106 results match your criteria Archives Of Natural History[Journal]


The background to the proposition that plankton be used as food in the United Kingdom during the Second World War.

Authors:
P G Moore

Arch Nat Hist 2011 ;38(2):287-99

University Marine Biological Station Millport, Isle of Cumbrae, Scotland.

Food shortages, particularly of proteins, in Britain during the Second World War led to the suggestion re-surfacing that marine plankton might be harvested on an industrial scale first as human food, then turning to its potential use as a supplement to stock and poultry feed. The notion emanated in the United Kingdom from Sir John Graham Kerr, at Glasgow University. He encouraged Alister Hardy, at Hull, to develop the idea and the natural testing ground was the Clyde Sea Area (given the extensive history of plankton research at Millport). Read More

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October 2012

A botanical group in Lahore, 1864.

Authors:
H J Noltie

Arch Nat Hist 2011 ;38(2):267-77

Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.

The sitters in a previously misunderstood nineteenth-century Indian group photograph are identified as four East India Company surgeons with wider interests in natural history: William Jameson, Thomas Caverhill Jerdon, John Lindsay Stewart and Hugh Francis Clarke Cleghorn, taken in Lahore at the Punjab Exhibition of 1864. The image was previously believed to depict the committee of the Madras Literary Society and to have been taken in Madras. No portraits of Jameson or Stewart have previously been known, and Jameson had mistakenly been identified as E. Read More

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October 2012

The role of images in the development of Renaissance natural history.

Authors:
Sachiko Kusukawa

Arch Nat Hist 2011 ;38(2):189-213

Trinity College, Cambridge.

This review surveys recent scholarship on the history of natural history with special attention to the role of images in the Renaissance. It discusses how classicism, collecting and printing were important catalysts for the Renaissance study of nature. Classicism provided inspiration of how to study and what kind of object to examine in nature, and several images from the period can be shown to reflect these classical values. Read More

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October 2012

Archibald Menzies on Albemarle Island, Galápagos archipelago, 7 February 1795.

Arch Nat Hist 2011 ;38(1):104-12

Society for the History of Natural History, UK.

Menzies made the earliest extant botanical collections in the Galápagos; five sheets, representing three endemic species, are known. Menzies's own account of the visit is also extant and is transcribed here from his manuscript journal. Read More

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June 2011
6 Reads

Biagio Bartalini's "Catalogo dei corpi marini fossili che se trovano intorno a Siena" (1776).

Arch Nat Hist 2011 ;38(1):18-35

Università degli Studi de Siena.

In 1776, the Sienese botanist Biagio Bartalini (1750-1822) published a catalogue of wild plants growing around Siena, adding an appendix on fossils found in the same area, that is the first monograph on Sienese fossils and one of the first works of its kind in Italy. This paper provides tentative identifications of the species and an analysis of the value and meaning of Bartalini's work. The catalogue reports 72 species, each denoted by a list of names applied to analogous living taxa. Read More

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June 2011
4 Reads

The tree as evolutionary icon: TREE in the Natural History Museum, London.

Arch Nat Hist 2011 ;38(1):1-17

University of Cambridge.

As part of the Darwin celebrations in 2009, the Natural History Museum in London unveiled TREE, the first contemporary artwork to win a permanent place in the Museum. While the artist claimed that the inspiration for TREE came from Darwin's famous notebook sketch of branching evolution, sometimes referred to as his "tree of life" drawing, this article emphasises the apparent incongruity between Darwin's sketch and the artist's design -- best explained by other, complementary sources of inspiration. In the context of the Museum's active participation in struggles over science and religion, the effect of the new artwork is contradictory. Read More

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June 2011
1 Read

Edward Forbes (1815-1854) and the exhibition of natural order in Edinburgh.

Arch Nat Hist 2010 ;37(2):309-17

National Museums Scotland.

The roles, affordances and social agency of natural history museums are discussed in relation to the writings of Edward Forbes. These signal a motivation, in the mid-nineteenth-century, to naturalize the established social order through the systematic arrangement and display of natural history specimens. The perceived importance of the embodied messages of social order, as an antidote to radicalism and revolution, overrode concerns about temperance and abstinence and immediate fears for the physical safety of collections. Read More

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December 2010

"Muy poco se sabe de los resultados": Francis E. Bond's expedition to the Paria Peninsula and delta of the Orinoco, Venezuela (1911).

Authors:
L J Dorr

Arch Nat Hist 2010 ;37(2):292-308

National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.

The natural history expedition of the American banker and stock broker Francis E. Bond and companions to the Paria Peninsula and delta of the Orinoco, Venezuela, in early 1911 is described. Biographical details are provided for the three principles: Francis E. Read More

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December 2010
2 Reads

Illustrations and the genesis of Barrett and Yonge's "Collins pocket guide to the sea shore" (1958).

Authors:
P G Moore

Arch Nat Hist 2010 ;37(2):274-91

University Marine Biological Station Millport, Isle of Cumbrae, Scotland.

Twenty nine items of correspondence from the mid-1950s discovered recently in the archives of the University Marine Biological Station Millport, and others made available by one of the illustrators and a referee, shed unique light on the publishing history of "Collins pocket guide to the sea shore". This handbook, generally regarded as a classic of its genre, marked a huge step forwards in 1958; providing generations of students with an authoritative, concise, affordable, well illustrated text with which to identify common organisms found between the tidemarks from around the coasts of the British Isles. The crucial role played by a select band of illustrators in making this publication the success it eventually became, is highlighted herein. Read More

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December 2010

Darwin's historical sketch - an American predecessor: C.S. Rafinesque.

Authors:
C T Ambrose

Arch Nat Hist 2010 ;37(2):191-202

University of Kentucky, Lexington.

When early reviewers of Darwin's "On the origin of species" chided him for neglecting to mention predecessors to his theory of evolution, he added an "historical sketch" in later editions. Among the predecessors he cited was a French émigré to American named Constantine Samuel Rafinesque, who in the mid-1830s had written about the emergence of new species at a time when most naturalists (including Darwin initially) accepted the biblical story of creation and assumed the immutability of species. Rafinesque discovered and named thousands of new plants and animals in his American travels and flooded the taxonomic literature with reports, which seemed incomplete, confusing, and excessive to other naturalists. Read More

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December 2010
2 Reads

Ferdinand von Mueller's interactions with Charles Darwin and his response to Darwinism.

Authors:
A M Lucas

Arch Nat Hist 2010 ;37(1):102-30

King's Coll., London.

Although Ferdinand Mueller (later von Mueller), Government Botanist of Victoria, opposed Darwin's theories when "On the origin of species" was published, there has been little detailed study of the nature of Mueller's opposition from 1860, when he received a presentation copy of "Origin," to his death in 1896. Analysis of Mueller's correspondence and publications shows that he remained a theist and misunderstood key aspects of Darwin's theory. However, Mueller did come to accept that natural selection could operate within a species, although never accepting it could produce speciation. Read More

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June 2010
1 Read

Bute's "Botanical tables": dictated by nature.

Arch Nat Hist 2009 Oct;36(2):277-98

National Museum Wales

In the final years of his life, after a long and turbulent political career, John Stuart, third Earl of Bute, was at last free to indulge in one of his passions: botany. The publication of Linnaeus's "Systema naturae" in 1735 threw the botanical world into disarray and academic argument raged throughout Europe. The production of the "Botanical tables" (1785) was an ambitious project to explain Bute's individual view of Linnaeus's system of taxonomy and was particularly composed for the "Fair Sex". Read More

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October 2009

Botany and zoology in the late seventeenth-century Philippines: the work of Georg Josef Camel SJ (1661-1706).

Authors:
Raquel A G Reyes

Arch Nat Hist 2009 Oct;36(2):262-76

Dept. of History, School of Oriental and African Studies, Univ. of London

Georg Josef Camel (1661-1706) went to the Spanish colony of the Philippine Islands as a Jesuit lay brother in 1687, and he remained there until his death. Throughout his time in the Philippines, Camel collected examples of the flora and fauna, which he drew and described in detail. This paper offers an overview of his life, his publications and the Camel manuscripts, drawings and specimens that are preserved among the Sloane Manuscripts in the British Library and in the Sloane Herbarium at the Natural History Museum, London. Read More

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October 2009
4 Reads

Charles Wesley Hargitt (1852-1927): American educator and cnidarian biologist.

Authors:
Dale R Calder

Arch Nat Hist 2009 Oct;36(2):244-61

Dept. of Natural History, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada

Charles Wesley Hargitt was born near Lawrenceburg, Indiana, USA, and died at Syracuse, New York. After a brief career as a Methodist Episcopal Minister, he carried out graduate studies in biology at Illinois Wesleyan University and Ohio University. He served briefly on the faculty at Moores Hill College and later at Miami University of Ohio before receiving an appointment at Syracuse University. Read More

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October 2009
1 Read

The fate of the bird specimens from Cook's voyages possessed by Sir Joseph Banks.

Authors:
David G Medway

Arch Nat Hist 2009 Oct;36(2):231-43

Joseph Banks possessed the greater part of the zoological specimens collected on James Cook's three voyages round the world (1768-1780). In early 1792, Banks divided his zoological collection between John Hunter and the British Museum. It is probable that those donations together comprised most of the zoological specimens then in the possession of Banks, including such bird specimens as remained of those that had been collected by himself and Daniel Solander on Cook's first voyage, and those that had been presented to him from Cook's second and third voyages. Read More

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October 2009

The Reverend Thomas Hincks FRS (1818-1899): taxonomist of Bryozoa and Hydrozoa.

Authors:
Dale R Calder

Arch Nat Hist 2009 Oct;36(2):189-217

Dept. of Natural History, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada

Thomas Hincks was born 15 July 1818 in Exeter, England. He attended Manchester New College, York, from 1833 to 1839, and received a B.A. Read More

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October 2009
1 Read

Alwyne (Wyn) Cooper Wheeler (1929-2005) and the libraries of the Natural History Museum, London.

Authors:
Ann Datta

Arch Nat Hist 2009 ;36(1):70-6

Natural History Museum, London

As a senior scientist working in the Fish Section of the Department of Zoology at the Natural History Museum, Alwyne (Wyn) Wheeler was a regular library user and well-known to library staff. Always amiable and helpful, and possessing a broad general knowledge of natural history as well as expertise on fishes, Wyn interacted with library staff at all levels. A close working relationship developed where he contributed to section library management and collection building. Read More

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October 2009
21 Reads

Daniel Chambers Macreight FRCP, FLS (1799-1856), a little-known, innovative Irish botanist.

Authors:
E Charles Nelson

Arch Nat Hist 2009 ;36(1):26-36

Biographical information is provided for Daniel Chambers Macreight. He worked in Augustin-Pyramus de Candolle's herbarium at Geneva during the early 1830s, and later in the decade was prominent in medico-botanical circles in London. Macreight retired in 1840, due to ill-health, and moved to Jersey in the Channel Islands where he died. Read More

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October 2009

Charles de L'Ecluse and Libri picturati a. 16-30.

Authors:
L Ramon-Laca

Arch Nat Hist 2001 ;28(2):195-243

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November 2008
6 Reads

Charles Plumier (1646-1704) and his drawings of French and American fishes.

Authors:
T W Pietsch

Arch Nat Hist 2001 ;28(1):1-57

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November 2008
2 Reads

A letter from John Latham to Thomas Pennant, 1789.

Authors:
J Latham L J Pigott

Arch Nat Hist 2001 ;28(2):257-59

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September 2008

E. Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock (1858-1922): a pioneer ecologist.

Authors:
M R Seaward

Arch Nat Hist 2001 ;28(1):59-69

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"Lansania Journal of Arachnology and Zoology" - a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal.

Arch Nat Hist 2008 ;35(2):252-80

Publication data relating to a rare and obscure Japanese journal "Lansania Journal of Arachnology and Zoology" (1929-1941) are examined. Available facts, together with a substantial body of circumstantial and anecdotal evidence suggest that many planned issues, including several cited by independent sources as having been published, were not published. Some biographical data relating to the editor, Kyukichi Kishida (1888-1968), are provided. Read More

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March 2009
1 Read

John Lawson's "A New Voyage to Carolina": notes on the publication history of the London (1709) edition.

Arch Nat Hist 2008 ;35(2):223-42

John Lawson's "A New Voyage to Carolina," an important source document for American colonial natural history, was first printed in 1709 in "A New Collection of Voyages and Travels," a two-volume set that also contained travel books translated by John Stevens. Lawson's publishers were leaders in the book trade of early eighteenth century London, and the "New Voyage" is typical of the resurgent popular interest in foreign travel narratives and exotic flora and fauna that began in the late 1600s. The "New Collection" was among the earliest examples of books published in serial instalments or fascicles, a marketing strategy adopted by London booksellers to broaden the audience and increase sales. Read More

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March 2009
2 Reads

Correspondence of Charles Darwin on James Torbitt's project to breed blight-resistance potatoes.

Authors:
M DeArce

Arch Nat Hist 2008 ;35(2):208-22

The most prolific of Darwin's correspondents from Ireland was James Torbitt, an enterprising grocer and wine merchant of 58 North Street, Belfast. Between February 1876 and March 1882, 141 letters were exchanged on the feasibility and ways of supporting one of Torbitt's commercial projects, the large-scale production and distribution of true potato seeds (Solan um tuberosum) to produce plants resistant to the late blight fungus Phytophthora infestans, the cause of repeated potato crop failures and thus the Irish famines in the nineteenth century. Ninety-three of these letters were exchanged between Torbitt and Darwin, and 48 between Darwin and third parties, seeking or offering help and advice on the project. Read More

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A bibliography of Marianna Paulucci (1835-1919).

Arch Nat Hist 2002 ;29(3):303-15

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March 2007
1 Read

Joseph Andorfer Ewan (1909-1999).

Authors:
I Jackson

Arch Nat Hist 2000 ;27(3):286-8

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March 2007
1 Read

Joseph Ewan (1909-1999): a retrospective.

Authors:
R G Beidleman

Arch Nat Hist 2000 ;27(3):289-300

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March 2007
1 Read

Bibliography of Joseph Andorfer Ewan (1909-1999).

Authors:
L J Dorr D Holland

Arch Nat Hist 2000 ;27(3):307-34

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March 2007
1 Read

Establishing vertebrate paleontology at Chicago's Field Columbian Museum, 1893-1898.

Authors:
P D Brinkman

Arch Nat Hist 2000 ;27(1):81-114

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For the "promotion" and "integration" of various fields: first years of Evolution, 1947-1949.

Authors:
J Cain

Arch Nat Hist 2000 ;27(2):231-59

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December 2006

Sahagún's "Florentine codex," a little known Aztecan natural history of the Valley of Mexico.

Authors:
Henry M Reeves

Arch Nat Hist 2006 ;33(2):302-21

Franciscan missionary Fray Bernardino de Sahagún arrived in New Spain (Mexico) in 1529 to proselytize Aztecs surviving the Conquest, begun by Hernán Cortés in 1519. About 1558 he commenced his huge opus "Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España" completed in Latin-Nahuatl manuscript in 1569. The best surviving version, the "Florentine Codex," 1579 in Spanish-Nahuatl, is the basis for the editions published since 1829. Read More

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November 2009
9 Reads

The botanical activities of George Edward Post (1838-1909).

Arch Nat Hist 2006 ;33(2):282-301

Old Dominion Univ., Virginia

George Edward Post wrote the first flora of the Middle East in English. His other botanical activities are less familiar. In addition to the flora, this paper discusses his teaching, fieldwork, contribution to Bible dictionaries, relations with the Boissier Herbarium in Geneva, establishment of the herbarium, and letters. Read More

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November 2009

Illustrations of the anatomical wax model collection in the "La Specola" Zoology Museum, Florence.

Arch Nat Hist 2006 ;33(2):232-40

Museo di Storia Naturale dell'Università di Firenze, Sezione di zoologia "La Specola," Florence, Italy

Anatomical illustration has evolved through the centuries, first having artistic and educational purposes and later more strictly medical objectives. Between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries, the analytical model (representation of individual parts, organs and systems) gave way to the composite model (description of the human body as a whole). Between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, there was a reversal of tendency: initially the anatomist requested the help of artists, but later the artist asked anatomists to check the accuracy of his work. Read More

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November 2009
1 Read

Drawings for an exacting author: illustrations from Giovanni Antonio Scopoli's "Deliciae florae et faunae insubricae".

Arch Nat Hist 2006 ;33(2):214-31

Università degli Studi di Pavia, Italy.

Giovanni Antonio Scopoli (1723-1788) was one of the most versatile naturalists in eighteenth-century Italy. In 1785, Scopoli conceived the ambitious publication, "Deliciae florae et faunae insubricae". Appearing in installments, this included descriptions and illustrations of plants, animals and minerals found in northern Italy. Read More

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November 2009
7 Reads

The bibliography of Robert Edmond Grant (1793-1874): illustrated with a previously unpublished photograph.

Arch Nat Hist 2006 ;33(2):202-13

University College, London

The comparative anatomist Robert Edmond Grant (1793-1874), best known for his work on sponges and other marine invertebrates, was important as a teacher and outspoken as a medical reformer. At Edinburgh University his transformist zoology provided the young Charles Darwin with his first theoretical framework. As professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy at the newly founded University of London, Grant influenced a new generation of comparative anatomists and medical men, even if his radical science and calls for reform in medical and scientific society made him unpopular with the conservative elite which held sway. Read More

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November 2009
3 Reads

Christopher Merrett's "Pinax rerum naturalium britannicarum" (1666): annotations to what is believed to be the author's personal copy.

Authors:
M J Y Foley

Arch Nat Hist 2006 ;32(2):191-201

Univ. of Lancaster, UK

In 1666, Christopher Merrett published "Pinax rerum naturalium britannicarum," this essentially being a catalogue of British plant localities known at the time together with a few other items of natural history. What is thought to be the author's personal annotated copy is held in the British Library. These annotations have been examined and the hand-writing compared to surviving examples known to be either of the author or of one of his sons and are now transcribed. Read More

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November 2009

Conrad Gessner on the spelling of his name.

Authors:
C M Pyle

Arch Nat Hist 2000 Jun;27(2):175-86

New York University, Casa Italiana Zerilli-Marimò, 24 West 12th Street, New York, NY 10011-8697, USA.

For 250 years, the vernacular spelling of the family name of the polymath Conrad Gessner of Zurich (1516-1565) has been in doubt, owing to an erroneous analogy with the Latin spelling, which does not require a double s. The history of this error is presented, followed by an examination of Gessner's own usage throughout his life, as it appears in autograph documents and works printed under his direction. Posthumous evidence and evidence from other members of the family and the community are also adduced to demonstrate consistency in the vernacular spelling of Gessner's name. Read More

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Further additions to the bibliography of Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913).

Authors:
C H Smith

Arch Nat Hist 2004 Apr;31(1):1-5

Department of Library Public Services, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101, USA.

Twenty-one previously unrecorded published writings by the English naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) are noticed. The writings vary greatly in date, size and importance, and include items pertaining both to Wallace's natural history as well as social and political interests Read More

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A poisonous plant of the genus Datura (Solanaceae) in an eighteenth-century Danish garden in West Africa.

Authors:
Daniel Hopkins

Arch Nat Hist 2003 Apr;30(1):157-9

Department of Geosciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City 64110, USA.

There was disagreement among colonialists about whether the Africans around the Danish West African forts made use of native poisons in the early nineteenth century, but it appears that the Danes themselves may have introduced a poisonous ornamental plant of the genus Datura in one of their own gardens on the Guinea Coast. Read More

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau's copy of Albrecht von Haller's Historia stirpium indigenarum Helvetiae inchoata (1768).

Authors:
A Cook

Arch Nat Hist 2003 Apr;30(1):149-56

Department of Philosophy, University of Hong Kong.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau sold his botanical texts to Daniel Malthus (father of Thomas Malthus) about 1775. Two of these are now in the Old Library, Jesus College, Cambridge, but all the rest have long been thought lost. However, a copy of Albrecht von Haller's Historia stirpium indigenarum Helvetiae inchoata (1768) in the Lindley Library, Royal Horticultural Society, London, bears Rousseau's name and seems to have been annotated by him. Read More

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Patrick Browne M. D. (c. 1720-1790), an Irish doctor in the Caribbean: his residence on Saint Croix (1757-1765) and his unpublished accounts of volcanic activity on Montserrat.

Authors:
E C Nelson

Arch Nat Hist 2001 Feb;28(1):135-47

Tippitiwitchet Cottage, Wisbech, Norfolk.

Patrick Browne resided on the Caribbean islands of Saint Croix (a Danish possession) and Montserrat (an English possession) during the 1750s and 1760s. He collected and recorded the flora of Saint Croix; some of his notes about the plants of the island have survived and are transcribed. On Montserrat he made observations on the active volcano; the surviving manuscript accounts of the sulphur-rich springs are transcribed. Read More

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February 2001

The study of the natural sciences and botanical and zoological illustration in Tuscany under the Medicis from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries.

Arch Nat Hist 2001 Jun;28(2):179-93

Department of Art History, University of Pisa, Italy.

A vast body of botanical and zoological illustrations was produced in Tuscany between the sixteenth and the eighteenth century. This artistic activity was made possible by the humanistic-scientific tradition which had been established in Florence during the late fifteenth century, and was further encouraged by the Medici dynasty. The contributions made by three uniquely talented and original artists are discussed. Read More

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