4,382 results match your criteria Archives Of Pharmacal Research[Journal]

Overexpressing microRNA-203 alleviates myocardial infarction via interacting with long non-coding RNA MIAT and mitochondrial coupling factor 6.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Cardiology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, 16766 Jingshi Rd., Jinan, 250014, Shandong Province, China.

Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of high mortality worldwide. Long non-coding RNA myocardial infarction associated transcript (MIAT) and mitochondrial coupling factor 6 (CF6) aggravate MI. This study aimed to elucidate whether miR-203 interacted with MIAT and CF6 in MI. Read More

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Ginkwanghols A and B, osteogenic coumaric acid-aliphatic alcohol hybrids from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 16419, Republic of Korea.

Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), commonly known as "ginkgo", is called a living fossil, and it has been cultivated early in human history for various uses in traditional medicine and as a source of food. As part of ongoing research to explore the chemical diversity and biologically active compounds from natural resources, two new coumaric acid-aliphatic alcohol hybrids, ginkwanghols A (1) and B (2) were isolated from the leaves of G. biloba. Read More

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Phytochemistry and pharmacological activity of the genus artemisia.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Life Sciences, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University (IMU), Bukit Jalil, 57000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Artemisia and its allied species have been employed for conventional medicine in the Northern temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia for the treatments of digestive problems, morning sickness, irregular menstrual cycle, typhoid, epilepsy, renal problems, bronchitis malaria, etc. The multidisciplinary use of artemisia species has various other health benefits that are related to its traditional and modern pharmaceutical perspectives. The main objective of this review is to evaluate the traditional, modern, biological as well as pharmacological use of the essential oil and herbal extracts of Artemisia nilagirica, Artemisia parviflora, and other allied species of Artemisia. Read More

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The role of mucosal barriers in human gut health.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Apr 22;44(4):325-341. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Laboratory of Microbiology, College of Pharmacy, and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology (RIPST), Ajou University, Worldcup-ro 206, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, 16499, Republic of Korea.

The intestinal mucosa is continuously exposed to a large number of commensal or pathogenic microbiota and foreign food antigens. The intestinal epithelium forms a dynamic physicochemical barrier to maintain immune homeostasis. To efficiently absorb nutrients from food, the epithelium in the small intestine has thin, permeable layers spread over a vast surface area. Read More

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Anti-thrombotic activity of phenolic acids obtained from Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba in TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells via the NF-κB/JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Apr 13;44(4):427-438. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Natural Product Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan, 250012, People's Republic of China.

Over the past 100 years, Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba (Lamiaceae) (RSMA) roots have been used to cure thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) in local clinics. This study aimed to confirm the anti-thrombotic efficacy of 12 phenolic acids obtained from RSMA and to clarify the possible underlying mechanisms. Read More

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Phytochemicals against anti-diabetic complications: targeting the advanced glycation end product signaling pathway.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Apr 9;44(4):378-401. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

College of Pharmacy, Gachon University, No. 191, Hambakmoero, Yeonsu-gu, 21936, Inchon, Korea.

The role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is not limited to diabetes and diabetes-related complications. There are multiple modulators, including the receptor for advanced glycation end products, high mobility group box 1, glyoxalase 1, nuclear factor-kappa B, tumor necrosis factor-α, chronic unpredictable stress, reactive oxygen species, and inflammatory cytokines, which interact with AGE signaling and control diabetes, modulating these interacting modulators. The progression of diabetes, as well as related complications, can be controlled and treated. Read More

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Pharmacology and adverse effects of new psychoactive substances: synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Apr 2;44(4):402-413. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, 194-31 Osongsaengmyong 1-ro, Osong-eup, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju-si, Chungbuk, 28160, Republic of Korea.

Over the last decade, new psychoactive substances (NPS) have continuously been the focus of the international society since their emergence on the illicit drug market. NPS can be classified into six groups including; synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs), stimulants, opioids, dissociatives, sedatives/hypnotics, and classic hallucinogens with psychoactive effects. These are sold as "herbal incense," "bath salts," "legal highs," and "research chemicals". Read More

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The essential role of TAZ in normal tissue homeostasis.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Mar 26;44(3):253-262. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

College of Pharmacy and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, C206 Science building, 52 Ewhayeodae-Gil, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul, 03760, Korea.

Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) has been extensively characterized in organ development, tissue regeneration, and tumor progression. In particular, TAZ functions as a Hippo mediator that regulates organ size, tumor growth and migration. It is highly expressed in various types of human cancer, and has been reported to be associated with tumor metastasis and poor outcomes in cancer patients, suggesting that TAZ is an oncogenic regulator. Read More

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The role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-regulating transcription factors in anti-cancer drug resistance.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Mar 25;44(3):281-292. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Laboratory of Molecular and Pharmacological Cell Biology, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 06974, Republic of Korea.

The complex orchestration of gene expression that mediates the transition of epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells is implicated in cancer development and metastasis. As the primary regulator of the process, epithelial-mesenchymal transition-regulating transcription factors (EMT-TFs) play key roles in metastasis. They are also highlighted in recent preclinical studies on resistance to cancer therapy. Read More

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Treatments of inflammatory bowel disease toward personalized medicine.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Mar 24;44(3):293-309. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, 06974, Korea.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by intestinal inflammation and epithelial injury. For the treatment of IBD, 5-aminosalicylic acids, corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and biologic agents targeting tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, α4β7-integrin, and interleukin (IL)-12/23 have been widely used. Especially, anti-TNF-α antibodies are the first biologic agents that presently remain at the forefront. Read More

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Canonical transient receptor potential channels and their modulators: biology, pharmacology and therapeutic potentials.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Apr 24;44(4):354-377. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Pharmacology and Key Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica of the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Canonical transient receptor potential channels (TRPCs) are nonselective, high calcium permeability cationic channels. The TRPCs family includes TRPC1, TRPC2, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPC6, and TRPC7. These channels are widely expressed in the cardiovascular and nervous systems and exist in many other human tissues and cell types, playing several crucial roles in the human physiological and pathological processes. Read More

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Mechanistic diversity involved in the desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Apr 24;44(4):342-353. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Pharmacology Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Chonnam National University, Gwang-Ju, 61186, Republic of Korea.

The desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which involves rapid loss of responsiveness due to repeated or chronic exposure to agonists, can occur through various mechanisms at different levels of signaling pathways. In this review, the mechanisms of GPCR desensitization are classified according to their occurrence at the receptor level and downstream to the receptor. The desensitization at the receptor level occurs in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, wherein the activated receptors are phosphorylated by GPCR kinases (GRKs), thereby increasing their affinities for arrestins. Read More

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LncRNA AIRN influences the proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by regulating STAT1 ubiquitination.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Apr 24;44(4):414-426. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Nan Bai Xiang Street, Ouhai District, Wenzhou, 325000, Zhejiang Province, China.

Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various human diseases. In this study, we probed into the role and potential mechanisms of the antisense of IGF2R non-protein coding RNA (LncRNA AIRN) in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we corroborated that LncRNA AIRN expression was raised in the HCC tissues and cells. Read More

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The multifaceted role of NRF2 in cancer progression and cancer stem cells maintenance.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Mar 22;44(3):263-280. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Pharmacy, Graduate School of The Catholic University of Korea, Gyeonggi-do, 14662, Republic of Korea.

The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (NEF2L2; NRF2) plays crucial roles in the defense system against electrophilic or oxidative stress by upregulating an array of genes encoding antioxidant proteins, electrophile/reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxifying enzymes, and drug efflux transporters. In contrast to the protective roles in normal cells, the multifaceted role of NRF2 in tumor growth and progression, resistance to therapy and intratumoral stress, and metabolic adaptation is rapidly expanding, and the complex association of NRF2 with cancer signaling networks is being unveiled. In particular, the implication of NRF2 signaling in cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small population of tumor cells responsible for therapy resistance and tumor relapse, is emerging. Read More

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miR-139-5p promotes neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy by regulating the phosphatase and tensin homolog.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Feb 20;44(2):205-218. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Endocrinology, Qilu Hospital (Qingdao), Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, 758 Hefei Road, Qingdao, 266035, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Pathological retinal neovascularization is a driver of the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The present study sought to identify the microRNAs (miRNAs) that are differentially expressed during the progression of DR as well as to explore the specific regulatory mechanism of those miRNAs in retinal neovascularization. Using a microarray data set and a diabetic mouse model, it was determined that miR-139-5p was significantly upregulated during the progression of DR. Read More

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February 2021

MiR-340 regulates the growth and metabolism of renal cell carcinoma cells by targeting frizzled class receptor 3.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Feb 20;44(2):219-229. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Urology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, 1 Mingde RD, Nanchang, 310003, China.

MicroRNA(miR)-340 is known as a multifunctional miRNA related to various types of cancer while its role in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains to be further investigated. In the present study, an apparent increase in miR-340 expression was observed in both clear cell RCC tissues and RCC cell line 786-O and Caki-1. Functionally, the overexpression of miR-340 promoted cell proliferation, migration, invasion, extracellular alanine (Ala) level, and glycolysis level in 786-O cells. Read More

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February 2021

Mechanisms of resistance to chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Feb 19;44(2):146-164. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Creative Research Initiative Center for Concurrent Control of Emphysema and Lung Cancer, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which represents 80-85% of lung cancer cases, is one of the leading causes of human death worldwide. The majority of patients undergo an intensive and invasive treatment regimen, which may include radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or a combination of these, depending on disease stage and performance status. Despite advances in therapeutic regimens, the 5-year survival of NSCLC is approximately 20-30%, largely due to diagnosis at advanced stages. Read More

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February 2021

Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in diabetes: causes and therapeutic opportunities.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Mar 15;44(3):310-321. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

School of Pharmacy & Department of Biopharmaceutical Convergence, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 16419, Republic of Korea.

Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) have an emerging paradigm for the development of antidiabetic drugs. Herein, we provide a comprehensive overview of the relevance of PTPs to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the therapeutic opportunities thereof, while critically evaluating the potential challenges for PTP inhibitors to be next generation antidiabetics. This review briefly discusses the structure and function of PTPs. Read More

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Regulatory roles of G-protein coupled receptors in adipose tissue metabolism and their therapeutic potential.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Feb 7;44(2):133-145. Epub 2021 Feb 7.

College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University; Bio-MAX Institute, Seoul National University, 29-Room # 311, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

The high incidence of obesity has increased the need to discover new therapeutic targets to combat obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. Obesity is defined as an abnormal accumulation of adipose tissue, which is one of the major metabolic organs that regulate energy homeostasis. However, there are currently no approved anti-obesity therapeutics that directly target adipose tissue metabolism. Read More

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February 2021

Recent progress in development and applications of second near-infrared (NIR-II) nanoprobes.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Feb 4;44(2):165-181. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 03760, South Korea.

Optical probes for near-infrared (NIR) light have clear advantages over UV/VIS-based optical probes, such as their low levels of interfering auto-fluorescence and high tissue penetration. The second NIR (NIR-II) window (1000-1350 nm) offers better light penetration, lower background signal, higher safety limit, and higher maximum permitted exposure than the first NIR (NIR-I) window (650-950 nm). Therefore, NIR-II laser-based photoacoustic (PA) and fluorescence (FL) imaging can offer higher sensitivity and penetration depth than was previously available, and deeper lesions can be treated in vivo by photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with an NIR-II laser than with an NIR-I laser. Read More

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February 2021

Protective effects of ginsenoside-Rg2 and -Rh1 on liver function through inhibiting TAK1 and STAT3-mediated inflammatory activity and Nrf2/ARE-mediated antioxidant signaling pathway.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Feb 3;44(2):241-252. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

College of Pharmacy and Institute of Drug Research and Development, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, South Korea.

Systemic or hepatic inflammation is caused by intraperitoneal application of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this study, we investigated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of combination of ginsenoside-Rg2 (G-Rg2) and -Rh1 (G-Rh1) on liver function under LPS challenging. We first confirmed that G-Rg2 and -Rh1 at 100 μg/ml did not show cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Read More

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February 2021

Therapeutic regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in chronic inflammatory diseases.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Jan 3;44(1):16-35. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

BK21 PLUS Team, College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, 14662, Republic of Korea.

Inflammasomes are cytosolic pattern recognition receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) derived from invading pathogens and damaged tissues, respectively. Upon activation, the inflammasome forms a complex containing a receptor protein, an adaptor, and an effector to induce the autocleavage and activation of procaspase-1 ultimately culminating in the maturation and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 and pyroptosis. Inflammasome activation plays an important role in host immune responses to pathogen infections and tissue repair in response to cellular damage. Read More

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January 2021

Chemerin reverses the malignant phenotype and induces differentiation of human hepatoma SMMC7721 cells.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Feb 27;44(2):194-204. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai, 200237, China.

Chemerin exhibits an inhibitory effect on hepatocellular carcinoma; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, low chemerin expression was confirmed in samples of liver cancer patients and hepatoma cells. Chemerin altered hepatoma cell morphology but had no effect on normal hepatocytes. Read More

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February 2021

Inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis by 4-methylumbelliferone ameliorates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet-induced murine model.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Feb 24;44(2):230-240. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Karsh Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, 90048, USA.

Hyaluronan (HA) as a glycosaminoglycan can bind to cell-surface receptors, such as TLR4, to regulate inflammation, tissue injury, repair, and fibrosis. 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), an inhibitor of HA synthesis, is a drug used for the treatment of biliary spasms. Currently, therapeutic interventions are not available for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Read More

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February 2021

Biological roles of cytochrome P450 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1 enzymes.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Jan 23;44(1):63-83. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 06974, Republic of Korea.

Human cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play a critical role in various biological processes and human diseases. CYP1 family members, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, are induced by aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs). The binding of ligands such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons activates the AhRs, which are involved in the metabolism (including oxidation) of various endogenous or exogenous substrates. Read More

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January 2021

Skin barrier dysfunction and filaggrin.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Jan 18;44(1):36-48. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 03760, Korea.

Skin barrier dysfunction caused by endogenous or exogenous factors can lead to various disorders such as xerosis cutis, ichthyoses, and atopic dermatitis. Filaggrin is a pivotal structural protein of the stratum corneum (SC) and provides natural moisturizing factors that play a role in skin barrier functions. Filaggrin aggregates keratin filaments, resulting in the formation of a keratin network, which binds cornified envelopes and collapse keratinocytes to flattened corneocytes. Read More

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January 2021

Correction to: White matter and neurological disorders.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Mar;44(3):322

School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 16419, Korea.

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Overview of COVID-19 inflammatory pathogenesis from the therapeutic perspective.

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Jan 4;44(1):99-116. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

College of Pharmacy, Dongguk University, Goyang, 10326, Republic of Korea.

The novel beta coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, designated as COVID-19) that is responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome has devastated the global economy and health care system. Since COVID-19 changed the definition of "normal" in ordinary life around the world, the development of effective therapeutics and preventive measures is desperately needed to fight SARS-CoV-2 infection and restore normalcy. A clear understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis is crucial in providing the scientific rationale necessary to develop anti-COVID19 drugs and vaccines. Read More

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January 2021

Role of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators and their receptors in virus infection: a promising therapeutic strategy for SARS-CoV-2 cytokine storm.

Chang Hoon Lee

Arch Pharm Res 2021 Jan 4;44(1):84-98. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

College of Pharmacy, Dongguk University, Seoul, 100-715, Republic of Korea.

Unexpected viral infections outbreaks, significantly affect human health, leading to increased mortality and life disruption. Among them is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which emerged as a deadly pandemic, calling for intense research efforts on its pathogenicity mechanism and development of therapeutic strategies. In the SARS-CoV-2 cytokine storm, systemic inflammation has been associated with severe illness and mortality. Read More

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January 2021