1,379 results match your criteria Archives Italiennes De Biologie[Journal]


Step by step procedure for stereological counts of catecholamine neurons in the mouse brainstem.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Dec;156(4):171-182

Human Anatomy, Dept of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa (Italy) - Email:

This work represents a detailed methodological description of automated stereology dedicated to all brainstem catecholamine nuclei. Each tyrosine-hydroxylase-containing nucleus was analyzed to count the following features: i) nuclear volume; ii) neuron number per nucleus; iii) neuron area per each nucleus.A number of reports described catecholamine-containing neurons within brainstem of a variety of animal species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/aib.v156i4.4673DOI Listing
December 2018

First impressions on face trustworthiness across ages: Evidence from a cross-sectional study.

Authors:
T Marzi A Peru

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Dec;156(4):164-170

Department of Neurosciences, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health, University of Firenze, Italy, Via di San Salvi 12, 50135 Firenze, Italy - Email:

The present study aimed to explore how the sense of trustworthiness is influenced by age and gender. Participants were to judge computer-generated faces for trustworthiness in two different experimental conditions according to the orientation of the virtual stimuli: canonical (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201843DOI Listing
December 2018

Effects of ultrasound and selenium on human neurons in vitro.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Dec;156(4):153-163

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine,University of Firenze,Largo Brambilla 3, 50134 Firenze, Italy - Email:

As the effects of ultrasound on human brain functions might bear therapeutic potential, in this study, we examined the effects of diagnostic, i.e. non-thermal, ultrasound, on morphology, networking, and metabolic activity of SH- SY5Y human neurons in culture, as well as on the expression of GAP-43, Hsp90 and VEGF proteins, with and without selenium in the culture medium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201842DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Fatigue in multiple sclerosis: pathophysiology and emergent interventions.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Dec;156(4):149-152

Service de Physiologie - Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôpital Henri Mondor, 51 Av du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, Créteil, France - Email:

Not available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201841DOI Listing
December 2018

Non-REM sleep and the neural correlates of consciousness: more than meets the eyes.

Authors:
U Olcese

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Sep;156(3):137-148

Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, Room C4.110, Science Park 904,1098XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands - Email:

The scientific study of the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has long relied on comparing conditions in which consciousness is normally present with others in which it is impaired. Brain lesions offer a unique opportunity to understand which anatomical networks are needed to sustain consciousness, but provide limited insights on the patterns of neural activity that can support conscious processing. Non-REM sleep, on the other hand, has long epitomized the typical case of a non-conscious yet fully active brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201835DOI Listing
September 2018

The state of cortical microcircuits during wakefulness and sleep.

Authors:
C Bosman N Aldunate

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Sep;156(3):127-136

Center for Neuroscience, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, P.O. Box 94246, 1090 GE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands - Email:

Wakefulness and sleep are two qualitatively different behavioral states. The mechanisms underlying these behavioral states can be traced back to the coordinated functioning of cortical microcircuits. The stereotypical activity of cortical microcircuits during wakefulness and sleep shapes a cortical state, defined as an organized neuronal network functioning across time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201834DOI Listing
September 2018
11 Reads

Hippocampal theta power pressure builds over non-REM sleep and dissipates within REM sleep episodes.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Sep;156(3):112-126

Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, 610 Charles E Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA - Email:

The theta rhythm during waking has been associated with voluntary motor activity and learning processes involving the hippocampus. Theta also occurs continuously during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep where it likely serves memory consolidation. Theta amplitude builds across wakefulness and is the best indicator of the homeostatic need for non-REM (NREM) sleep. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201833DOI Listing
September 2018
20 Reads

Dreaming during REM sleep: autobiographically meaningful or a simple reflection of a Hebbian-based memory consolidation process?

Authors:
U Voss A Klimke

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Sep;156(3):99-111

Frankfurt University and VITOS Hochtaunus GmbH, Abt. Psychiatrische Neurophysiologie, Emil-Sioli-Weg 1-3, 6131 Friedrichsdorf, Germany - Email:

REM sleep is a state of desynchronized electrophysiological activity of the brain. It is usually accompanied by mental activity characterized by a succession of complex visual experiences commonly referred to as dreaming. Although REM sleep and dreaming are not implicitly conjoined, when they co-occur, they have a very distinct phenomenology, as, typically, the dream plot is bizarre and incohesive which is mirrored in heightened brain activation coupled with strongly attenuated coherence levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201832DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Sleep Fosters Insight Into Real-Life Problems.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Sep;156(3):87-98

Nieuwe Achtergracht 129 B, 1018 WS Amsterdam, The Netherlands - Email:

Anecdotal reports recount of individuals obtaining insights during sleep. For instance, various acclaimed scientists have attributed some of their greatest insights to sleep-related mentation. To date, this phenomenon has not been systematically investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201831DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Claimed effects, outcome variables and methods of measurement for health claims proposed under regulation (EC) 1924/2006 and related to cognitive function in adults.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 07;156(1-2):64-86

The Laboratory of Phytochemicals in Physiology, Department of Food and Drugs, University of Parma, Parma, Italy - Email:

Some food/food components have been the object of request of authorization to the use of health claims related to cognitive function in adults and compliant with the Regulation (EC) 1924/2006. Most of the requests have received a negative opinion by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) also because of the choice of not appropriate outcome variables (OVs) and methods of measurement (MMs) selected in the trials used to substantiate the claim. This manuscript referes to the collection, collation and critical analysis of OVs and MMs related to cognitive function in adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201817DOI Listing
July 2018
5 Reads

Aerobic exercise effects upon cognition in Alzheimer's Disease: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 07;156(1-2):54-63

Department of Medicine and Surgery, Laboratory of Clinical Psychology, Psychophysiology and Clinical Neuropsychology, University of Parma, Parma, Italy - Email:

Background: Previous reviews and meta-analysis have shown that physical activity has positive effects on cognition in healthy elderly as well as in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment, even if with a minor effect whereas less is known about the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD).

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to systematically review the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) designed to evaluate aerobic exercise effects upon cognition in AD patients.

Methods: PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science and DARE databases were analytically searched for RCTs including aerobic exercise interventions for AD patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201816DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

X-ray micro-computed tomography of postmortem brain tissue using potassium dichromate as a contrast agent.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 07;156(1-2):48-53

Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain - Email:

No abstract available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201815DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

Contextual fear conditioning modulates the gene expression over time.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 07;156(1-2):40-47

Department of Translational Research and News Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, 56127 Pisa, Italy - Email:

Contextual fear conditioning (CFC) is a quick cognitive test based on the association context-aversive stimulus in which a single training leads to a long-term memory. Previously, we showed that 2 days after conditioning the expression of the genes Napa, Pnf2, Casp3, Pdrg1, Ywhaz, Stmn1, Bpgm, were positively modulated in CFC rats respect to naïve rats, explor rats which had freely explored the experimental apparatus and SO rats to which the same number of aversive shocks used in CFC paradigm had been administered in the same CFC apparatus in less time to prevent the association between painful stimuli and apparatus, whereas the genes Actr3, Pea15 and Tiprl were more expressed in SO rats and Cplx1, Trim32 and Ran genes were more expressed in explor rats. At 2 days, Tomm20 gene expression resulted positively modulated in both CFC and explor rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201814DOI Listing

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Serotonin Transporter (SERT) in Platelets of Patients with Mild Huntington's Disease: Relationships with Social Cognition Symptoms.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 07;156(1-2):27-39

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy - Email:

Deficits in social-cognition processing have been identified during early stages of Huntington Disease (HD), attracting interest on their relevance as possible predictors of  neurodegenerative progression. Since the neurotrophin Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) are known to modulate human adaptive behavior, we appraised these two proteins in mild-HD using blood platelets, with the aim at finding relationships with cognitive/psychosocial skills. Thirteen gene positive and symptomatic patients (9M/4W, HD-stage II, age> 40y) together 11 gender/age matched controls without a concurrent diagnosis of psychiatric disorders, underwent a blood test to determine BDNF storage and membrane-bound SERT in platelets by an ELISA immune-enzyme dosage and [3H]-paroxetine ([3H]-PAR) binding, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201813DOI Listing
July 2018
10 Reads

Imitation Strategies in Callosotomized Patients.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 07;156(1-2):12-26

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Section of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, 60020 Ancona, Italy - Email:

Imitation is a human ability rooted in early life. It allows people to interact with each other by observing and reproducing simple and complex movements alike. Imitation can occur in at least two forms: the rst, de ned as anatomical, seems to be based primarily on the mental construct of the "body schema" because the imitating movement corresponds precisely to the imitated movement in bodily terms, but not in terms of spatial compatibility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201812DOI Listing

Neural functional correlates of emotional processing in patients with first-episode psychoses: an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 07;156(1-2):1-11

Sapienza University, Rome, Italy, School of Medicine and Psychology, NESMOS Department (Neurosciences, Mental Health, and Sensory Organs), Sant'Andrea Hospital, 00189 Rome, Italy - Email:

Background: Early emotional recognition impairment characterises rst-episode psychoses (FEP) and remains stable thereafter. Patients with FEP consistently show brain activation changes during emotional processing in functional neuroimaging studies.

Aim And Methods: To identify and compare cerebral activation correlates of FEP patients and healthy controls (HCs) during emotional task performances, we performed an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of peer-reviewed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201811DOI Listing
July 2018
11 Reads

Protective effects of long-term lithium administration in a slowly progressive SMA mouse model.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Dec;155(4):118-130

I.R.C.C.S. I.N.M. Neuromed, via Atinense 18, 86077, Pozzilli (IS), Italy - Email:

In the present study we evaluated the long-term effects of lithium administration to a knock-out double transgenic mouse model (Smn-/-; SMN1A2G+/-; SMN2+/+) of Spinal Muscle Atrophy type III (SMA-III). This model is characterized by very low levels of the survival motor neuron protein, slow disease progression and motor neuron loss, which enables to detect disease-modifying effects at delayed time intervals. Lithium administration attenuates the decrease in motor activity and provides full protection from motor neuron loss occurring in SMA-III mice, throughout the disease course. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201749DOI Listing
December 2017
2 Reads

Revisiting the gamma loop in ALS.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Dec;155(4):118-130

Human Anatomy, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy - Email:

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fast progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle denervation, weakening and atrophy, which eventually culminates into death, mainly due to respiratory failure. The traditional view of ALS as a disorder affecting selectively motor neurons throughout the central nervous system has been progressively dispelled by innumerous lines of evidence indicating that other cells but motor neurons may be affected as well. Remarkably, this disorder is not limited to the motor system but rather configures as a systemic disease yielding a plethora of clinical signs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201748DOI Listing
December 2017
5 Reads

Therapy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): an unexpected evolving scenario.

Authors:
Vincenzo Silani

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Dec;155(4):118-130

Department of Neurology-Stroke Unit and Laboratory of Neuroscience, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Center for Neurotechnology and Brain Therapeutics, Università degli Studi di Milano, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy - Email:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease resulting in increasing disability, being uniformly fatal. Since its approval in the 1990s, riluzole remained for long time the unique treatment, offering modest survival benefit. Most recently a second drug has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of ALS: edaravone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201747DOI Listing
December 2017
4 Reads
1.422 Impact Factor

The multisystem degeneration amyotrophic lateral sclerosis - neuropathological staging and clinical translation.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Dec;155(4):118-130

Department of Neurology, University of Ulm, Oberer Eselsberg 45, 89081 Ulm, Germany - Email:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is traditionally considered a disease affecting exclusively motor neurons. However, much evidence points towards additional involvement of brain systems other than the motor. As much as half of ALS patients display cognitive-behavioral disturbances. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201746DOI Listing
December 2017
3 Reads

Imaging techniques in ALS.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Dec;155(4):142-151

Department of Radiology, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, UK - Email:

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration of both upper and lower motor neuron located in the spinal cord and brainstem. Diagnosis of ALS is predominantly clinical, nevertheless, electromyography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) may provide support. Several advanced MRI techniques have been proven useful for ALS diagnosis and, indeed, the combination of different MRI techniques demonstrated an improvement in sensitivity and specificity as far as 90%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201745DOI Listing
December 2017
10 Reads

Cross-talk between pathogenic mechanisms in neurodegeneration: the role of oxidative stress in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Dec;155(4):131-141

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Savi 10, 56126 Pisa, Italy - Email:

The mechanisms underlying motoneuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the motor system with progressive paralysis, are complex and not yet fully understood. It is generally agreed that ALS is a multifactorial and multisystem disease due not only possibly to genetic causes but also to other factors like oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, protein aggregation, RNA dysmetabolism, autophagy, and excitotoxicity glutamate-mediate. Altered oxidative stress biomarker profile has been repeatedly reported in ALS patients, which may suggest that abnormal free radical production is relevant in the ALS pathogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201744DOI Listing
December 2017
4 Reads

Are there endogenous stem cells in the spinal cord?

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Dec;155(4):118-130

Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, via Roma 55, 56126, Pisa, Italy - Email:

Neural progenitor cells (NPC) represent the stem-like niche of the central nervous system that maintains a regenerative potential also in the adult life. Despite NPC in the brain are well documented, the presence of NPC in the spinal cord has been controversial for a long time. This is due to a scarce activity of NPC within spinal cord, which also makes difficult their identification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201743DOI Listing
December 2017
3 Reads

Next Generation Sequencing and ALS: known genes, different phenotyphes.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Dec;155(4):110-117

I.R.C.C.S. I.N.M. Neuromed, via Atinense 18, 86077, Pozzilli (IS), Italy - Email:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is fatal neurodegenerative disease clinically characterized by upper and lower motor neuron dysfunction resulting in rapidly progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure. Most cases appear to be sporadic, but 5-10 % of cases have a family history of the disease, and over the last decade, identification of mutations in about 20 genes predisposing to these disorders has provided the means to better understand their pathogenesis. Next Generation sequencing (NGS) is an advanced high-throughput DNA sequencing technology which have rapidly contributed to an acceleration in the discovery of genetic risk factors for both familial and sporadic neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201742DOI Listing
December 2017
3 Reads

The emerging picture of ALS: a multisystem, not only a "motor neuron disease.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Dec;155(4):99-109

Department of Neurology-Stroke Unit and Laboratory of Neuroscience, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Center for Neurotechnology and Brain Therapeutics, Università degli Studi di Milano, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy - Email:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is traditionally considered a disease affecting exclusively motor neurons: compelling evidence points now towards additional involvement of extramotor functions. Beside the cognitive-behavioural disturbances, many ALS patients express extrapyramidal deficits: neuropathological findings fully support the multisystem brain degeneration. The therapeutical option to treat the multisystemic character of ALS represents an additional difficult task in absence of sensitive biomarkers or better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201741DOI Listing
December 2017
5 Reads
1 Citation
1.422 Impact Factor

Neural correlates of fatigue in multiple sclerosis: a combined neurophysiological and neuroimaging approach (R1).

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Sep;155(3):142-151

IRCCS Centro Neurolesi "Bonino-Pulejo", 98124 Messina, Italy - Email:

The present study is aimed at further exploring structural and functional correlates of fatigue in Relapsing- Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) patients by using a combined approach by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and a Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). The physiopathology of fatigue in MS is still poorly understood, although a variety of pathogenic mechanisms has been proposed. Our working hypothesis is that diffuse microstructural white matter damage may subtend the cortico-subcortical functional disconnection described in patients with MS and fatigue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201735DOI Listing
September 2017
2 Reads

Silver nano particles ameliorate learning and spatial memory of male Wistar rats by prevention of amyloid fibril-induced neurotoxicity.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Dec;155(3):131-141

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran - Email:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic degenerative disease characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which results into memory and learning impairments. In the present study, we showed that the aggregates formed by a protein that has no link with Alzheimer's disease, namely the hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL), were cytotoxic and decreased spatial learning and memory in rats. The effect of Ag-nano particles (Ag-NPs) was investigated on disruption of amyloid aggregation and preservation of cognitive behavior of rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201734DOI Listing
December 2017
1 Read

The nature of catecholamine-containing neurons in the enteric nervous system in relationship with organogenesis, normal human anatomy and neurodegeneration.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Sep;155(3):118-130

Department of Traslational Research and New Tecnologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy - Email:

The gastrointestinal tract is provided with extrinsic and intrinsic innervation. The extrinsic innervation includes the classic vagal parasympathetic and sympathetic components, with afferent sensitive and efferent secretomotor fibers. The intrinsic innervations is represented by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is recognized as a complex neural network controlling a variety of cell populations, including smooth muscle cells, mucosal secretory cells, endocrine cells, microvasculature, immune and inflammatory cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201733DOI Listing
September 2017
7 Reads

A small dose of apomorphine counteracts the deleterious effects of middle cerebral artery occlusion in different models.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Sep;155(3):110-117

Department of Traslational Research and New Tecnologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy - Email:

The present manuscript investigates in two animal species by using two different experimental models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (permanent and transient), the neuroprotective effects of the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. These effects were evaluated by measuring the infarct volume and by counting muscle strength at different time points following the ischemic insult. Apomorphine at the dose of 3 mg/Kg when adminsitered at two hours following the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery was able to reduce significantly the infarct volume in the cortex of mice and the ischemic volume of the basal ganglia perfused by the perforant branches of the middle cerebral artery in the rat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201732DOI Listing
September 2017
1 Read

A descriptive analysis of sleep and wakefulness states during maternal behaviors in postpartum rats.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Sep;155(3):99-109

Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, General Flores 2125, 11800 Montevideo, Uruguay - Email:

Mother rats spend most of their time nursing their litter during the early stages of the postpartum period, only occasionally leaving the nest. The suckling stimulus from the pups elicits the adoption of nursing postures, during which milk ejection occurs, an event associated with the occurrence of non-REM (NREM) sleep in the rat. Despite this evidence, the characteristics of sleep during different nursing postures along the postpartum period remain unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201731DOI Listing
September 2017
2 Reads

Methamphetamine increases Prion Protein and induces dopamine-dependent expression of protease resistant PrPsc.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Jul;155(1-2):81-97

Human Anatomy, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy - Tel: +39 050 2218611 - Email:

The cellular prion protein (PrPc) is physiologically expressed within selective brain areas of mammals. Alterations in the secondary structure of this protein lead to scrapie-like prion protein (PrPsc), which precipitates in the cell. PrPsc has been detected in infectious, inherited or sporadic neurodegenerative disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/000398292017129DOI Listing
July 2017
7 Reads

Ultrastructural study of the neural microcircuits in the sensory epithelium of the paratympanic organ of the chicken.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Jul;155(1-2):64-74

Human Anatomy, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Via Risorgimento 6, 56124 Pisa, Italy - Tel: +39 050 2218609 - Email:

The paratympanic organ (PTO) is a sensory organ located in the medial wall of the tympanic cavity of birds. The organ looks like a small tapering vesicle, and is equipped with a sensory epithelium formed by supporting cells (SCs) and Type II hair cells (Type II-HCs). The function of the PTO has not yet been precisely defined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/000398292017128DOI Listing
July 2017
7 Reads

Dreamlike events are correlated with the length of sleep mentation reports.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Jul;155(1-2):75-80

University of California, San Francisco, 1569 Solano Ave #324, Berkeley, San Francisco, CA 94707 - Tel: +510 558 3488 - Fax: +855 558 3489 - Email:

We investigated the relationship between length and dreamlike quality in sleep mentation reports. Reports were obtained by waking subjects at sleep onset (SO) and at 5 and 10 minutes into the second (REMP2) and fourth REM periods (REMP4). Reports were recorded, transcribed, and scored blindly for total word count (TWC) and dreamlike quality as measured by a composite dream scale score (CDS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/000398292017127DOI Listing
July 2017
2 Reads

Aerobic exercise effects upon cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Jul;155(1-2):54-62

Department of Medicine and Surgery, Laboratory of Clinical Psychology, University of Parma, Via Volturno 39, I-43126 Parma, Italy - Tel: +39 0521 034829 - Fax: +39 0521 034812 - Email:

Several studies have shown that physical activity has positive effects on cognition in healthy older adults without cognitive complains but lesser is known about the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in patients suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The aim of the present study was to systematically review the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effects of aerobic exercise upon cognition in MCI patients. To this end, PubMed, Cochrane and Web of Science databases were analytically searched for RCTs including aerobic exercise interventions for MCI patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/000398292017126DOI Listing
July 2017
23 Reads

The proposal of a clinical protocol to assess central and peripheral fatigue in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Jul;155(1-2):43-53

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56126 Pisa, Italy - Tel: +39 050 993046 - Email:

DM1 is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by muscle weakness, myotonia, and multisystemic involvement. According to current literature fatigue and daytime sleepiness are among the main symptoms of DM1. Oxidative stress has been proposed to be one of the pathogenic factors of fatigue consequent to DM1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/000398292017125DOI Listing
July 2017
1 Read

Influence of physical exercise on β-amyloid, α-synuclein and tau accumulation: an in vitro model of oxidative stress in human red blood cells.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Jul;155(1-2):33-42

Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa, Via Bonanno 6, 56126 Pisa, Italy - Tel: +39 050 2212115 - Fax: +39 050 2219609 - Email:

A common pathological feature of neurodegenerative disorders (NDs), such as Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases, is the abnormal accumulation and misfolding of specific proteins, primarily α-synuclein (α-syn), β-amyloid1-42 (Aβ) and tau, in brain and in peripheral tissues too. Oxidative stress has been proved to be involved in NDs at various levels and, in particular, in such protein alterations, on the contrary physical activity is emerging as a counteracting factor in NDs. In the present work, the content of Aβ, α-syn and tau in red blood cells (RBCs) derived from ten endurance athletes (ATHL) and ten sedentary volunteers (SED) were compared before and after in vitrooxidative stress treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/000398292017124DOI Listing

Lifestyle, Physical Activity and Cognitive Functions: the impact on the scores of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCa).

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Jul;155(1-2):25-32

Department of Medicine and Surgery, Clinical Psychology Unit and Labs, University of Parma, Via Volturno 39, I-43126 Parma, Italy - Tel: +39 0521 034829 - Fax: +39 0521 034812 - Email:

The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a rapid screening tool, including subtests to assess several cognitive domains, developed to detect MCI from normal ageing cognitive changes. Several validation and normative studies have conducted around the world considering the influences of age and education on the MoCA score, but none takes into account the lifestyle and habits. However, lifestyles, and particularly physical activity (PA) have been positively associated with both physical and mental health in elderly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/000398292017123DOI Listing
July 2017
1 Read

Physical exercise and oxidative stress in muscular dystrophies: is there a good balance?

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Jul;155(1-2):11-24

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurological Clinic, University of Pisa, Via Savi 10, 56126 Pisa, Italy - Tel: +39 050 993191 - Email:

The effect of oxidative stress on muscle damage inducted by physical exercise is widely debated. It is generally agreed that endurance and intense exercise can increase oxidative stress and generate changes in antioxidant power inducing muscle damage; however, regular and moderate exercise can be beneficial for the health improving the antioxidant defense mechanisms in the majority of cases. Growing evidences suggest that an increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of several muscular dystrophies (MDs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/000398292017122DOI Listing
July 2017
2 Reads

Physical Exercise Improves Total Antioxidant Capacity and Gene Expression in Rat Hippocampal Tissue.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Jul;155(1-2):1-10

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100 Pisa, Italy - Email:

Exercise may exert beneficial effects on cognitive functions and play an important role in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. Such effects seem to be mediated by changes in anti-oxidative status, but limited information is available on the nature of molecular pathways supporting the antioxidant effects of exercise in the brain. In this study 3-5-month-old male Wistar albino rats were subjected to three times/week moderate intensity exercise on a rodent treadmill for a period of 6 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/000398292017121DOI Listing
July 2017
20 Reads

Further evidence of a prolonged hypotensive and a bradycardic effect after mandibular extension in normal volunteers.

Arch Ital Biol 2016 Dec;154(4):143-150

Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research, Via Moruzzi 1, 56126 Pisa, Italy - Email:

We previously reported that in normotensive humans submaximal mouth opening (mandibular extension) obtained by an ad hoc dilator (spring device), associated with partial masticatory movements and prolonged for 10 minutes is followed by a long-lasting reduction of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). Similar results were obtained by us in anesthetized rats. A recent independent study failed to confirm the results in the normotensive human. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201645DOI Listing
December 2016

Injection of Toll-like receptor 4 siRNA into the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray attenuates withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent rats.

Arch Ital Biol 2016 Dec;154(4):133-142

Department of Anesthesiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China - Email:

We assessed the role of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) region of morphine-dependent rats on attenuating withdrawal syndrome, and regulating glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67), glutamic acid (Glu), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). After siRNA-mediated downregulation of TLR4, changes were observed in withdrawal behavior and downstream signaling molecules. Rats were injected into the vlPAG with TLR4 siRNA, followed by intraperitoneal injection of morphine for 5 consecutive days, and then naloxone, and the behavioral indices of morphine withdrawal were observed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201644DOI Listing
December 2016

Evaluation of functional outcome measured by modified Rankin scale in rtPA treated patients with acute ischemic stroke.

Arch Ital Biol 2016 Dec;154(4):125-132

Special Hospital for Cerebrovascular Disorders 'St Sava', Nemanjina 2, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia - Email:

Aim of our study was to assess functional outcome measured by modified Rankin scale (mRS) in patients that were treated with thrombolytic therapy-recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) after acute ischemic stroke. The study included 100 participants that were treated after acute ischemic stroke. Analyzed parameters included: gender; age groups: age 54 and below (Group), 55-64 (Group), 65-74 (Group), and 75 and above (Group); cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201643DOI Listing
December 2016

Electrocortical spectral analysis and fractal methods for assessing the effects of unilateral brain injury on rat cerebellum.

Arch Ital Biol 2016 Dec;154(4):118-124

Department of Neurophysiology, Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stankovic", University of Belgrade, Despot Stefan Boulevard 142, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia - Email:

We used electrocortical spectral analysis and fractal methods for assessing the effects of unilateral, single brain injury on cerebellum. Cerebellar electrocortical activity was recorded in control state (before the injury) and after a single brain injury of the cerebellar cortex in anesthetized rats. We noticed that the mean power in gamma high-frequency domain (32-128 Hz) of the cerebellum, was increased after the first brain injury, while after a two-week recovery, it was larger than before the injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201642DOI Listing
December 2016

Brain connectivity is altered by extreme physical exercise during non-REM sleep and wakefulness: indications from EEG and fMRI studies.

Arch Ital Biol 2016 Dec;154(4):103-117

Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular and Critical Area Pathology, University of Pisa, via Savi 10, 56126, Pisa, Italy - Email:

Brain connectivity is associated to behavioral states (e.g. wake, sleep) and modified by physical activity although, to date, it is not clear which components (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201641DOI Listing
December 2016

A Statistical Proposal for Selecting a Data-depending Threshold in Neurobiology.

Arch Ital Biol 2016 Jun;154(2-3):78-101

Department of Mathematics F. Brioschi, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan, Italy - Email:

In this paper we propose a new methodology for introducing thresholds in the analysis of neuro- biological databases. Often, in Neuroscience, absolute thresholds are adopted. This is done by cutting the data below (or above) predetermined values of the involved parameters, without an analysis of the distribution of the collected data concerning the phenomenon under investigation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201625DOI Listing

Cortical excitability in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone compared to patients with hypothyroidism and euthyroid controls: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

Arch Ital Biol 2016 Jan;154(2-3):68-77

Department of Biomedical Science and Morphological and Functional Images, University of Messina, Italy - Email:

Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) describes a rare syndrome in which serum levels of thyroid hormones are elevated but serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are unsuppressed. The importance of thyroid hormones for the normal function of the adult brain is corroborated by the frequent association of thyroid dysfunctions with neurological and psychiatric symptoms. In this study we investigated whether adult thyroid hormone resistance affects cortical excitability and modulates inhibitory and excitatory intracortical circuitries by using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201624DOI Listing
January 2016

Long lasting musical training modifies language processing: a Dichotic Fused Word Test study.

Arch Ital Biol 2016 Jan;154(2-3):59-67

Department of Translational Research on New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, Institute of Physiology, University of Pisa, Via San Zeno 31, 56127 Pisa, Italy - Email:

Musical training modifies neural areas associated with both music and language and enhances speech perception and discrimination by engaging the right hemisphere regions classically associated with music processing. On these bases we hypothesized that participants with extended musical training could have reduced left-hemisphere dominance for speech. In order to verify this hypothesis, two groups of right-handed individuals, one with long-term musical training and one with no musical training, participated to a Dichotic Fused Word Test consisting in the simultaneous presentation of different pairs of rhyming words and pseudo-words, one to the left ear and one to the right one. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201623DOI Listing
January 2016
9 Reads

Harm aversion explains utilitarian choices in moral decision-making in males but not in females.

Arch Ital Biol 2016 Jun;154(2-3):50-58

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Via Savi 10, I-56126 Pisa, Italy - Email:

In recent years, a great deal of research has relied on hypothetical sacrificial dilemmas to investigate decision-making processes involved in pro-social utilitarian choices. Recent evidence, however, has suggested that moral sacrificial choices may actually reflect reduced harm aversion and antisocial dispositions rather than an utilitarian inclination. Here, we used moral dilemmas to confront healthy volunteers with controversial action choices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201622DOI Listing

Serotonin modifies the spontaneous spiking activity of gracile nucleus neurons in rats: role of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors.

Arch Ital Biol 2016 Jun;154(2-3):39-49

Department of Bio-medical Sciences, Section of Physiology, University of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, I-95125 Catania, Italy - Email:

We tested the effects of microiontophoretic application of serotonin (5-HT) on the firing rate of neurons located in the gracile nucleus (GN) of rats. Application of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 agonists and antagonists respectively mimicked/ modulated and blocked the effects produced by the amine, respectively. Among the tested neurons, 88. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4449/aib.v154i2/3.3430DOI Listing
June 2016
2 Reads