21 results match your criteria Archives Of Biological Sciences[Journal]

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Long-term archives reveal shifting extinction selectivity in China's postglacial mammal fauna.

Proc Biol Sci 2017 Nov;284(1867)

Laboratory of Zooarchaeology, Center of Archaeological Science, Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, 27 Wangfujing Street, Beijing 100710, People's Republic of China.

Ecosystems have been modified by human activities for millennia, and insights about ecology and extinction risk based only on recent data are likely to be both incomplete and biased. We synthesize multiple long-term archives (over 250 archaeological and palaeontological sites dating from the early Holocene to the Ming Dynasty and over 4400 historical records) to reconstruct the spatio-temporal dynamics of Holocene-modern range change across China, a megadiverse country experiencing extensive current-day biodiversity loss, for 34 mammal species over three successive postglacial time intervals. Our combined zooarchaeological, palaeontological, historical and current-day datasets reveal that both phylogenetic and spatial patterns of extinction selectivity have varied through time in China, probably in response both to cumulative anthropogenic impacts (an 'extinction filter' associated with vulnerable species and accessible landscapes being affected earlier by human activities) and also to quantitative and qualitative changes in regional pressures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2017.1979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5719176PMC
November 2017
11 Reads

Evolution in temperature-dependent phytoplankton traits revealed from a sediment archive: do reaction norms tell the whole story?

Proc Biol Sci 2017 Oct;284(1864)

Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, Center for Earth System Research and Sustainability, University of Hamburg, Große Elbstraße 133, 22767 Hamburg, Germany.

The high evolutionary potential of phytoplankton species allows them to rapidly adapt to global warming. Adaptations may occur in temperature-dependent traits, such as growth rate, cell size and life cycle processes. Using resurrection experiments with resting stages from living sediment archives, it is possible to investigate whether adaptation occurred. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2017.1888DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5647313PMC
October 2017
3 Reads

Genetic diversity is largely unpredictable but scales with museum occurrences in a species-rich clade of Australian lizards.

Proc Biol Sci 2017 May;284(1854)

Museum of Zoology and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Genetic diversity is a fundamental characteristic of species and is affected by many factors, including mutation rate, population size, life history and demography. To better understand the processes that influence levels of genetic diversity across taxa, we collected genome-wide restriction-associated DNA data from more than 500 individuals spanning 76 nominal species of Australian scincid lizards in the genus To avoid potential biases associated with variation in taxonomic practice across the group, we used coalescent-based species delimitation to delineate 83 species-level lineages within the genus for downstream analyses. We then used these genetic data to infer levels of within-population genetic diversity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2016.2588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5443933PMC
May 2017
13 Reads

Peptide sequences from the first Castoroides ohioensis skull and the utility of old museum collections for palaeoproteomics.

Proc Biol Sci 2016 Jun;283(1832)

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA.

Vertebrate fossils have been collected for hundreds of years and are stored in museum collections around the world. These remains provide a readily available resource to search for preserved proteins; however, the vast majority of palaeoproteomic studies have focused on relatively recently collected bones with a well-known handling history. Here, we characterize proteins from the nasal turbinates of the first Castoroides ohioensis skull ever discovered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2016.0593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4920319PMC
June 2016
7 Reads

Historical data as a baseline for conservation: reconstructing long-term faunal extinction dynamics in Late Imperial-modern China.

Proc Biol Sci 2015 Aug;282(1813):20151299

ARC Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, NERP Environmental Decisions Hub, Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Science, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Extinction events typically represent extended processes of decline that cannot be reconstructed using short-term studies. Long-term archives are necessary to determine past baselines and the extent of human-caused biodiversity change, but the capacity of historical datasets to provide predictive power for conservation must be assessed within a robust analytical framework. Local Chinese gazetteers represent a more than 400-year country-level dataset containing abundant information on past environmental conditions and include extensive records of gibbons, which have a restricted present-day distribution but formerly occurred across much of China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2015.1299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4632630PMC
August 2015
2 Reads

Paging through history: parchment as a reservoir of ancient DNA for next generation sequencing.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2015 Jan;370(1660):20130379

Smurfit Institute of Genetics, University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland

Parchment represents an invaluable cultural reservoir. Retrieving an additional layer of information from these abundant, dated livestock-skins via the use of ancient DNA (aDNA) sequencing has been mooted by a number of researchers. However, prior PCR-based work has indicated that this may be challenged by cross-individual and cross-species contamination, perhaps from the bulk parchment preparation process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4275887PMC
January 2015
3 Reads

The high fidelity of the cetacean stranding record: insights into measuring diversity by integrating taphonomy and macroecology.

Proc Biol Sci 2011 Dec 27;278(1724):3608-16. Epub 2011 Apr 27.

Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013, USA.

Stranded cetaceans have long intrigued naturalists because their causation has escaped singular explanations. Regardless of cause, strandings also represent a sample of the living community, although their fidelity has rarely been quantified. Using commensurate stranding and sighting records compiled from archived datasets representing nearly every major ocean basin, I demonstrated that the cetacean stranding record faithfully reflects patterns of richness and relative abundance in living communities, especially for coastlines greater than 2000 km and latitudinal gradients greater than 4°. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2011.0441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3189373PMC
December 2011

Continental-scale patterns of Cecropia reproductive phenology: evidence from herbarium specimens.

Proc Biol Sci 2011 Aug 12;278(1717):2437-45. Epub 2011 Jan 12.

IRD, UMR AMAP, Montpellier 34000, France.

Plant phenology is concerned with the timing of recurring biological events. Though phenology has traditionally been studied using intensive surveys of a local flora, results from such surveys are difficult to generalize to broader spatial scales. In this study, contrastingly, we assembled a continental-scale dataset of herbarium specimens for the emblematic genus of Neotropical pioneer trees, Cecropia, and applied Fourier spectral and cospectral analyses to investigate the reproductive phenology of 35 species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2010.2259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3125618PMC
August 2011
17 Reads

Lost in translation or deliberate falsification? Genetic analyses reveal erroneous museum data for historic penguin specimens.

Proc Biol Sci 2010 Apr 9;277(1684):1057-64. Epub 2009 Dec 9.

Department of Zoology, University of Otago, 340 Great King Street, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Historic museum specimens are increasingly used to answer a wide variety of questions in scientific research. Nevertheless, the scientific value of these specimens depends on the authenticity of the data associated with them. Here we use individual-based genetic analyses to demonstrate erroneous locality information for archive specimens from the late nineteenth century. Read More

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http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/cgi/doi/10.1098/rspb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2009.1837DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2842765PMC
April 2010
1 Read

The effect of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species on scientific collections.

Proc Biol Sci 2008 Apr;275(1637):987-9

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AE, UK.

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) was conceived in the spirit of cooperation, with the aim of ensuring that the international trade in wild animals and plants, including all parts and derivatives, did not threaten their survival. However, concerns have been raised by scientists that CITES hinders the cross-border movement of scientific specimens. To our knowledge, no empirical analysis has been undertaken to demonstrate the existence of this effect. Read More

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https://cites.org/common/com/pc/17/X-PC17-Inf-06.pdf
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http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/cgi/doi/10.1098/rspb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2007.1683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2599944PMC
April 2008
1 Read

Late Quaternary vegetation, biodiversity and fire dynamics on the southern Brazilian highland and their implication for conservation and management of modern Araucaria forest and grassland ecosystems.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2007 Feb;362(1478):243-51

Albrecht-von-Haller-Institut für Pflanzenwissenschaften, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Abteilung für Palynologie und Klimadynamik, Untere Karspüle 2, 37073 Göttingen, Germany.

Palaeoecological background information is needed for management and conservation of the highly diverse mosaic of Araucaria forest and Campos (grassland) in southern Brazil. Questions on the origin of Araucaria forest and grasslands; its development, dynamic and stability; its response to environmental change such as climate; and the role of human impact are essential. Further questions on its natural stage of vegetation or its alteration by pre- and post-Columbian anthropogenic activity are also important. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2006.1984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2311428PMC
February 2007
1 Read

Evaluating bacterial pathogen DNA preservation in museum osteological collections.

Proc Biol Sci 2006 Mar;273(1587):645-53

Department of Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

Reports of bacterial pathogen DNA sequences obtained from archaeological bone specimens raise the possibility of greatly improving our understanding of the history of infectious diseases. However, the survival of pathogen DNA over long time periods is poorly characterized, and scepticism remains about the reliability of these data. In order to explore the survival of bacterial pathogen DNA in bone specimens, we analysed samples from 59 eighteenth and twentieth century individuals known to have been infected with either Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Treponema pallidum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2005.3339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1560077PMC

An integrated approach to fast and informative morphological vouchering of nematodes for applications in molecular barcoding.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2005 Oct;360(1462):1945-58

Department of Nematology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.

Molecular surveys of meiofaunal diversity face some interesting methodological challenges when it comes to interstitial nematodes from soils and sediments. Morphology-based surveys are greatly limited in processing speed, while barcoding approaches for nematodes are hampered by difficulties of matching sequence data with traditional taxonomy. Intermediate technology is needed to bridge the gap between both approaches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2005.1726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1609217PMC
October 2005
25 Reads

Wedding biodiversity inventory of a large and complex Lepidoptera fauna with DNA barcoding.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2005 Oct;360(1462):1835-45

Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

By facilitating bioliteracy, DNA barcoding has the potential to improve the way the world relates to wild biodiversity. Here we describe the early stages of the use of cox1 barcoding to supplement and strengthen the taxonomic platform underpinning the inventory of thousands of sympatric species of caterpillars in tropical dry forest, cloud forest and rain forest in northwestern Costa Rica. The results show that barcoding a biologically complex biota unambiguously distinguishes among 97% of more than 1000 species of reared Lepidoptera. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2005.1715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1609230PMC
October 2005
11 Reads

Towards writing the encyclopedia of life: an introduction to DNA barcoding.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2005 Oct;360(1462):1805-11

Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3DS, UK.

An international consortium of major natural history museums, herbaria and other organizations has launched an ambitious project, the 'Barcode of Life Initiative', to promote a process enabling the rapid and inexpensive identification of the estimated 10 million species on Earth. DNA barcoding is a diagnostic technique in which short DNA sequence(s) can be used for species identification. The first international scientific conference on Barcoding of Life was held at the Natural History Museum in London in February 2005, and here we review the scientific challenges discussed during this conference and in previous publications. Read More

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http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/cgi/doi/10.1098/rstb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2005.1730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1609222PMC
October 2005
9 Reads

Evolutionary distinctiveness of the extinct Yunnan box turtle (Cuora yunnanensis) revealed by DNA from an old museum specimen.

Proc Biol Sci 2004 Dec;271 Suppl 6:S391-4

Evolutionary Genomics Department, Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA 94598, USA.

Cuora yunnanensis is an extinct turtle known from 12 specimens collected from Yunnan, China, before 1908. We used ancient DNA methods to sequence 1723 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from a museum specimen of C. yunnanensis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2004.0217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1810102PMC
December 2004
2 Reads

A taxonomic wish-list for community ecology.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2004 Apr;359(1444):585-97

Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA.

Community ecology seeks to explain the number and relative abundance of coexisting species. Four research frontiers in community ecology are closely tied to research in systematics and taxonomy: the statistics of species richness estimators, global patterns of biodiversity, the influence of global climate change on community structure, and phylogenetic influences on community structure. The most pressing needs for taxonomic information in community ecology research are usable taxonomic keys, current nomenclature, species occurrence records and resolved phylogenies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2003.1443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1693344PMC
April 2004
3 Reads

Taxonomic triage and the poverty of phylogeny.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2004 Apr;359(1444):571-83

Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Revisionary taxonomy is frequently dismissed as merely descriptive, which belies its strong intellectual content and hypothesis-driven nature. Funding for taxonomy is inadequate and largely diverted to studies of phylogeny that neither improve classifications nor nomenclature. Phylogenetic classifications are optimal for storing and predicting information, but phylogeny divorced from taxonomy is ephemeral and erodes the accuracy and information content of the language of biology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2003.1452DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1693342PMC

Climate change and evolving human diversity in Europe during the last glacial.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2004 Feb;359(1442):243-53; discussion 253-4

Centre for the Archaeology of Human Origins, University of Southampton, Avenue Campus, Southampton SO17 1BF, UK.

A link between climate change and human evolution during the Pleistocene has often been assumed but rarely tested. At the macro-evolutionary level Foley showed for hominids that extinction, rather than speciation, correlates with environmental change as recorded in the deep sea record. Our aim is to examine this finding at a smaller scale and with high-resolution environmental and archaeological archives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2003.1396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1693315PMC
February 2004

Plant species descriptions show signs of disease.

Proc Biol Sci 2003 Nov;270 Suppl 2:S156-8

Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA.

It is well known that diseases can greatly influence the morphology of plants, but often the incidence of disease is either too rare or the symptoms too obvious for the 'abnormalities' to cause confusion in systematics. However, we have recently come across several misinterpretations of disease-induced traits that may have been perpetuated into modern species inventories. Anther-smut disease (caused by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum) is common in many members of the Caryophyllaceae and related plant families. Read More

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http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/cgi/doi/10.1098/rsbl.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2003.0063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1809931PMC
November 2003
4 Reads

Generation, description and storage of dendritic morphology data.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2001 Aug;356(1412):1131-45

Krasnow Institute for Advanced Study, George Mason University, MS2A1-4400 Univerity Drive, Fairfax VA 22030-4444, USA.

It is generally assumed that the variability of neuronal morphology has an important effect on both the connectivity and the activity of the nervous system, but this effect has not been thoroughly investigated. Neuroanatomical archives represent a crucial tool to explore structure-function relationships in the brain. We are developing computational tools to describe, generate, store and render large sets of three-dimensional neuronal structures in a format that is compact, quantitative, accurate and readily accessible to the neuroscientist. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2001.0905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1088507PMC
August 2001
3 Reads
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