106 results match your criteria Archives Of Natural History[Journal]


The background to the proposition that plankton be used as food in the United Kingdom during the Second World War.

Authors:
P G Moore

Arch Nat Hist 2011 ;38(2):287-99

University Marine Biological Station Millport, Isle of Cumbrae, Scotland.

Food shortages, particularly of proteins, in Britain during the Second World War led to the suggestion re-surfacing that marine plankton might be harvested on an industrial scale first as human food, then turning to its potential use as a supplement to stock and poultry feed. The notion emanated in the United Kingdom from Sir John Graham Kerr, at Glasgow University. He encouraged Alister Hardy, at Hull, to develop the idea and the natural testing ground was the Clyde Sea Area (given the extensive history of plankton research at Millport). Read More

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October 2012

A botanical group in Lahore, 1864.

Authors:
H J Noltie

Arch Nat Hist 2011 ;38(2):267-77

Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.

The sitters in a previously misunderstood nineteenth-century Indian group photograph are identified as four East India Company surgeons with wider interests in natural history: William Jameson, Thomas Caverhill Jerdon, John Lindsay Stewart and Hugh Francis Clarke Cleghorn, taken in Lahore at the Punjab Exhibition of 1864. The image was previously believed to depict the committee of the Madras Literary Society and to have been taken in Madras. No portraits of Jameson or Stewart have previously been known, and Jameson had mistakenly been identified as E. Read More

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October 2012

The role of images in the development of Renaissance natural history.

Authors:
Sachiko Kusukawa

Arch Nat Hist 2011 ;38(2):189-213

Trinity College, Cambridge.

This review surveys recent scholarship on the history of natural history with special attention to the role of images in the Renaissance. It discusses how classicism, collecting and printing were important catalysts for the Renaissance study of nature. Classicism provided inspiration of how to study and what kind of object to examine in nature, and several images from the period can be shown to reflect these classical values. Read More

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October 2012

Archibald Menzies on Albemarle Island, Galápagos archipelago, 7 February 1795.

Arch Nat Hist 2011 ;38(1):104-12

Society for the History of Natural History, UK.

Menzies made the earliest extant botanical collections in the Galápagos; five sheets, representing three endemic species, are known. Menzies's own account of the visit is also extant and is transcribed here from his manuscript journal. Read More

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Biagio Bartalini's "Catalogo dei corpi marini fossili che se trovano intorno a Siena" (1776).

Arch Nat Hist 2011 ;38(1):18-35

Università degli Studi de Siena.

In 1776, the Sienese botanist Biagio Bartalini (1750-1822) published a catalogue of wild plants growing around Siena, adding an appendix on fossils found in the same area, that is the first monograph on Sienese fossils and one of the first works of its kind in Italy. This paper provides tentative identifications of the species and an analysis of the value and meaning of Bartalini's work. The catalogue reports 72 species, each denoted by a list of names applied to analogous living taxa. Read More

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The tree as evolutionary icon: TREE in the Natural History Museum, London.

Arch Nat Hist 2011 ;38(1):1-17

University of Cambridge.

As part of the Darwin celebrations in 2009, the Natural History Museum in London unveiled TREE, the first contemporary artwork to win a permanent place in the Museum. While the artist claimed that the inspiration for TREE came from Darwin's famous notebook sketch of branching evolution, sometimes referred to as his "tree of life" drawing, this article emphasises the apparent incongruity between Darwin's sketch and the artist's design -- best explained by other, complementary sources of inspiration. In the context of the Museum's active participation in struggles over science and religion, the effect of the new artwork is contradictory. Read More

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Edward Forbes (1815-1854) and the exhibition of natural order in Edinburgh.

Arch Nat Hist 2010 ;37(2):309-17

National Museums Scotland.

The roles, affordances and social agency of natural history museums are discussed in relation to the writings of Edward Forbes. These signal a motivation, in the mid-nineteenth-century, to naturalize the established social order through the systematic arrangement and display of natural history specimens. The perceived importance of the embodied messages of social order, as an antidote to radicalism and revolution, overrode concerns about temperance and abstinence and immediate fears for the physical safety of collections. Read More

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December 2010

"Muy poco se sabe de los resultados": Francis E. Bond's expedition to the Paria Peninsula and delta of the Orinoco, Venezuela (1911).

Authors:
L J Dorr

Arch Nat Hist 2010 ;37(2):292-308

National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.

The natural history expedition of the American banker and stock broker Francis E. Bond and companions to the Paria Peninsula and delta of the Orinoco, Venezuela, in early 1911 is described. Biographical details are provided for the three principles: Francis E. Read More

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December 2010

Illustrations and the genesis of Barrett and Yonge's "Collins pocket guide to the sea shore" (1958).

Authors:
P G Moore

Arch Nat Hist 2010 ;37(2):274-91

University Marine Biological Station Millport, Isle of Cumbrae, Scotland.

Twenty nine items of correspondence from the mid-1950s discovered recently in the archives of the University Marine Biological Station Millport, and others made available by one of the illustrators and a referee, shed unique light on the publishing history of "Collins pocket guide to the sea shore". This handbook, generally regarded as a classic of its genre, marked a huge step forwards in 1958; providing generations of students with an authoritative, concise, affordable, well illustrated text with which to identify common organisms found between the tidemarks from around the coasts of the British Isles. The crucial role played by a select band of illustrators in making this publication the success it eventually became, is highlighted herein. Read More

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December 2010

Darwin's historical sketch - an American predecessor: C.S. Rafinesque.

Authors:
C T Ambrose

Arch Nat Hist 2010 ;37(2):191-202

University of Kentucky, Lexington.

When early reviewers of Darwin's "On the origin of species" chided him for neglecting to mention predecessors to his theory of evolution, he added an "historical sketch" in later editions. Among the predecessors he cited was a French émigré to American named Constantine Samuel Rafinesque, who in the mid-1830s had written about the emergence of new species at a time when most naturalists (including Darwin initially) accepted the biblical story of creation and assumed the immutability of species. Rafinesque discovered and named thousands of new plants and animals in his American travels and flooded the taxonomic literature with reports, which seemed incomplete, confusing, and excessive to other naturalists. Read More

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December 2010

Ferdinand von Mueller's interactions with Charles Darwin and his response to Darwinism.

Authors:
A M Lucas

Arch Nat Hist 2010 ;37(1):102-30

King's Coll., London.

Although Ferdinand Mueller (later von Mueller), Government Botanist of Victoria, opposed Darwin's theories when "On the origin of species" was published, there has been little detailed study of the nature of Mueller's opposition from 1860, when he received a presentation copy of "Origin," to his death in 1896. Analysis of Mueller's correspondence and publications shows that he remained a theist and misunderstood key aspects of Darwin's theory. However, Mueller did come to accept that natural selection could operate within a species, although never accepting it could produce speciation. Read More

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Bute's "Botanical tables": dictated by nature.

Arch Nat Hist 2009 Oct;36(2):277-98

National Museum Wales

In the final years of his life, after a long and turbulent political career, John Stuart, third Earl of Bute, was at last free to indulge in one of his passions: botany. The publication of Linnaeus's "Systema naturae" in 1735 threw the botanical world into disarray and academic argument raged throughout Europe. The production of the "Botanical tables" (1785) was an ambitious project to explain Bute's individual view of Linnaeus's system of taxonomy and was particularly composed for the "Fair Sex". Read More

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October 2009

Botany and zoology in the late seventeenth-century Philippines: the work of Georg Josef Camel SJ (1661-1706).

Authors:
Raquel A G Reyes

Arch Nat Hist 2009 Oct;36(2):262-76

Dept. of History, School of Oriental and African Studies, Univ. of London

Georg Josef Camel (1661-1706) went to the Spanish colony of the Philippine Islands as a Jesuit lay brother in 1687, and he remained there until his death. Throughout his time in the Philippines, Camel collected examples of the flora and fauna, which he drew and described in detail. This paper offers an overview of his life, his publications and the Camel manuscripts, drawings and specimens that are preserved among the Sloane Manuscripts in the British Library and in the Sloane Herbarium at the Natural History Museum, London. Read More

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October 2009

Charles Wesley Hargitt (1852-1927): American educator and cnidarian biologist.

Authors:
Dale R Calder

Arch Nat Hist 2009 Oct;36(2):244-61

Dept. of Natural History, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada

Charles Wesley Hargitt was born near Lawrenceburg, Indiana, USA, and died at Syracuse, New York. After a brief career as a Methodist Episcopal Minister, he carried out graduate studies in biology at Illinois Wesleyan University and Ohio University. He served briefly on the faculty at Moores Hill College and later at Miami University of Ohio before receiving an appointment at Syracuse University. Read More

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October 2009

The fate of the bird specimens from Cook's voyages possessed by Sir Joseph Banks.

Authors:
David G Medway

Arch Nat Hist 2009 Oct;36(2):231-43

Joseph Banks possessed the greater part of the zoological specimens collected on James Cook's three voyages round the world (1768-1780). In early 1792, Banks divided his zoological collection between John Hunter and the British Museum. It is probable that those donations together comprised most of the zoological specimens then in the possession of Banks, including such bird specimens as remained of those that had been collected by himself and Daniel Solander on Cook's first voyage, and those that had been presented to him from Cook's second and third voyages. Read More

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October 2009

The Reverend Thomas Hincks FRS (1818-1899): taxonomist of Bryozoa and Hydrozoa.

Authors:
Dale R Calder

Arch Nat Hist 2009 Oct;36(2):189-217

Dept. of Natural History, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada

Thomas Hincks was born 15 July 1818 in Exeter, England. He attended Manchester New College, York, from 1833 to 1839, and received a B.A. Read More

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October 2009

Alwyne (Wyn) Cooper Wheeler (1929-2005) and the libraries of the Natural History Museum, London.

Authors:
Ann Datta

Arch Nat Hist 2009 ;36(1):70-6

Natural History Museum, London

As a senior scientist working in the Fish Section of the Department of Zoology at the Natural History Museum, Alwyne (Wyn) Wheeler was a regular library user and well-known to library staff. Always amiable and helpful, and possessing a broad general knowledge of natural history as well as expertise on fishes, Wyn interacted with library staff at all levels. A close working relationship developed where he contributed to section library management and collection building. Read More

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October 2009

Daniel Chambers Macreight FRCP, FLS (1799-1856), a little-known, innovative Irish botanist.

Authors:
E Charles Nelson

Arch Nat Hist 2009 ;36(1):26-36

Biographical information is provided for Daniel Chambers Macreight. He worked in Augustin-Pyramus de Candolle's herbarium at Geneva during the early 1830s, and later in the decade was prominent in medico-botanical circles in London. Macreight retired in 1840, due to ill-health, and moved to Jersey in the Channel Islands where he died. Read More

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October 2009

"Lansania Journal of Arachnology and Zoology" - a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal.

Arch Nat Hist 2008 ;35(2):252-80

Publication data relating to a rare and obscure Japanese journal "Lansania Journal of Arachnology and Zoology" (1929-1941) are examined. Available facts, together with a substantial body of circumstantial and anecdotal evidence suggest that many planned issues, including several cited by independent sources as having been published, were not published. Some biographical data relating to the editor, Kyukichi Kishida (1888-1968), are provided. Read More

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John Lawson's "A New Voyage to Carolina": notes on the publication history of the London (1709) edition.

Arch Nat Hist 2008 ;35(2):223-42

John Lawson's "A New Voyage to Carolina," an important source document for American colonial natural history, was first printed in 1709 in "A New Collection of Voyages and Travels," a two-volume set that also contained travel books translated by John Stevens. Lawson's publishers were leaders in the book trade of early eighteenth century London, and the "New Voyage" is typical of the resurgent popular interest in foreign travel narratives and exotic flora and fauna that began in the late 1600s. The "New Collection" was among the earliest examples of books published in serial instalments or fascicles, a marketing strategy adopted by London booksellers to broaden the audience and increase sales. Read More

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Correspondence of Charles Darwin on James Torbitt's project to breed blight-resistance potatoes.

Authors:
M DeArce

Arch Nat Hist 2008 ;35(2):208-22

The most prolific of Darwin's correspondents from Ireland was James Torbitt, an enterprising grocer and wine merchant of 58 North Street, Belfast. Between February 1876 and March 1882, 141 letters were exchanged on the feasibility and ways of supporting one of Torbitt's commercial projects, the large-scale production and distribution of true potato seeds (Solan um tuberosum) to produce plants resistant to the late blight fungus Phytophthora infestans, the cause of repeated potato crop failures and thus the Irish famines in the nineteenth century. Ninety-three of these letters were exchanged between Torbitt and Darwin, and 48 between Darwin and third parties, seeking or offering help and advice on the project. Read More

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