1,102 results match your criteria Archives Of Histology And Cytology[Journal]

Nano-scale analyses of the chromatin decompaction induced by histone acetylation.

Arch Histol Cytol 2010 ;73(3):149-63

Laboratory of Plasma Membrane and Nuclear Signaling, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University. Kyoto, Japan.

The acetylation of histone tails is a key factor in the maintenance of chromatin dynamics and cellular homeostasis. The hallmark of active chromatin is the hyper-acetylation of histones, which appears to result in a more open chromatin structure. Although short nucleosomal arrays have been studied, the structural dynamics of relatively long acetylated chromatin remain unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Scale and tooth phenotypes in medaka with a mutated ectodysplasin-A receptor: implications for the evolutionary origin of oral and pharyngeal teeth.

Arch Histol Cytol 2010 ;73(3):139-48

Section of Biostructural Science, Graduate School of Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Ectodermal contribution to the induction of pharyngeal teeth that form in the endodermal territory of the oropharyngeal cavity in some teleost fishes has been a matter of considerable debate. To determine the role of ectodermal cell signaling in scale and tooth formation and thereby to gain insights in evolutionary origin of teeth, we analyzed scales and teeth in rs-3 medaka mutants characterized by reduced scale numbers due to aberrant splicing of the ectodysplasin-A receptor (edar). Current data show that, in addition to a loss of scales (83% reduction), a drastic loss of teeth occurred in both oral (43. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Recruited peripheral blood monocytes participate in the liver extramedullary hematopoietic milieu.

Arch Histol Cytol 2010 ;73(3):127-37

Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

The hematopoietic microenvironment has been investigated and well defined in the bone marrow. However, there is a lack of studies on the extramedullary hematopoietic milieu such as in the liver, to which hematopoietic stem cells migrate and there commence hematopoiesis under pathological conditions such as bone marrow failure. We induced extramedullary hematopoiesis by phenylhydrazine in the adult mouse liver and investigated the immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular changes within this organ. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Rapid three-dimensional analysis of renal biopsy sections by low vacuum scanning electron microscopy.

Arch Histol Cytol 2010 ;73(3):113-25

Division of Genome Morphology, Department of Functional, Morphological and Regulatory Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Nishi-cho, Yonago, Japan.

Renal biopsy paraffin sections were examined by low vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM) in the backscattered electron (BSE) mode, a novel method for rapid pathological analysis which allowed detailed and efficient three-dimensional observations of glomeruli. Renal samples that had been already diagnosed by light microscopy (LM) as exhibiting IgA nephropathy, minor glomerular abnormalities, and membranous glomerulonephritis (GN) were rapidly processed in the present study. Unstained paraffin sections of biopsy samples on glass slides were deparaffinized, stained with platinum blue (Pt-blue) or periodic acid silver-methenamine (PAM), and directly observed with a LVSEM. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A histomorphologic study of the normal healing response following digit amputation in C57bl/6 and MRL/MpJ mice.

Arch Histol Cytol 2010 ;73(2):103-11

McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15219, USA.

Mice are common models for the study of mammalian wound healing. However, the array of available phenotypes suggests that significant differences likely exist in the normal wound healing response between different mouse strains. It is therefore essential to understand the normal healing response for each mouse strain, anatomic site, and mechanism of injury when investigating the potential effects of therapeutic interventions upon the healing response. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2011

Neurocan contributes to the molecular heterogeneity of the perinodal ECM.

Arch Histol Cytol 2010 ;73(2):95-102

Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Japan.

Neurocan is a central nervous tissue-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of the lectican family. Mainly expressed during modeling and remodeling stages of this tissue, it is thought to play an important role via binding to various extracellular matrix and cellular components. In adults, neurocan expression is associated with the perineuronal net structures. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2011

Fixation conditions affect the immunoreactivity of gustducin in rat vallate taste buds.

Arch Histol Cytol 2010 ;73(2):91-3

Department of Histology, The Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Niigata, Japan.

This study aimed to examine gustducin immunoreactivities when adopting various immunostaining conditions in rat vallate taste buds. The occurrence and intensity of the immunoreactivities exhibited specific patterns in accordance with the fixation time. The immunoreactions were localized to only taste hairs, the upper part of the taste bud, after short fixation periods but then to the cell-body cytoplasm excluding the taste hairs after long fixation periods. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2011

The acid-sensing ion channel 2 (ASIC2) of ciliated cells in the developing rat nasal septum.

Arch Histol Cytol 2010 ;73(2):81-9

Department of Anatomy, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Japan.

The airway epithelium is exposed to an acidic environment in certain conditions. The acid-sensing ion channel 2 (ASIC2) belongs to the epithelial amiloride-sensitive sodium channel and degenerin (ENaC/DEG) family and is expressed on cilia of the respiratory epithelium. The aim of this study was to detect the expression of ASIC2 in the nasal septum in the embryonic stage of the rat. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2011

Hypothermic and normothermic ischemia-reperfusion activate microglia differently in hippocampal formation.

Arch Histol Cytol 2010 ;73(2):73-80

Research Center of Brain and Oral Science, Kanagawa Dental College, Japan.

Using immunohistochemical methods, we investigated microglial profiles under normothermic ischemia and hypothermic ischemia using an anti-ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) antibody. In the early stages of ischemia-reperfusion, Iba-1-immunoreactive microglial cells under normothermic ischemia were characterized by swollen somata with short and thick processes, while fine long-branched processes in greater numbers were seen emanating from microglial somata under hypothermic ischemia. In animals subjected to hypothermic ischemia, immunoreactive microglial areas in the hippocampal CA1 sector were significantly increased after 5 and 8 h of reperfusion when compared with those under normothermic ischemia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2011

PKH26 is an excellent retrograde and anterograde fluorescent tracer characterized by a small injection site and strong fluorescence emission.

Arch Histol Cytol 2010 ;73(2):65-72

Division of Anatomy and Developmental Neurobiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

The fluorescent dye PKH26, which binds mainly to the cell membrane, has long stability that enables the tracing of PKH26-labeled transplanted cells in host tissue. In the present study, we examined whether this fluorescent dye works as a retrograde or anterograde tracer to label neural networks within the central nervous system of adult and postnatal day 3 (P3) mice. A small injection of the dye into the medullospinal junction resulted in the retrograde labeling of corticospinal tract (CST) neurons in layer V of the sensory-motor cortex both in the adult mice and pups. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2011

Microvascular anatomy of the large intestine in adult Xenopus laevis: scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts and correlative light microscopy.

Arch Histol Cytol 2010 ;73(1):55-64

Vascular and Muscle Research Unit, Division of Zoology and Functional Anatomy, Department of Organismic Biology, University of Salzburg, Australia.

The microvascular anatomy of the large intestine of the adult South African Clawed Toad, Xenopus laevis (Daudin), was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of vascular corrosion casts (VCCs) and correlative light microscopy. Observations showed the large intestine to be supplied by the haemorrhoidal artery and the posterior mesenteric artery and drain via the posterior haemorrhoidal vein into either the left or right posterior abdominal vein. Both arteries and veins showed a bipinnate supply/draining pattern with branches running circumferentially. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Liver reconstruction on the chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo.

Arch Histol Cytol 2010 ;73(1):45-53

Department of Medical Technology, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Niigata University, Japan.

The liver from a 6-day-old chick embryo was transplanted on the chorioallantoic membrane of a 9-day-old chick embryo to observe the process of liver regeneration histologically. When a piece of the liver was implanted on the chorioallantoic membrane, only cells in the superficial zone of the graft adhering to the chorioallantoic membrane survived. Eventually, these surviving cells in the superficial zone proliferated with hematopoiesis, resulting in the formation of clusters of blood cells surrounded by the hepatocytes (or hepatic parenchymal cells). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mitochondria of human Leydig cells as seen by high resolution scanning electron microscopy.

Arch Histol Cytol 2010 ;73(1):37-44

Department of Cytomorphology, School of Medicine, University of Cagliari, Italy.

The three-dimensional ultrastructure of over 1000 mitochondria in human Leydig cells (from twelve sexually mature patients) was examined by high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) of osmium-macerated specimens, as well as by transmission electron microscopy of conventional ultrathin sections. The stereo-pair imaging of the osmium-macerated specimens by HRSEM is also very useful for investigating the three-dimensional structure of cytoplasmic membranous organelles with great clarity. The mitochondria, which mainly are elongated (although some are ovate), possess cristae that are almost exclusively tubular and that occasionally display constrictions and terminal bulbules. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The initial process of enamel prism arrangement and its relation to the Hunter-Schreger bands in dog teeth.

Arch Histol Cytol 2010 ;73(1):23-36

Division of Oral Functional Science, Graduate School of Dental Medicine Hokkaido University, Kitaku, Sapporo, Japan.

The three-dimensional architecture of enamel prisms at early stages of enamel formation and its spatial relationship to the Hunter-Schreger bands were examined in canine tooth germs by light and electron microscopy. In serial semithin sections of demineralized tooth germs tangential to the enamel-dentin junction, a straight row of enamel prisms was depicted along the longitudinal tooth axis at the level of the enamel-dentin junction and then their three-dimensional arrangement was reconstructed using computer software. The spatial arrangement of the groups of enamel rods oriented in specific sideward directions was also reconstructed in deep layers of the enamel. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The microstructure of secondary lymphoid organs that support immune cell trafficking.

Arch Histol Cytol 2010 ;73(1):1-21

Department of Anatomy (Marco), Dokkyo Medical University, Mibu, Tochigi, Japan.

Immune cell trafficking in the secondary lymphoid organs is crucial for an effective immune response. Recirculating T cells constantly patrol not only secondary lymphoid organs but also the whole peripheral organs. Thoracic duct lymphocytes represent an ideal cell source for analyzing T cell trafficking: high endothelial venules (HEVs) allow recirculating lymphocytes to transmigrate from the blood directly, and recirculating T cells form a cluster with dendritic cells (DCs) to survey antigen invasions even in a steady state. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Transplanted embryonic spinal tissue promotes severed sciatic nerve regeneration in rats.

Arch Histol Cytol 2009 Jul;72(2):127-38

Department of Hand Surgery, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing, China.

The effects of transplanted embryonic spinal tissue on host motor nerve regeneration and target muscle reinervation were investigated in severed sciatic nerves of rats. The electromyogram (EMG) responses and number of motor end plates (MEP) in target muscles, number of nerve axons, and retrogradely labeled motor neurons were examined in transplantation-, anastomosis without transplantation-, and naïve groups of the animals. The EMG patterns of the transplantation group returned to nearly normal at the 8th week, but those of the anastomosis group did not. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The expression of soluble guanylate cyclase in the vasculature of rat skeletal muscle.

Arch Histol Cytol 2009 Jul;72(2):117-26

Department of Physical Therapy, Nagano Rehabilitation College, Nagano, Japan.

Nitric oxide (NO) has various roles in the skeletal musculature in both normal and pathological conditions. NO primarily activates soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and mediates subsequent intracellular signaling in target cells. We sought to identify the target cells of NO in the rat skeletal musculature, using subtypes of sGCalpha1 and sGCbeta1 antibodies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Immunohistochemical demonstration of c-Kit-negative fibroblast-like cells in murine gastrointestinal musculature.

Arch Histol Cytol 2009 Jul;72(2):107-15

Department of Morphological and Physiological Sciences, University of Fukui Faculty of Medical Sciences, Eiheiji, Fukui, Japan.

In the gastrointestinal musculature, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) distribute and regulate the gastrointestinal motility. Another type of mesenchymal cell, known as the fibroblast-like cell (FLC), has also been reported to be juxtaposed to the ICC. In this study, we examined the immunohistochemical properties of FLC in the murine gastrointestinal musculature using antibodies to small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel 3 (SK3), platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha), and CD34. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Low vacuum scanning electron microscopy for paraffin sections utilizing the differential stainability of cells and tissues with platinum blue.

Arch Histol Cytol 2009 Jul;72(2):101-6

Division of Genome Morphology, Department of Functional, Morphological and Regulatory Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, Japan.

The present study introduces a novel method for the direct observation of histological paraffin sections by low vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM) with platinum blue (Pt-blue) treatment. Pt-blue was applied not only as a backscattered electron (BSE) signal enhancer but also as a histologically specific stain. In this method, paraffin sections of the rat tongue prepared for conventional light microscopy (LM) were stained on glass slides with a Pt-blue staining solution (pH 9) and observed in a LVSEM using BSE detector. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Histochemical changes and apoptosis in degenerating taste buds of the rat circumvallate papilla.

Arch Histol Cytol 2009 Jul;72(2):91-100

Department of Oral Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

The present study was designed to examine the histochemical changes and occurrence of apoptosis in taste buds of rat circumvallate papillae following bilateral transection of the glossopharyngeal nerve. Following transection of the glossopharyngeal nerve, the number of taste buds was not altered until post-operative day 3 (PO3), but decreased significantly thereafter. The number of cells within a taste bud, however, decreased significantly from PO2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Simultaneous immunohistochemical detection of gangliosides and neuronal markers in paraformaldehyde-fixed nervous tissues by acetone etching.

Arch Histol Cytol 2009 Jul;72(2):77-90

Department of Anatomy (Macro), Dokkyo Medical University, Mibu, Tochigi, Japan.

A need for identifying ganglioside-positive cells with neuronal markers prompted us to establish a reliable method for double or triple immunostaining nervous tissues. Perfusion fixation with paraformaldehyde is typically performed for the routine immunostaining of various neuronal markers but is not suitable for immunostaining gangliosides. Acetone fixation of fresh cryosections is frequently used for ganglioside immunodetection; thus, we tested the effect of acetone treatment for unmasking the antigen epitope of gangliosides (acetone etching) on sections of paraformaldehyde-fixed nervous tissue from rats. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The expression of transferrin binding protein in the turtle nervous system.

Arch Histol Cytol 2009 Mar;72(1):65-76

Department of Anatomy, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Transferrin binding protein (TfBP) is a cytoplasmic glycoprotein that was originally isolated from the chick oviduct. As we previously demonstrated the constitutive expression of TfBP in the avian nervous system, in this study we examined whether TfBP is expressed in the reptilian nervous system. In accordance with previous findings in the chicken, oligodendrocytes were most prominently labeled by antiserum to TfBP. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effects of basic fibroblast growth factor on the development of the stem cell properties of human dental pulp cells.

Arch Histol Cytol 2009 Mar;72(1):51-64

Department of Anatomy II, Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

We isolated adherent fibroblastic cells after collagenase and dispase treatment of human dental pulp. When human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) were cultured in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), the ratio of hDPCs in the S-phase was significantly higher in comparison with incubation without bFGF. The ratio of hDPCs expressing STRO-1 as a marker of stem cell populations increased approximately eightfold in the presence of bFGF as opposed to that in the absence of bFGF. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Characterization of the sugar chain expression of normal term human placental villi using lectin histochemistry combined with immunohistochemistry.

Arch Histol Cytol 2009 Mar;72(1):35-49

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.

The general sugar expression pattern was studied in 9 normal full-term human placentas by the use of 21 individual lectins in combination with immunohistochemistry for various markers to understand the function of the placenta as the site of feto-maternal interactions. In mature intermediate and terminal villi, the brush border of the syncytiotrophoblast layer strongly expressed GlcNAc (as stained by WGA, S-WGA, DSL lectins) but weakly expressed sialic acid (Mal II, SNA). The cytoplasm of the syncytiotrophoblast layer showed weak expressions of GlcNAc and Gal/GalNAc with granular patterns. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Expression of the nerve growth factor-induced gene B-beta in the developing rat brain and retina.

Arch Histol Cytol 2009 Mar;72(1):23-34

Institute of Basic Medicine, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China.

The nerve growth factor-induced gene B-beta (NGFI-Bbeta, Nurr1) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is expressed predominantly in the central nervous system. We used an antibody against the human NGFI-Bbeta to observe the protein expression in neuronal cells in the retina, cerebral neocortex, and midbrain of humans and rats. To provide further insight into the role of NGFI-Bbeta in the differentiation of neuronal cells, we also examined the expression of NGFI-Bbeta in rat ontogeny. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The microstructure of lingual papillae in the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) as observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

Arch Histol Cytol 2009 Mar;72(1):13-21

Department of Animals Anatomy, Poznań University of Life Sciences, ul. Wojska Polskiego 71 C, PL60-625 Poznań, Poland.

The microstructure of lingual papillae on the dorsal surface of the tongue of adult Egyptian fruit bats was examined by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This elongated tongue with a rounded apex is approximately 3 cm long -- including the 1.7cm length of the anterior free part of the tongue -- which facilitates considerable freedom of movement. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Expression of osteogenic proteins during the intrasplenic transplantation of Meckel's chondrocytes: A histochemical and immunohistochemical study.

Arch Histol Cytol 2009 Mar;72(1):1-12

Department of Oral Anatomy II, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University, 1-3-27 Chuo-dori, Morioka 020-8505, Japan.

Meckel's chondrocytes, derived from the ectomesenchyme, have the potential to transform into other phenotypes. In this study, we transplanted cell pellets of Meckel's chondrocytes into isogenic mouse spleens and analyzed their phenotypic transformation into osteogenic cells using histological and immunohistochemical methods. With the increasing duration of transplantation, chondrocytes were incorporated into splenic tissues and formed a von Kossa-positive calcified matrix containing calcium and phosphoric acid, similar to that of intact bone. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The relationship between the cusp pattern and plural stem cell compartments in Guinea pig cheek teeth by chasing BrdU-labeling.

Arch Histol Cytol 2008 Dec;71(5):317-32

Department of Tissue Regeneration and Reconstruction, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, and Pediatric Dentistry, Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, Niigata, Japan.

Continuously growing rodent incisors have a special epithelial structure for maintaining adult stem cells that shows a bulbous epithelial protrusion at the apical end and is referred to as an "apical bud". Guinea pig cheek teeth (premolars and molars), also continuously growing teeth, have a complex crown shape consisting of plural cusps. The present study clarifies the existence of apical buds in guinea pig premolars/molars as it examines the relationship between the crown shape and the orientation of the apical buds by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2008

Comparison between a weight compression and a magnet compression for experimental pressure ulcers in the rat. Histological studies and effects of anesthesia.

Arch Histol Cytol 2008 Dec;71(5):303-16

Department of Anatomy and Histology, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan.

To develop an experimental model and evaluate the effects of the magnitude and duration of pressure, the rat abdominal wall (25x20 mm) was subjected to compression either by a weight or by two magnets. In the weight compression tests, a steel plate was inserted under anesthesia into the rat peritoneal cavity, and the abdominal wall was compressed in situ between the underlying steel plate and a weight placed on the abdominal wall. This method resulted in moderate changes in the subcutaneous connective tissue and muscle at 100 mmHg (13. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2008

Regional differences in 5-HT receptors in cerebral and testicular arterioles of the rat as revealed by Ca2+ imaging of real-time confocal microscopy: variances by artery size and organ specificity.

Arch Histol Cytol 2008 Dec;71(5):291-302

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Japan.

5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT) is an important transmitter for vessel constriction. The present study was performed to clarify the effect of 5-HT on smooth muscles in large- and small-sized cerebral and testicular arterioles by confocal microscopy, with special reference to intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) dynamics. In cerebral vessels, 5-HT induced a [Ca2+]i increase and the contraction of smooth muscle cells in large- and midsized arterioles (external diameters>50 microm) but not in small-sized arterioles. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2008