1,400 results match your criteria Archives Italiennes De Biologie[Journal]


Measurement of drusen and their correlation with visual symptoms in patients affected by age-related macular degeneration.

Arch Ital Biol 2020 Dec;158(3-4):82-104

Human Anatomy, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa (Italy) - Email:

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common retinal disorder, which became more and more prevalent in the last decades. AMD is now the most prevalent cause of blindness in the western world. The disorder is classified into two phenotypes named dry and wet AMD. Read More

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December 2020

Comparison of ependymomas and medulloblastomas located in the posterior cranial fossa: An anatomical and histopathological study.

Arch Ital Biol 2020 12;158(3-4):74-81

Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Dicle, 21280, Diyarbakır, Turkey - Email:

Posterior fossa tumors (PFTs) include medulloblastomas, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, pilocytic astrocytomas, ependymomas, and brainstem gliomas. We evaluated patients with surgery at our clinic, comparing epidemiological, clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics of medulloblastoma and ependymoma to identify factors that might assist preoperative diagnosis, help to develop treatment algorithms, and have prognostic value after surgery. Pediatric patients from 0 to 16 and young adults from 16 to 29 years of age with surgery for pathologically confirmed ependymomas or medulloblastomas between January 2014 and January 2020 were eligible. Read More

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December 2020

The exploration of a new environment leads to the modulation of gene expression for prolonged times in the rat.

Arch Ital Biol 2020 Dec;158(3-4):67-73

Department of Translational Research on New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Via S. Zeno 31, 56127 Pisa, Italy - Email:

In the present study we performed a transcriptional analysis in order to evaluate changes in gene expression induced by exploration in prolonged times. The analysis was carried out 3, 10 and 20 days after exploration. We analyzed the modulation of the expression levels of Pfn2, Casp3, Pdrg1, Pea15, Ywhaz genes which previously were found not modulated 2 days after exploration. Read More

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December 2020

Hyperostosis frontalis interna and frontal bone thickness among various age groups - differences between males and females.

Arch Ital Biol 2020 Jun;158(2):57-63

University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Medicine. Hajduk Veljkova 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia - Email:

Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) represents an abnormality of the frontal cranial bone that is characterized by bilateral, nodular thickening of its inner lamina and may sometimes be associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms such as headaches and depression. The aim was to assess prevalence, sex and age differences of HFI and frontal bone thickness by means of MRI. This retrospective study included 908 subjects who were divided into male and female groups and further subdivided into three groups, youngest (≤45 years), middle-aged (46- 65 years) and the oldest group (65 years). Read More

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The swimming control group in spatial reference memory task: analysis of its motor cortex activity.

Arch Ital Biol 2020 Jun;158(2):45-56

Departamento de Psicología. Universidad de Oviedo. Plaza Feijoo s/n. 33003 Oviedo, Spain - Email:

Spatial reference memory in rodents is commonly performed in the Morris Water Maze (MWM). The use of control groups on this task is essential in order to subtract brain activity not related to learning. To study the functional contribution of selected brain areas, we assessed neuronal metabolic activity thorough quantitative cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry. Read More

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Effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and Oxidative Stress Caused by the Exhaustion Exercise on Endotelial Damage.

Authors:
M Akil

Arch Ital Biol 2020 Jun;158(2):37-44

Usak University Faculty of Sports Science, Usak University, Usak, Turkey - Email:

This study was aimed to examine the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on endothelial dysfunction in rats with exercise-induced oxidative stress. Tests were performed on male (n=32) young adult Sprague-Dawley rats (12 weeks of age). The experimental animals were divided into four groups in equal numbers. Read More

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Nutraceuticals for dry age-related macular degeneration: a case report based on novel pathogenic and morphological insights.

Arch Ital Biol 2020 Mar;158(1):24-34

Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy - Email:

Age-related macular degeneration represents the main retinal disorder leading to irreversible blindness in people over the age of 50 in the Western World. Here we describe a case report, which suggest that specific nutraceutical compounds may exert beneficial effects on the progression of dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), an eye disease with no approved treatment or cure. Specific antioxidants, such as lutein, resveratrol and Vaccinium Myrtillus, which are known to reduce the risk of developing AMD, when co-administered alone, were supplemented to diet of an informed patient suffering from dry AMD. Read More

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Changes of sensory and pain thresholds in healthy subjects after mandibular extension at maximum mouth opening: implications for temporomandibular disorders therapy.

Arch Ital Biol 2020 Mar;158(1):17-23

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Via Romana, 06126, Perugia, Italy - Email:

There is evidence showing that increasing the vertical dimension of occlusion, or interocclusal distance, reduces pain symptoms in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and bruxism. The mechanism underlying the analgesic effect is still under investigation. Some researchers propose either a gate mechanism or the activation of the trigemino-cardiac reflex. Read More

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Imitation strategies in subjects with schizophrenia: a behavioural approach.

Arch Ital Biol 2020 Mar;158(1):3-16

Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Clinica, Sezione di Neuroscienze e Biologia Cellulare, Facoltà di Medicina, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Tronto 10/A, 60020 Ancona, Italy - Email:

Imitation is a basic human ability, present early in life. Previous studies on control subjects and callosotomized patients showed that imitation occurred mainly in mirror-mode in both groups (60% controls, 66% patients) when they imitate without instructions (free sessions). In contrast, when asked to use the same or opposite limb as the model (driven sessions), controls used anatomical mode (93%), callosotomized patients mainly mirror strategy (61%). Read More

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Vitamin D receptor expression and acid sphingomyelinase activity in prefrontal region of a learning animal model.

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Dec;157(4):120-128

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Via S. Costanzo, 06126, Perugia, Italy - Email:

Contextual fear conditioning (CFC) paradigm is routinely used to study fear-based learning in animals and it provides a useful model for understanding fear and anxiety in human. In the present study, such model was used following the previously established CFC protocol, and immunohistochemistry, enzymatic activity and western blotting analysis approaches were used to identify the expression of acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in prefrontal region brain of rat. Results revealed an increase of aSMase activity in conditioned rats, suggesting an apoptotic condition in such animals. Read More

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December 2019

Hypnotisability-related interoceptive awareness and inhibitory/activating emotional traits.

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Dec;157(4):111-119

Dept Translational Research and New Technologies, University of Pisa, Via san Zeno 31, 56127 Pisa - Email:

Emotions are influenced by several individual factors. Hypnotizability - a psychophysiological trait associated with morpho-functional cerebral and cerebellar variations able to sustain differences in interoception and emotion - could be one of them. The aims of the study were to find out possible differences in Interoceptive Awareness (IA) and in the emotional traits sustained by the Behavioral Inhibition/Activation System (BIS/BAS) in participants with high (highs), medium (mediums) and low (lows) hypnotizability and to investigate the association of interoceptive awareness and BIS/BAS related emotional traits as a function of hypnotizability. Read More

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December 2019

Does Parkinson's disease interfere with electromyographic fatigue of masticatory muscles?

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Dec;157(4):105-110

Ribeirão Preto School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo. Avenida do Café, s/n, 14040-904, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil - Email:

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease with manifestations related to oxidative stress and damage to the skeletal striated musculature. This study evaluated the electromyographic fatigue of the masseter and temporal muscles in individuals with Parkinson's disease. The median frequency of the normotensive electromyographic signal was analyzed in 16 individuals, aged between 50 and 70 years, with Parkinson's disease in stages I and III of the Hoehn and Yahr disability scale (n=8) or without the disease (n=8). Read More

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December 2019

The effect of single and repeated tDCS sessions on motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review.

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Sep;157(2-3):89-101

Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular and Critical Area Pathology, University of Pisa, via Savi, 10, 56126, Pisa, Italy - E-mail:

Objectives: to update understanding of the effectiveness of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease, since the last review was published in 2016.

Methods: in order to identify suitable publications for inclusion, an online search of the Pubmed, Scopus and Cochrane databases was carried out. Searches of relevant full-text articles were performed through specific keywords. Read More

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September 2019

Myelin Ultrastructure Terminology in Disease and Recovery Processes.

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Sep;157(2-3):76-88

Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Histology and Embryology, Ankara, Turkey - Email:

Ultrastructural evaluation of myelin coat helps to understand the possible background of pathological changes leading to deterioration or complete loss of nerve functions. A number of terms were previously introduced to describe the fine structural changes in myelin under various conditions. We believe that using a common terminology will be helpful to interpret the structure/function relationship in neurological disorders empowering the diagnosis and possible therapeutical approaches. Read More

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September 2019

An observational study of the effects of using an high oral splint on pain control

Arch Ital Biol 2019 09;157(2-3):66-75

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia, Italy - Email:

Increasing occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) by means of oral splints is a practice widely used in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), specifically myofascial pain, although the results are still uncertain. Oral splints with a vertical height that significantly exceeds the clinical rest position are considered by some researchers to be a better therapeutic solution in alleviating TMD symptoms than are “low” splints. In our observational study, 21 patients suffering from myofascial pain were examined for the effects of wearing a “high” oral splint while sleeping for 3 months. Read More

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September 2019

Influence of sleep bruxism severity on masticatory efficiency: electromyographic analysis.

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Sep;157(2-3):59-65

Ribeirão Preto School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo. Avenida do Café, 14040-904, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil - Email: E-mail:

The objective of the present study was to ascertain masticatory efficiency by evaluating electromyographic activity in the masseter and temporalis muscles in subjects with sleep bruxism of varying severity, as determined by BiteStrip. Thirty-four subjects with sleep bruxism were divided into two groups: a mild sleep bruxism group with a mean (± standard deviation) age of 31.3 ± 6. Read More

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September 2019

Administering copper reduces hyper-excitability generated by penicillin G in motor cortex neurons from rat brain slices.

Authors:
J Leiva C Infante

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Sep;157(2-3):51-58

Casilla 16038, Santiago 9, Chile. - Av. Salvador 486, Campus Oriente - Email address:

Recording synaptic activity of layer III neurons from motor cortex slices, which was provoked by stimulating layer IV, generated synaptic responses of the field potential (FP) that went from mean 100 μV to 600 μV when the stimulus was increased up to twice the threshold. Administering 100 μM or 200 μM of copper, increased the responses to mean 800 μV and 820 μV, respectively. The response to 200 μM was not significantly greater than that to 100 μM. Read More

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September 2019

Physical activity, mental exercise, and cognitive functioning in an Italian sample of healthy elderly males.

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Apr;157(1):37-47

Department of Medicine and Surgery, via Volturno 39, 43126 Parma, Italy - Email:

The influences of physical and mental activity on cognitive functioning were examined in a sample of Italian healthy elderly males. The aim of the present study was to suggest aerobic training as well as cognitively stimulating activity and provide recommendations for an overall healthy lifestyle. Seventy-five healthy adult males, aged 65-81, were assigned to four groups, two groups of active subjects practicing different levels of regular aerobic exercise, and two groups of sedentary subjects, one without any relevant mental stimulating activity and the other one regularly carrying out substantial mental activity. Read More

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N-(p-amylcinnamoyl) anthranilic acid attenuates remedial effects of memantine on memory deficits following intracerebroventricular streptozotocin administration in rats.

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Apr;157(1):24-36

Gaziantep University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Gaziantep, Turkey - Email:

N-(p-amylcinnamoyl) anthranilic acid (ACA) is a blocker of transient receptor potential melastatin-2 (TRPM2) which is a non-selective, Ca2+-permeable and oxidative stress sensor cation channel. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin (STZ) induction successfully generates spatial memory deficits in rats. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of ACA on a rat model of STZ-induced learning and memory deficits. Read More

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Postural Disorders Produced by School Furniture on a Population of a Junior High School.

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Apr;157(1):15-23

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Perugia, via San Costanzo, 06126 Perugia, Italy - E-mail:

In recent years people suffering of backache has significantly increased. This led us to focus our attention on the adequacy of school furniture for the correct development of the adult posture. The standing posture of 67 students of middle school has been analyzed at the beginning and at the end of two consecutive scholastic years using a stabilometric platform. Read More

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The higher the basal vagal tone the better the motor imagery ability.

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Apr;157(1):3-14

Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy - Email:

Purpose: A positive association between resting state vagal tone and performance of a few cognitive functions has been proposed. Aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between vagal tone and motor imagery (MI), as MI is based on high-level cognitive processes such as attention, working memory and inhibitory control.

Methods: The experiment consisted of the execution of a motor sequence and of the MI of the same action in the kinesthetic and internal visual modality. Read More

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Step by step procedure for stereological counts of catecholamine neurons in the mouse brainstem.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Dec;156(4):171-182

Human Anatomy, Dept of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa (Italy) - Email:

This work represents a detailed methodological description of automated stereology dedicated to all brainstem catecholamine nuclei. Each tyrosine-hydroxylase-containing nucleus was analyzed to count the following features: i) nuclear volume; ii) neuron number per nucleus; iii) neuron area per each nucleus.A number of reports described catecholamine-containing neurons within brainstem of a variety of animal species. Read More

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December 2018

First impressions on face trustworthiness across ages: Evidence from a cross-sectional study.

Authors:
T Marzi A Peru

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Dec;156(4):164-170

Department of Neurosciences, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health, University of Firenze, Italy, Via di San Salvi 12, 50135 Firenze, Italy - Email:

The present study aimed to explore how the sense of trustworthiness is influenced by age and gender. Participants were to judge computer-generated faces for trustworthiness in two different experimental conditions according to the orientation of the virtual stimuli: canonical (i.e. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of ultrasound and selenium on human neurons in vitro.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Dec;156(4):153-163

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine,University of Firenze,Largo Brambilla 3, 50134 Firenze, Italy - Email:

As the effects of ultrasound on human brain functions might bear therapeutic potential, in this study, we examined the effects of diagnostic, i.e. non-thermal, ultrasound, on morphology, networking, and metabolic activity of SH- SY5Y human neurons in culture, as well as on the expression of GAP-43, Hsp90 and VEGF proteins, with and without selenium in the culture medium. Read More

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December 2018

Fatigue in multiple sclerosis: pathophysiology and emergent interventions.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Dec;156(4):149-152

Service de Physiologie - Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôpital Henri Mondor, 51 Av du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, Créteil, France - Email:

Not available. Read More

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December 2018

Non-REM sleep and the neural correlates of consciousness: more than meets the eyes.

Authors:
U Olcese

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Sep;156(3):137-148

Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, Room C4.110, Science Park 904,1098XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands - Email:

The scientific study of the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has long relied on comparing conditions in which consciousness is normally present with others in which it is impaired. Brain lesions offer a unique opportunity to understand which anatomical networks are needed to sustain consciousness, but provide limited insights on the patterns of neural activity that can support conscious processing. Non-REM sleep, on the other hand, has long epitomized the typical case of a non-conscious yet fully active brain. Read More

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September 2018

The state of cortical microcircuits during wakefulness and sleep.

Authors:
C Bosman N Aldunate

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Sep;156(3):127-136

Center for Neuroscience, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, P.O. Box 94246, 1090 GE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands - Email:

Wakefulness and sleep are two qualitatively different behavioral states. The mechanisms underlying these behavioral states can be traced back to the coordinated functioning of cortical microcircuits. The stereotypical activity of cortical microcircuits during wakefulness and sleep shapes a cortical state, defined as an organized neuronal network functioning across time. Read More

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September 2018

Hippocampal theta power pressure builds over non-REM sleep and dissipates within REM sleep episodes.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Sep;156(3):112-126

Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, 610 Charles E Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA - Email:

The theta rhythm during waking has been associated with voluntary motor activity and learning processes involving the hippocampus. Theta also occurs continuously during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep where it likely serves memory consolidation. Theta amplitude builds across wakefulness and is the best indicator of the homeostatic need for non-REM (NREM) sleep. Read More

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September 2018

Dreaming during REM sleep: autobiographically meaningful or a simple reflection of a Hebbian-based memory consolidation process?

Authors:
U Voss A Klimke

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Sep;156(3):99-111

Frankfurt University and VITOS Hochtaunus GmbH, Abt. Psychiatrische Neurophysiologie, Emil-Sioli-Weg 1-3, 6131 Friedrichsdorf, Germany - Email:

REM sleep is a state of desynchronized electrophysiological activity of the brain. It is usually accompanied by mental activity characterized by a succession of complex visual experiences commonly referred to as dreaming. Although REM sleep and dreaming are not implicitly conjoined, when they co-occur, they have a very distinct phenomenology, as, typically, the dream plot is bizarre and incohesive which is mirrored in heightened brain activation coupled with strongly attenuated coherence levels. Read More

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September 2018

Sleep Fosters Insight Into Real-Life Problems.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Sep;156(3):87-98

Nieuwe Achtergracht 129 B, 1018 WS Amsterdam, The Netherlands - Email:

Anecdotal reports recount of individuals obtaining insights during sleep. For instance, various acclaimed scientists have attributed some of their greatest insights to sleep-related mentation. To date, this phenomenon has not been systematically investigated. Read More

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September 2018