
    Traditionally, cardiovascular well-being was essentially based on whether the mean blood pressure was above or below a certain value. However, this singular crude method of assessment provides limited insight into overall cardiovascular well-being. Echocardiography has become increasingly used and incorporated into clinical care. Read More

    Retrospective cohort analysis on pancreatic enzyme substitution in very low birthweight infants with postnatal growth failure.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Neonatology, Center for Pediatric Clinical Studies, University Children's Hospital, Tuebingen, Germany.
    Objective: To evaluate the effects of pancreatic enzyme substitution (PES) in selected very low birthweight (VLBW) infants with poor postnatal growth despite intensified nutritional support.

    Design: Retrospective historic cohort study with matched controls.

    Setting: Single level III neonatal intensive care unit. Read More

    Referrals to a perinatal specialist palliative care consult service in Ireland, 2012-2015.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Paediatric Palliative Medicine, Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Objective: To analyse the referral patterns of perinatal patients referred to a specialist palliative care service (SPCS), their demographics, diagnoses, duration of illness, place of death and symptom profile.

    Design: A retrospective chart review of all perinatal referrals over a 4-year period to the end of 2015.

    Setting: A consultant-led paediatric SPCS at Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin, Dublin, and the Coombe Women & Infants University Hospital, Dublin. Read More

    One-year outcomes following surgery for necrotising enterocolitis: a UK-wide cohort study.
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Objective: The objective was to describe outcomes and investigate factors affecting prognosis at 1 year post intervention for infants with surgical necrotising enterocolitis (NEC).

    Design: Using the British Association of Paediatric Surgeons Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System, we conducted a prospective, multicentre cohort study of every infant reported to require surgical intervention for NEC in the UK and Ireland between 1 March 2013 and 28 February 2014. Association of independent variables with 1-year mortality was investigated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Read More

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