1,394 results match your criteria Archives Italiennes De Biologie[Journal]


Nutraceuticals for dry age-related macular degeneration: a case report based on novel pathogenic and morphological insights.

Arch Ital Biol 2020 Mar;158(1):24-34

Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy - Email:

Age-related macular degeneration represents the main retinal disorder leading to irreversible blindness in people over the age of 50 in the Western World. Here we describe a case report, which suggest that specific nutraceutical compounds may exert beneficial effects on the progression of dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), an eye disease with no approved treatment or cure. Specific antioxidants, such as lutein, resveratrol and Vaccinium Myrtillus, which are known to reduce the risk of developing AMD, when co-administered alone, were supplemented to diet of an informed patient suffering from dry AMD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829202013DOI Listing

Changes of sensory and pain thresholds in healthy subjects after mandibular extension at maximum mouth opening: implications for temporomandibular disorders therapy.

Arch Ital Biol 2020 Mar;158(1):17-23

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Via Romana, 06126, Perugia, Italy - Email:

There is evidence showing that increasing the vertical dimension of occlusion, or interocclusal distance, reduces pain symptoms in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and bruxism. The mechanism underlying the analgesic effect is still under investigation. Some researchers propose either a gate mechanism or the activation of the trigemino-cardiac reflex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829202012DOI Listing

Imitation strategies in subjects with schizophrenia: a behavioural approach.

Arch Ital Biol 2020 Mar;158(1):3-16

Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Clinica, Sezione di Neuroscienze e Biologia Cellulare, Facoltà di Medicina, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Tronto 10/A, 60020 Ancona, Italy - Email:

Imitation is a basic human ability, present early in life. Previous studies on control subjects and callosotomized patients showed that imitation occurred mainly in mirror-mode in both groups (60% controls, 66% patients) when they imitate without instructions (free sessions). In contrast, when asked to use the same or opposite limb as the model (driven sessions), controls used anatomical mode (93%), callosotomized patients mainly mirror strategy (61%). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829202011DOI Listing

Vitamin D receptor expression and acid sphingomyelinase activity in prefrontal region of a learning animal model.

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Dec;157(4):120-128

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Via S. Costanzo, 06126, Perugia, Italy - Email:

Contextual fear conditioning (CFC) paradigm is routinely used to study fear-based learning in animals and it provides a useful model for understanding fear and anxiety in human. In the present study, such model was used following the previously established CFC protocol, and immunohistochemistry, enzymatic activity and western blotting analysis approaches were used to identify the expression of acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in prefrontal region brain of rat. Results revealed an increase of aSMase activity in conditioned rats, suggesting an apoptotic condition in such animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829202043DOI Listing
December 2019

Hypnotisability-related interoceptive awareness and inhibitory/activating emotional traits.

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Dec;157(4):111-119

Dept Translational Research and New Technologies, University of Pisa, Via san Zeno 31, 56127 Pisa - Email:

Emotions are influenced by several individual factors. Hypnotizability - a psychophysiological trait associated with morpho-functional cerebral and cerebellar variations able to sustain differences in interoception and emotion - could be one of them. The aims of the study were to find out possible differences in Interoceptive Awareness (IA) and in the emotional traits sustained by the Behavioral Inhibition/Activation System (BIS/BAS) in participants with high (highs), medium (mediums) and low (lows) hypnotizability and to investigate the association of interoceptive awareness and BIS/BAS related emotional traits as a function of hypnotizability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829202042DOI Listing
December 2019

Does Parkinson's disease interfere with electromyographic fatigue of masticatory muscles?

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Dec;157(4):105-110

Ribeirão Preto School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo. Avenida do Café, s/n, 14040-904, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil - Email:

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease with manifestations related to oxidative stress and damage to the skeletal striated musculature. This study evaluated the electromyographic fatigue of the masseter and temporal muscles in individuals with Parkinson's disease. The median frequency of the normotensive electromyographic signal was analyzed in 16 individuals, aged between 50 and 70 years, with Parkinson's disease in stages I and III of the Hoehn and Yahr disability scale (n=8) or without the disease (n=8). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829202041DOI Listing
December 2019

The effect of single and repeated tDCS sessions on motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review.

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Sep;157(2-3):89-101

Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular and Critical Area Pathology, University of Pisa, via Savi, 10, 56126, Pisa, Italy - E-mail:

Objectives: to update understanding of the effectiveness of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease, since the last review was published in 2016.

Methods: in order to identify suitable publications for inclusion, an online search of the Pubmed, Scopus and Cochrane databases was carried out. Searches of relevant full-text articles were performed through specific keywords. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201925DOI Listing
September 2019

Myelin Ultrastructure Terminology in Disease and Recovery Processes.

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Sep;157(2-3):76-88

Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Histology and Embryology, Ankara, Turkey - Email:

Ultrastructural evaluation of myelin coat helps to understand the possible background of pathological changes leading to deterioration or complete loss of nerve functions. A number of terms were previously introduced to describe the fine structural changes in myelin under various conditions. We believe that using a common terminology will be helpful to interpret the structure/function relationship in neurological disorders empowering the diagnosis and possible therapeutical approaches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201924DOI Listing
September 2019

An observational study of the effects of using an high oral splint on pain control

Arch Ital Biol 2019 09;157(2-3):66-75

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia, Italy - Email:

Increasing occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) by means of oral splints is a practice widely used in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), specifically myofascial pain, although the results are still uncertain. Oral splints with a vertical height that significantly exceeds the clinical rest position are considered by some researchers to be a better therapeutic solution in alleviating TMD symptoms than are “low” splints. In our observational study, 21 patients suffering from myofascial pain were examined for the effects of wearing a “high” oral splint while sleeping for 3 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201923DOI Listing
September 2019

Influence of sleep bruxism severity on masticatory efficiency: electromyographic analysis.

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Sep;157(2-3):59-65

Ribeirão Preto School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo. Avenida do Café, 14040-904, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil - Email: E-mail:

The objective of the present study was to ascertain masticatory efficiency by evaluating electromyographic activity in the masseter and temporalis muscles in subjects with sleep bruxism of varying severity, as determined by BiteStrip. Thirty-four subjects with sleep bruxism were divided into two groups: a mild sleep bruxism group with a mean (± standard deviation) age of 31.3 ± 6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201922DOI Listing
September 2019
5 Reads

Administering copper reduces hyper-excitability generated by penicillin G in motor cortex neurons from rat brain slices.

Authors:
J Leiva C Infante

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Sep;157(2-3):51-58

Casilla 16038, Santiago 9, Chile. - Av. Salvador 486, Campus Oriente - Email address:

Recording synaptic activity of layer III neurons from motor cortex slices, which was provoked by stimulating layer IV, generated synaptic responses of the field potential (FP) that went from mean 100 μV to 600 μV when the stimulus was increased up to twice the threshold. Administering 100 μM or 200 μM of copper, increased the responses to mean 800 μV and 820 μV, respectively. The response to 200 μM was not significantly greater than that to 100 μM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201921DOI Listing
September 2019

Physical activity, mental exercise, and cognitive functioning in an Italian sample of healthy elderly males.

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Apr;157(1):37-47

Department of Medicine and Surgery, via Volturno 39, 43126 Parma, Italy - Email:

The influences of physical and mental activity on cognitive functioning were examined in a sample of Italian healthy elderly males. The aim of the present study was to suggest aerobic training as well as cognitively stimulating activity and provide recommendations for an overall healthy lifestyle. Seventy-five healthy adult males, aged 65-81, were assigned to four groups, two groups of active subjects practicing different levels of regular aerobic exercise, and two groups of sedentary subjects, one without any relevant mental stimulating activity and the other one regularly carrying out substantial mental activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201914DOI Listing

N-(p-amylcinnamoyl) anthranilic acid attenuates remedial effects of memantine on memory deficits following intracerebroventricular streptozotocin administration in rats.

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Apr;157(1):24-36

Gaziantep University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Gaziantep, Turkey - Email:

N-(p-amylcinnamoyl) anthranilic acid (ACA) is a blocker of transient receptor potential melastatin-2 (TRPM2) which is a non-selective, Ca2+-permeable and oxidative stress sensor cation channel. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin (STZ) induction successfully generates spatial memory deficits in rats. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of ACA on a rat model of STZ-induced learning and memory deficits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201913DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Postural Disorders Produced by School Furniture on a Population of a Junior High School.

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Apr;157(1):15-23

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Perugia, via San Costanzo, 06126 Perugia, Italy - E-mail:

In recent years people suffering of backache has significantly increased. This led us to focus our attention on the adequacy of school furniture for the correct development of the adult posture. The standing posture of 67 students of middle school has been analyzed at the beginning and at the end of two consecutive scholastic years using a stabilometric platform. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201912DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The higher the basal vagal tone the better the motor imagery ability.

Arch Ital Biol 2019 Apr;157(1):3-14

Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy - Email:

Purpose: A positive association between resting state vagal tone and performance of a few cognitive functions has been proposed. Aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between vagal tone and motor imagery (MI), as MI is based on high-level cognitive processes such as attention, working memory and inhibitory control.

Methods: The experiment consisted of the execution of a motor sequence and of the MI of the same action in the kinesthetic and internal visual modality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201911DOI Listing
April 2019
12 Reads

Step by step procedure for stereological counts of catecholamine neurons in the mouse brainstem.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Dec;156(4):171-182

Human Anatomy, Dept of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa (Italy) - Email:

This work represents a detailed methodological description of automated stereology dedicated to all brainstem catecholamine nuclei. Each tyrosine-hydroxylase-containing nucleus was analyzed to count the following features: i) nuclear volume; ii) neuron number per nucleus; iii) neuron area per each nucleus.A number of reports described catecholamine-containing neurons within brainstem of a variety of animal species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/aib.v156i4.4673DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

First impressions on face trustworthiness across ages: Evidence from a cross-sectional study.

Authors:
T Marzi A Peru

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Dec;156(4):164-170

Department of Neurosciences, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health, University of Firenze, Italy, Via di San Salvi 12, 50135 Firenze, Italy - Email:

The present study aimed to explore how the sense of trustworthiness is influenced by age and gender. Participants were to judge computer-generated faces for trustworthiness in two different experimental conditions according to the orientation of the virtual stimuli: canonical (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201843DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Effects of ultrasound and selenium on human neurons in vitro.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Dec;156(4):153-163

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine,University of Firenze,Largo Brambilla 3, 50134 Firenze, Italy - Email:

As the effects of ultrasound on human brain functions might bear therapeutic potential, in this study, we examined the effects of diagnostic, i.e. non-thermal, ultrasound, on morphology, networking, and metabolic activity of SH- SY5Y human neurons in culture, as well as on the expression of GAP-43, Hsp90 and VEGF proteins, with and without selenium in the culture medium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201842DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

Fatigue in multiple sclerosis: pathophysiology and emergent interventions.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Dec;156(4):149-152

Service de Physiologie - Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôpital Henri Mondor, 51 Av du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, Créteil, France - Email:

Not available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201841DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Non-REM sleep and the neural correlates of consciousness: more than meets the eyes.

Authors:
U Olcese

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Sep;156(3):137-148

Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, Room C4.110, Science Park 904,1098XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands - Email:

The scientific study of the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has long relied on comparing conditions in which consciousness is normally present with others in which it is impaired. Brain lesions offer a unique opportunity to understand which anatomical networks are needed to sustain consciousness, but provide limited insights on the patterns of neural activity that can support conscious processing. Non-REM sleep, on the other hand, has long epitomized the typical case of a non-conscious yet fully active brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201835DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

The state of cortical microcircuits during wakefulness and sleep.

Authors:
C Bosman N Aldunate

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Sep;156(3):127-136

Center for Neuroscience, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, P.O. Box 94246, 1090 GE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands - Email:

Wakefulness and sleep are two qualitatively different behavioral states. The mechanisms underlying these behavioral states can be traced back to the coordinated functioning of cortical microcircuits. The stereotypical activity of cortical microcircuits during wakefulness and sleep shapes a cortical state, defined as an organized neuronal network functioning across time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201834DOI Listing
September 2018
30 Reads

Hippocampal theta power pressure builds over non-REM sleep and dissipates within REM sleep episodes.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Sep;156(3):112-126

Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, 610 Charles E Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA - Email:

The theta rhythm during waking has been associated with voluntary motor activity and learning processes involving the hippocampus. Theta also occurs continuously during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep where it likely serves memory consolidation. Theta amplitude builds across wakefulness and is the best indicator of the homeostatic need for non-REM (NREM) sleep. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201833DOI Listing
September 2018
36 Reads

Dreaming during REM sleep: autobiographically meaningful or a simple reflection of a Hebbian-based memory consolidation process?

Authors:
U Voss A Klimke

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Sep;156(3):99-111

Frankfurt University and VITOS Hochtaunus GmbH, Abt. Psychiatrische Neurophysiologie, Emil-Sioli-Weg 1-3, 6131 Friedrichsdorf, Germany - Email:

REM sleep is a state of desynchronized electrophysiological activity of the brain. It is usually accompanied by mental activity characterized by a succession of complex visual experiences commonly referred to as dreaming. Although REM sleep and dreaming are not implicitly conjoined, when they co-occur, they have a very distinct phenomenology, as, typically, the dream plot is bizarre and incohesive which is mirrored in heightened brain activation coupled with strongly attenuated coherence levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201832DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Sleep Fosters Insight Into Real-Life Problems.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 Sep;156(3):87-98

Nieuwe Achtergracht 129 B, 1018 WS Amsterdam, The Netherlands - Email:

Anecdotal reports recount of individuals obtaining insights during sleep. For instance, various acclaimed scientists have attributed some of their greatest insights to sleep-related mentation. To date, this phenomenon has not been systematically investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201831DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Claimed effects, outcome variables and methods of measurement for health claims proposed under regulation (EC) 1924/2006 and related to cognitive function in adults.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 07;156(1-2):64-86

The Laboratory of Phytochemicals in Physiology, Department of Food and Drugs, University of Parma, Parma, Italy - Email:

Some food/food components have been the object of request of authorization to the use of health claims related to cognitive function in adults and compliant with the Regulation (EC) 1924/2006. Most of the requests have received a negative opinion by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) also because of the choice of not appropriate outcome variables (OVs) and methods of measurement (MMs) selected in the trials used to substantiate the claim. This manuscript referes to the collection, collation and critical analysis of OVs and MMs related to cognitive function in adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201817DOI Listing
July 2018
6 Reads

Aerobic exercise effects upon cognition in Alzheimer's Disease: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 07;156(1-2):54-63

Department of Medicine and Surgery, Laboratory of Clinical Psychology, Psychophysiology and Clinical Neuropsychology, University of Parma, Parma, Italy - Email:

Background: Previous reviews and meta-analysis have shown that physical activity has positive effects on cognition in healthy elderly as well as in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment, even if with a minor effect whereas less is known about the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD).

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to systematically review the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) designed to evaluate aerobic exercise effects upon cognition in AD patients.

Methods: PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science and DARE databases were analytically searched for RCTs including aerobic exercise interventions for AD patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201816DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

X-ray micro-computed tomography of postmortem brain tissue using potassium dichromate as a contrast agent.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 07;156(1-2):48-53

Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain - Email:

No abstract available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201815DOI Listing
July 2018
3 Reads

Contextual fear conditioning modulates the gene expression over time.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 07;156(1-2):40-47

Department of Translational Research and News Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, 56127 Pisa, Italy - Email:

Contextual fear conditioning (CFC) is a quick cognitive test based on the association context-aversive stimulus in which a single training leads to a long-term memory. Previously, we showed that 2 days after conditioning the expression of the genes Napa, Pnf2, Casp3, Pdrg1, Ywhaz, Stmn1, Bpgm, were positively modulated in CFC rats respect to naïve rats, explor rats which had freely explored the experimental apparatus and SO rats to which the same number of aversive shocks used in CFC paradigm had been administered in the same CFC apparatus in less time to prevent the association between painful stimuli and apparatus, whereas the genes Actr3, Pea15 and Tiprl were more expressed in SO rats and Cplx1, Trim32 and Ran genes were more expressed in explor rats. At 2 days, Tomm20 gene expression resulted positively modulated in both CFC and explor rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201814DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Serotonin Transporter (SERT) in Platelets of Patients with Mild Huntington's Disease: Relationships with Social Cognition Symptoms.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 07;156(1-2):27-39

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy - Email:

Deficits in social-cognition processing have been identified during early stages of Huntington Disease (HD), attracting interest on their relevance as possible predictors of  neurodegenerative progression. Since the neurotrophin Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) are known to modulate human adaptive behavior, we appraised these two proteins in mild-HD using blood platelets, with the aim at finding relationships with cognitive/psychosocial skills. Thirteen gene positive and symptomatic patients (9M/4W, HD-stage II, age> 40y) together 11 gender/age matched controls without a concurrent diagnosis of psychiatric disorders, underwent a blood test to determine BDNF storage and membrane-bound SERT in platelets by an ELISA immune-enzyme dosage and [3H]-paroxetine ([3H]-PAR) binding, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201813DOI Listing
July 2018
17 Reads

Imitation Strategies in Callosotomized Patients.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 07;156(1-2):12-26

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Section of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, 60020 Ancona, Italy - Email:

Imitation is a human ability rooted in early life. It allows people to interact with each other by observing and reproducing simple and complex movements alike. Imitation can occur in at least two forms: the rst, de ned as anatomical, seems to be based primarily on the mental construct of the "body schema" because the imitating movement corresponds precisely to the imitated movement in bodily terms, but not in terms of spatial compatibility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201812DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Neural functional correlates of emotional processing in patients with first-episode psychoses: an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis.

Arch Ital Biol 2018 07;156(1-2):1-11

Sapienza University, Rome, Italy, School of Medicine and Psychology, NESMOS Department (Neurosciences, Mental Health, and Sensory Organs), Sant'Andrea Hospital, 00189 Rome, Italy - Email:

Background: Early emotional recognition impairment characterises rst-episode psychoses (FEP) and remains stable thereafter. Patients with FEP consistently show brain activation changes during emotional processing in functional neuroimaging studies.

Aim And Methods: To identify and compare cerebral activation correlates of FEP patients and healthy controls (HCs) during emotional task performances, we performed an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of peer-reviewed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201811DOI Listing
July 2018
19 Reads

Protective effects of long-term lithium administration in a slowly progressive SMA mouse model.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Dec;155(4):118-130

I.R.C.C.S. I.N.M. Neuromed, via Atinense 18, 86077, Pozzilli (IS), Italy - Email:

In the present study we evaluated the long-term effects of lithium administration to a knock-out double transgenic mouse model (Smn-/-; SMN1A2G+/-; SMN2+/+) of Spinal Muscle Atrophy type III (SMA-III). This model is characterized by very low levels of the survival motor neuron protein, slow disease progression and motor neuron loss, which enables to detect disease-modifying effects at delayed time intervals. Lithium administration attenuates the decrease in motor activity and provides full protection from motor neuron loss occurring in SMA-III mice, throughout the disease course. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201749DOI Listing
December 2017
4 Reads

Revisiting the gamma loop in ALS.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Dec;155(4):118-130

Human Anatomy, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy - Email:

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fast progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle denervation, weakening and atrophy, which eventually culminates into death, mainly due to respiratory failure. The traditional view of ALS as a disorder affecting selectively motor neurons throughout the central nervous system has been progressively dispelled by innumerous lines of evidence indicating that other cells but motor neurons may be affected as well. Remarkably, this disorder is not limited to the motor system but rather configures as a systemic disease yielding a plethora of clinical signs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201748DOI Listing
December 2017
9 Reads

Therapy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): an unexpected evolving scenario.

Authors:
Vincenzo Silani

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Dec;155(4):118-130

Department of Neurology-Stroke Unit and Laboratory of Neuroscience, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Center for Neurotechnology and Brain Therapeutics, Università degli Studi di Milano, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy - Email:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease resulting in increasing disability, being uniformly fatal. Since its approval in the 1990s, riluzole remained for long time the unique treatment, offering modest survival benefit. Most recently a second drug has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of ALS: edaravone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201747DOI Listing
December 2017
5 Reads
1.422 Impact Factor

The multisystem degeneration amyotrophic lateral sclerosis - neuropathological staging and clinical translation.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Dec;155(4):118-130

Department of Neurology, University of Ulm, Oberer Eselsberg 45, 89081 Ulm, Germany - Email:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is traditionally considered a disease affecting exclusively motor neurons. However, much evidence points towards additional involvement of brain systems other than the motor. As much as half of ALS patients display cognitive-behavioral disturbances. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201746DOI Listing
December 2017
6 Reads

Imaging techniques in ALS.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Dec;155(4):142-151

Department of Radiology, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, UK - Email:

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration of both upper and lower motor neuron located in the spinal cord and brainstem. Diagnosis of ALS is predominantly clinical, nevertheless, electromyography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) may provide support. Several advanced MRI techniques have been proven useful for ALS diagnosis and, indeed, the combination of different MRI techniques demonstrated an improvement in sensitivity and specificity as far as 90%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201745DOI Listing
December 2017
13 Reads

Cross-talk between pathogenic mechanisms in neurodegeneration: the role of oxidative stress in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Dec;155(4):131-141

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Savi 10, 56126 Pisa, Italy - Email:

The mechanisms underlying motoneuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the motor system with progressive paralysis, are complex and not yet fully understood. It is generally agreed that ALS is a multifactorial and multisystem disease due not only possibly to genetic causes but also to other factors like oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, protein aggregation, RNA dysmetabolism, autophagy, and excitotoxicity glutamate-mediate. Altered oxidative stress biomarker profile has been repeatedly reported in ALS patients, which may suggest that abnormal free radical production is relevant in the ALS pathogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201744DOI Listing
December 2017
10 Reads

Are there endogenous stem cells in the spinal cord?

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Dec;155(4):118-130

Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, via Roma 55, 56126, Pisa, Italy - Email:

Neural progenitor cells (NPC) represent the stem-like niche of the central nervous system that maintains a regenerative potential also in the adult life. Despite NPC in the brain are well documented, the presence of NPC in the spinal cord has been controversial for a long time. This is due to a scarce activity of NPC within spinal cord, which also makes difficult their identification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201743DOI Listing
December 2017
6 Reads

Next Generation Sequencing and ALS: known genes, different phenotyphes.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Dec;155(4):110-117

I.R.C.C.S. I.N.M. Neuromed, via Atinense 18, 86077, Pozzilli (IS), Italy - Email:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is fatal neurodegenerative disease clinically characterized by upper and lower motor neuron dysfunction resulting in rapidly progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure. Most cases appear to be sporadic, but 5-10 % of cases have a family history of the disease, and over the last decade, identification of mutations in about 20 genes predisposing to these disorders has provided the means to better understand their pathogenesis. Next Generation sequencing (NGS) is an advanced high-throughput DNA sequencing technology which have rapidly contributed to an acceleration in the discovery of genetic risk factors for both familial and sporadic neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201742DOI Listing
December 2017
7 Reads

The emerging picture of ALS: a multisystem, not only a "motor neuron disease.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Dec;155(4):99-109

Department of Neurology-Stroke Unit and Laboratory of Neuroscience, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Center for Neurotechnology and Brain Therapeutics, Università degli Studi di Milano, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy - Email:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is traditionally considered a disease affecting exclusively motor neurons: compelling evidence points now towards additional involvement of extramotor functions. Beside the cognitive-behavioural disturbances, many ALS patients express extrapyramidal deficits: neuropathological findings fully support the multisystem brain degeneration. The therapeutical option to treat the multisystemic character of ALS represents an additional difficult task in absence of sensitive biomarkers or better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201741DOI Listing
December 2017
10 Reads
1 Citation
1.422 Impact Factor

Neural correlates of fatigue in multiple sclerosis: a combined neurophysiological and neuroimaging approach (R1).

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Sep;155(3):142-151

IRCCS Centro Neurolesi "Bonino-Pulejo", 98124 Messina, Italy - Email:

The present study is aimed at further exploring structural and functional correlates of fatigue in Relapsing- Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) patients by using a combined approach by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and a Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). The physiopathology of fatigue in MS is still poorly understood, although a variety of pathogenic mechanisms has been proposed. Our working hypothesis is that diffuse microstructural white matter damage may subtend the cortico-subcortical functional disconnection described in patients with MS and fatigue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201735DOI Listing
September 2017
3 Reads

Silver nano particles ameliorate learning and spatial memory of male Wistar rats by prevention of amyloid fibril-induced neurotoxicity.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Dec;155(3):131-141

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran - Email:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic degenerative disease characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which results into memory and learning impairments. In the present study, we showed that the aggregates formed by a protein that has no link with Alzheimer's disease, namely the hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL), were cytotoxic and decreased spatial learning and memory in rats. The effect of Ag-nano particles (Ag-NPs) was investigated on disruption of amyloid aggregation and preservation of cognitive behavior of rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201734DOI Listing
December 2017
2 Reads

The nature of catecholamine-containing neurons in the enteric nervous system in relationship with organogenesis, normal human anatomy and neurodegeneration.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Sep;155(3):118-130

Department of Traslational Research and New Tecnologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy - Email:

The gastrointestinal tract is provided with extrinsic and intrinsic innervation. The extrinsic innervation includes the classic vagal parasympathetic and sympathetic components, with afferent sensitive and efferent secretomotor fibers. The intrinsic innervations is represented by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is recognized as a complex neural network controlling a variety of cell populations, including smooth muscle cells, mucosal secretory cells, endocrine cells, microvasculature, immune and inflammatory cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201733DOI Listing
September 2017
9 Reads

A small dose of apomorphine counteracts the deleterious effects of middle cerebral artery occlusion in different models.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Sep;155(3):110-117

Department of Traslational Research and New Tecnologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy - Email:

The present manuscript investigates in two animal species by using two different experimental models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (permanent and transient), the neuroprotective effects of the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. These effects were evaluated by measuring the infarct volume and by counting muscle strength at different time points following the ischemic insult. Apomorphine at the dose of 3 mg/Kg when adminsitered at two hours following the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery was able to reduce significantly the infarct volume in the cortex of mice and the ischemic volume of the basal ganglia perfused by the perforant branches of the middle cerebral artery in the rat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201732DOI Listing
September 2017
3 Reads

A descriptive analysis of sleep and wakefulness states during maternal behaviors in postpartum rats.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Sep;155(3):99-109

Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, General Flores 2125, 11800 Montevideo, Uruguay - Email:

Mother rats spend most of their time nursing their litter during the early stages of the postpartum period, only occasionally leaving the nest. The suckling stimulus from the pups elicits the adoption of nursing postures, during which milk ejection occurs, an event associated with the occurrence of non-REM (NREM) sleep in the rat. Despite this evidence, the characteristics of sleep during different nursing postures along the postpartum period remain unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/00039829201731DOI Listing
September 2017
7 Reads

Methamphetamine increases Prion Protein and induces dopamine-dependent expression of protease resistant PrPsc.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Jul;155(1-2):81-97

Human Anatomy, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy - Tel: +39 050 2218611 - Email:

The cellular prion protein (PrPc) is physiologically expressed within selective brain areas of mammals. Alterations in the secondary structure of this protein lead to scrapie-like prion protein (PrPsc), which precipitates in the cell. PrPsc has been detected in infectious, inherited or sporadic neurodegenerative disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/000398292017129DOI Listing
July 2017
15 Reads

Ultrastructural study of the neural microcircuits in the sensory epithelium of the paratympanic organ of the chicken.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Jul;155(1-2):64-74

Human Anatomy, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Via Risorgimento 6, 56124 Pisa, Italy - Tel: +39 050 2218609 - Email:

The paratympanic organ (PTO) is a sensory organ located in the medial wall of the tympanic cavity of birds. The organ looks like a small tapering vesicle, and is equipped with a sensory epithelium formed by supporting cells (SCs) and Type II hair cells (Type II-HCs). The function of the PTO has not yet been precisely defined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/000398292017128DOI Listing
July 2017
8 Reads

Dreamlike events are correlated with the length of sleep mentation reports.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Jul;155(1-2):75-80

University of California, San Francisco, 1569 Solano Ave #324, Berkeley, San Francisco, CA 94707 - Tel: +510 558 3488 - Fax: +855 558 3489 - Email:

We investigated the relationship between length and dreamlike quality in sleep mentation reports. Reports were obtained by waking subjects at sleep onset (SO) and at 5 and 10 minutes into the second (REMP2) and fourth REM periods (REMP4). Reports were recorded, transcribed, and scored blindly for total word count (TWC) and dreamlike quality as measured by a composite dream scale score (CDS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/000398292017127DOI Listing
July 2017
3 Reads

Aerobic exercise effects upon cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

Arch Ital Biol 2017 Jul;155(1-2):54-62

Department of Medicine and Surgery, Laboratory of Clinical Psychology, University of Parma, Via Volturno 39, I-43126 Parma, Italy - Tel: +39 0521 034829 - Fax: +39 0521 034812 - Email:

Several studies have shown that physical activity has positive effects on cognition in healthy older adults without cognitive complains but lesser is known about the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in patients suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The aim of the present study was to systematically review the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effects of aerobic exercise upon cognition in MCI patients. To this end, PubMed, Cochrane and Web of Science databases were analytically searched for RCTs including aerobic exercise interventions for MCI patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12871/000398292017126DOI Listing
July 2017
35 Reads